Hamas as Social Movement
... it transpires. In other words, agency is clearly restricted and must be understood as such.4
Social movement theory tends to utilize three variables in its case studies
(and SMT is most often applied to individual case studies, such as in this
chapter). First, SMT seeks to analyze how changes in pol ...
The Charter and Political Violence
... confrontation with the Israeli authority.5 But since an increasing number of followers
began to leave the Brotherhood because of its inactivity against the Israeli occupation, a
decision was made, after the beginning of the first intifada, to join the struggle against the
Israeli occupation in a mor ...
... poetic verse, “if death is a predetermined must,
then it is a shame to die cowardly” and the other
poet saying, “who does not die by the sword will
die by other reason; many causes are there but
one death.” These youths believe in what has
been told by Allah and His messenger about the
greatness of ...
Tomorrow's Pioneers (Arabic: رواد الغد; also The Pioneers of Tomorrow) is a children's program, last broadcast on October 16, 2009 on the Palestinian Hamas-affiliated television station, Al-Aqsa TV (Arabic: مرئية الأقصى قناة الأقصى). The show features young host Saraa Barhoum and her co-host, a large costumed animal as they perform skits (or ""scenes"") and discuss life in Palestine in a talk show fashion with call-ins from children (typically of age 9-13 with some as young as 3). Presented in a children's educational format similar to such shows as Sesame Street or Barney & Friends, Tomorrow's Pioneers is highly controversial as it contains antisemitism, Islamism, anti-Americanism, and other anti-Western themes.The show, brought to Western attention by pro-Israel organizations such as Palestinian Media Watch and MEMRI, supposedly deals with Islamic traditions and lifestyles, some as innocuous as the importance of daily prayers and drinking milk, but also advocates messages of Islamism such as ""Resistance Jihad,"" and the loathing of Israel, the capitalist economic system, the United States, and western world.However, according to Palestinian Media Watch, two animal character co-hosts, the Mickey Mouse clone Farfour and Nahoul the bee, were used to ""champion violence, promote hatred of Israel and preach about world Islamic supremacy."" Later in the show's narrative, the characters were, as the show described it, ""martyred,"" with the deaths either directly or implicitly blamed on ""The Jews, Israel, Israelis, and/or what they believed to be Zionists.""The original host of Tomorrow's Pioneers and Farfour, Hazim Al-Sha'arawi, stated that it was his idea that Farfour be killed by an Israeli interrogator, adding that the show “wanted to send a message through this character that would fit the reality of Palestinian life.” El-Sharawi states, “A child sees his neighbors killed, or blown up on the beach, and how do I explain this to a child that already knows? The [Israeli] occupation is the reason; it creates the reality. I just organize the information for him.” Al-Aqsa TV deputy manager stated, that the program in fact is simply ""about Palestinian kids express[ing] their feeling[s] regarding what they witness -- if it's [the] occupation it's about that...""The show is considered to be the spiritual successor to an earlier Hamas-broadcast children's radio program series entitled Ovan and Branches (Arabic: أفنان وأغصان). Broadcast weekly on Fridays and running for 85 minutes, the program is also moderated by Hazim Al-Sha'arawi. Israeli sources have characterized it as ""the 'most serious' of martyrdom operations."" Arabic sources have said that the broadcasts of Ovan and Branches have been jammed by Israel in the past.