Climate Change and Biodiversity in North America
... • Our predictions tend to be either low-resolution, order
• For some important components of biodiversity, it
may be fair to say that we can predict the logarithms
of what is going to happen, at the scale of “counties”
... Community Interactions: competition, predation, mutualism and commensalism
... 1) Interspecific competition – between two or more species
2) Intraspecific competition – between members of same species
from random mutation to
... positive along the steady state of the web without X.
Theorem: A competitive species can always invade the foodweb,
but a non-competitive species cannot. With intraspecific competition (m_0 > 0), competitive species
can always be constructed in theory to invade a web.
Theorem: Competitive exclusion ...
Ecosystem and Genetic Diversity
... environment have a better chance of surviving and reproducing than those that are not
(remember “survival of the fittest?”)
Individuals within the same species vary from one another. This causes some to have
different characteristics, either physical or behavioral, that may cause one to have a bette ...
Ch 2-3 Human Actions
... Value to Biodiversity
• Most medicines are found in nature
• When we lose biodiversity, we lose genetic info that may carry
• Wild plants may carry genes for disease resistance and pest
Symbiosis Powerpoint File
... • Although parasites can harm
their hosts, they can
– Some parasites live inside
– Some parasites live outside
host (fleas, ticks, mistletoe,
– Some have little contact with
host (dump-nesting birds like
cowbirds, some ...
SWES 474 - Research Paper #1
... or restoration of wildlife and of natural
resources such as forests, soil, and water.”
• “The maintenance of a physical quantity,
such as energy or mass, during a physical
or chemical change.”
... Extinct: When no more individuals of
a species remain.
Biodiversity: The variety of living
things. It is measured as the
differences between individuals of the
same species, or the number of
different species in an ecosystem.
NAME ______ANSWER KEY CH. 15/16 STUDY GUIDE
... 1. What is genetic diversity? A: HAVING A VARIETY OF INHERITABLE CHARACTERISTICS OR GENES IN AN
2. What will help a species survive better, high genetic diversity or low genetic diversity?
A: HIGH GENETIC DIVERSITY – ENSURES THAT SOME MEMBERS OF THE POPULATION WILL SURVIVE. ...
Ecosystems - geo
... The place where a particular organism or
... An ecosystem is a community of different species interacting with
one another and their no-living environment of matter and energy.
All the Earth’s ecosystems make up what is called the ecosphere or
Climate is the main factor that determines whether a given species
will thrive in an area. ...
... more species try to limit access to a
resource (some humming birds defend
Exploitation competition – when one
group uses a resource faster than
another (can lead to competitive
exclusion principle (one dies out))
Conservation and Restoration
... 1. conservation biology: integrates ecology, physiology, molecular biology,
genetics, and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity at all levels
2. Restoration ecology: applies ecological principles in an effort to return
degraded ecosystems to conditions as similar as possible to their ...
Latitudinal gradients in species diversity
The increase in species richness or biodiversity that occurs from the poles to the tropics, often referred to as the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), is one of the most widely recognized patterns in ecology. Put another way, in the present day localities at lower latitudes generally have more species than localities at higher latitudes. The LDG has been observed to varying degrees in Earth's past.Explaining the latitudinal diversity gradient is one of the great contemporary challenges of biogeography and macroecology (Willig et al. 2003, Pimm and Brown 2004, Cardillo et al. 2005). The question “What determines patterns of species diversity?” was among the 25 key research themes for the future identified in 125th Anniversary issue of Science (July 2005). There is a lack of consensus among ecologists about the mechanisms underlying the pattern, and many hypotheses have been proposed and debated. A recent review noted that among the many conundrums associated with the LDG (or LBG, Latitudinal Biodiversity Gradient) the causal relationship between rates of molecular evolution and speciation has yet to be demonstrated.Understanding the global distribution of biodiversity is one of the most significant objectives for ecologists and biogeographers. Beyond purely scientific goals and satisfying curiosity, this understanding is essential for applied issues of major concern to humankind, such as the spread of invasive species, the control of diseases and their vectors, and the likely effects of global climate change on the maintenance of biodiversity (Gaston 2000). Tropical areas play a prominent role in the understanding of the distribution of biodiversity, as their rates of habitat degradation and biodiversity loss are exceptionally high.