Nitrogen dioxide poisoning
Nitrogen dioxide poisoning is the illness resulting from the toxic effect of Nitrogen (II) oxide. It usually occurs after the inhalation of the gas beyond the threshold limit value.Nitrogen (II) oxide is reddish-brown with very a sharp, harsh smell at high concentrations. It is colourless and odourless at lower concentration but yet harmful. Nitrogen dioxide poisoning depends on the duration, frequency and intensity of exposure.Nitrogen (II) oxide is an irritant of the mucous membrane linked with other air pollutant that causes pulmonary diseases such as OLD, asthma, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sometimes Acute exacerbation of COPD and in fatal cases, deaths.Its poor solubility in water enhances its passage and its ability to pass through the moist oral mucosa of the respiratory tract.Like most toxic gases, the dose inhaled determines the toxicity on the respiratory tract. Occupational exposures constitute the highest risk of toxicity and domestic exposure is uncommon. Prolonged exposure to low concentration of the gas may have lethal effects, as can short-term exposure to high concentrations like Chlorine gas poisoning. It is one of the major air pollutant capable of causing severe heath hazards such as Coronary artery disease as well as Stroke.Nitrogen (II) oxide is often released into the environment as a byproduct of fuel combustion but rarely released by Spontaneous combustion. Known sources of Nitrogen gas poisoning includes automobile exhaust, Power stations, The toxicity may also results from non-combustible sources such as the one released from anaerobic fermentation of food grains and Anaerobic digestion of Biodegradable waste.The WHO developed a global recommendation limiting exposures less than 20 part per billion for chronic exposure and value less 100ppb for one hour for acute exposure, using Nitrogen (II)oxide as a marker for other pollutant from fuel combustions. The standardss also based on the concentration of Nitrogen (II) oxide that show a significant and profound effects on the function of the pulmonary of asthmatic patients.Historically, some states in the U.S including Chicago and L.A have high levels of Nitrogen (II) oxide but the EPA set a standard values less than 100 ppb for one hour exposure and less than 53 ppb for chronic exposure.