Soft power is a concept developed by Joseph Nye of Harvard University to describe the ability to attract and co-opt rather than coerce, use force or give money as a means of persuasion. Soft power is the ability to shape the preferences of others through appeal and attraction. A defining feature of soft power is that it is noncoercive; the currency of soft power is culture, political values, and foreign policies. Recently, the term has also been used in changing and influencing social and public opinion through relatively less transparent channels and lobbying through powerful political and non-political organizations. In 2012, Nye explained that with soft power, ""the best propaganda is not propaganda"", further explaining that during the Information Age, ""credibility is the scarcest resource"".Joseph Nye coined the term in a 1990 book, Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. In this book, he wrote: “when one country gets other countries to want what it wants-might be called co-optive or soft power in contrast with the hard or command power of ordering others to do what it wants.” He further developed the concept in his 2004 book, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. The term is now widely used in international affairs by analysts and statesmen. For example, the US Secretary of Defense Robert Gates spoke of the need to enhance American soft power by ""a dramatic increase in spending on the civilian instruments of national security – diplomacy, strategic communications, foreign assistance, civic action and economic reconstruction and development."" In 2011, as Xi Jinping was preparing to take power from Hu Jintao, the 17th Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party devoted a whole plenary session to the issue of culture, with the final Communiqué declaring that it was a national goal to ""build our country into a socialist cultural superpower"". And in 2014, Xi announced, ""We should increase China's soft power, give a good Chinese narrative, and better communicate China's messages to the world.""According to the 2014 Monocle Soft Power Survey, the United States currently hold the top spot in soft power, being followed by Germany in second place. The top ten is completed by the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Switzerland, Australia, Sweden, Denmark, and Canada. The Portland Soft Power 30, which includes a foreword by Joseph Nye, ranks the United Kingdom first, with mostly the same countries making up the top ten. The Elcano Global Presence Report ranks the European Union first when considered as a whole.