... the coordinate system used in the output for the objects mu and mu.all. See
circular for details.
APPENDIX 1 FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT FLOWS TO AFRICA A.1
... GNP is introduced to control for the size of the
investing country, except when the sample covers
only one investing country. Generally, larger
countries are expected to invest abroad more than
smaller ones. Recorded FDIs are pure financial
flows. That is, they are neither equivalent to foreign
Chapter -11 Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion
... In many a case, like the distributions of height, weight, marks, profit, wage and so on, it has
been noted that starting with rather low frequency, the class frequency gradually increases till
it reaches its maximum somewhere near the central part of the distribution and after which
the class freque ...
chapter 8—interval estimation - College of Micronesia
... 16. From a population that is not normally distributed and whose standard deviation is not known, a
sample of 6 items is selected to develop an interval estimate for the mean of the population ().
a. The normal distribution can be used.
b. The t distribution with 5 degrees of freedom must be used.
... Activity 3-1: Elvis Presley and Alf Landon
a. Population: all adult Americans (record company interest)
Sample: those listening to the radio who called in
b. No, 56% is probably not an accurate reflection of the opinions of all adult
Americans on this issue. People who chose to call in (who took the ...
... we take account of our background knowledge, , and evaluate the evidence in a manner consistent with both background knowledge and evidence. That is, the posterior
likelihood (or distribution) is more aptly represented by
p ( | y, ) p (y | , ) p ( | )
Degrees of freedom (statistics)
In statistics, the number of degrees of freedom is the number of values in the final calculation of a statistic that are free to vary.The number of independent ways by which a dynamic system can move, without violating any constraint imposed on it, is called number of degrees of freedom. In other words, the number of degrees of freedom can be defined as the minimum number of independent coordinates that can specify the position of the system completely.Estimates of statistical parameters can be based upon different amounts of information or data. The number of independent pieces of information that go into the estimate of a parameter are called the degrees of freedom. In general, the degrees of freedom of an estimate of a parameter are equal to the number of independent scores that go into the estimate minus the number of parameters used as intermediate steps in the estimation of the parameter itself (i.e. the sample variance has N-1 degrees of freedom, since it is computed from N random scores minus the only 1 parameter estimated as intermediate step, which is the sample mean).Mathematically, degrees of freedom is the number of dimensions of the domain of a random vector, or essentially the number of ""free"" components (how many components need to be known before the vector is fully determined).The term is most often used in the context of linear models (linear regression, analysis of variance), where certain random vectors are constrained to lie in linear subspaces, and the number of degrees of freedom is the dimension of the subspace. The degrees of freedom are also commonly associated with the squared lengths (or ""sum of squares"" of the coordinates) of such vectors, and the parameters of chi-squared and other distributions that arise in associated statistical testing problems.While introductory textbooks may introduce degrees of freedom as distribution parameters or through hypothesis testing, it is the underlying geometry that defines degrees of freedom, and is critical to a proper understanding of the concept. Walker (1940) has stated this succinctly as ""the number of observations minus the number of necessary relations among these observations.""