job complexity, performance, and well-being: when does
... the congruence between the desired level of a certain task characteristic
(values) and the level of that characteristic available in the job (supplies;
Kristof, 1996). Values are the “conscious desires held by the person”
(Edwards & Parry, 1993, p. 294) and are typically defined operationally as
evolcomp - Centre for Policy Modelling
... (represented in most normal ways) are not inter-related and hence the size of the system is insufficient
for it to be counted as complex. Often there is an assumption that all such parts are inter-related in
situations where this definition is used. Making this assumption clear by specifying the lan ...
Brighter than Gold: Figurative Language in User
... are similes that cannot be rephrased as metaphors,
and the other way around (Israel et al., 2004). This
suggests that figurativeness in similes should be
modeled differently than in metaphors. To further
underline the necessity of a computational model
for similes, we give the first estimate of thei ...
Looking Through the Lens of Individual Differences: Relationships
... The study of individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality traits has the potential to inform our
understanding of how the processing mechanisms underlying different behaviors are organized. In the current
set of studies, we applied an individual-differences approach to the study of ...
Intuitions and Competence in Formal Semantics
... a flourishing field, but not longer the dominant paradigm, being in the
company of corpus-based investigations, including typological and historical databases, work that extensively uses computational modelling,
and so on. With this diversity in theories and approaches comes one in
methodologies. An ...
On the Distinctions between Semantics and Pragmatics
... In the trichotomy proposed by Morris, syntax, semantics and pragmatics are seen as
successively more abstract levels of enquiry. We can now ask what the abstraction is
based on. As far as the distinction between syntax and semantics goes the prevailing
view is that syntax disregards meaning in favor ...
Cognitive Development in Infancy
... As we first noted in Chapter 1, Piaget’s theory is based on a stage approach to development. He assumed that all children pass through a series of four universal stages in a fixed
order from birth through adolescence: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. He als ...
melanesian pidgin and second language acquisition
... process whereby a pidgin develops in a situation of interlingual communication parallels the process adult learners of a second language go through in articulating the code
of their first language with that of the target language and simplifying the latter. The
implication of Anderson's hypothesis w ...
A brief history of Stylistics
... precisely what stylistics is, and to mark clear boundaries between it and other
branches of linguistics which deal with text analysis.
What has been the primary interest of stylistics for years is the analysis of the type,
fluctuation, or the reason for choosing a given style as in any language a si ...
COGNITIVE CONTROL AND LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION 2 The
... Thompson-Schill (2005) indicated that children’s difficulties in overriding automatic
interpretations might be due to an immature cognitive control system. Choi and Trueswell note,
however, that this study does not rule out the fact that children tend to rely on verb information
over contextual info ...
Cognitive pragmatics: The mental processes of communication
... tion to take place is that such information be intentionally and explicitly proposed to the interlocutor. Grice (1975) points out that communicating includes
not only the speaker’s first-order intention I1, that of achieving a certain effect
on the interlocutor, but also the second-order intention I ...
Building a Corpus in Linguistic Anthropology
... mother) and affinal links (through marriage) were generally terminated through death" (Watson 1988, pg.
8). The first, Kuomintang, ideology is a coherent, but a quite selective Han ideology. The second ideology,
is more considering, but criticizes the Han ideology from a Han point of view, i.e. acce ...
Learning Morphology by Itself1 - Mediterranean Morphology Meetings
... phonologically weak, often unstressed, word boundary positions. Moreover, they
convey fairly abstract and procedural semantic content (i.e. morpho-syntactic
properties), having very few if any perceptual correlates in the grounding environment
where words are uttered. Finally, when a language offers ...
Optimality in Sentence Processing
... in the latter case, we adopt the constraint in violable form.
We motivate the constraints we adopt by presenting in (3) − (6) below: (a) a
numeric influence on preferences in the CA model, and its motivation, and (b)
the corresponding grammatical (violable) constraint that we adopt. Note that the
Primary circular reaction
... Respond to grammatical use of words with
Withhold reinforcement for nongrammatical
Correct grammar reinforced, becomes more
BUT apparently NOT what happens—parents
respond to all vocalizations
© 2009 Allyn & Bacon Publishers
WHAT IS MEANT BY DISCOURSE ANALYSIS?
... universalistic claims of Searlean versions of speech act theory, showing its limited applicability to nonWestern modes of communication (e.g. drawing attention to discourse types which exclude any kind of
) of oracles among the Azande (Sudan) and
intention as in John Du Bois' studies (e.g. Du Bois 1 ...
Interplay between Syntax and Semantics during Sentence
... Some of the discrepancies between the different views
on this topic are due to the fact that no clear distinction
is made between cases where the syntactic constraints
are, at least temporarily, indeterminate with respect to
the structural assignment (syntactic ambiguity), and
cases where these con ...
From Cultural Selection to Genetic Selection: A Framework for the
... paper may thus have been written as an attempt to
defend Universal Grammar, but we believe it can actually be read as an interesting argument against it.
At any rate, we believe that Chomsky, rather than
his defenders, is actually right here: from the evolutionary point of view, his innateness claim ...
Starting with complex primitives pays off: complicate locally, simplify
... properties of LTAG. In Section 3, we will introduce two alternate perspectives for LTAG:
(a) supertagging and (b) flexible composition, and discuss their implications for language
description and language processing, and more importantly, their psycholinguistic relevance
in, Section 4. In this secti ...
... simulations such as that of Winograd (1972)), it
may possible to see explicitly how processes for
creating agents reflecting the paradigm would
work. Real languages appear to be much more
complex; instead of explicit rules that state
definitely that a particular process is to apply we
find fuzzy rul ...
Scrambling and Processing: Dependencies
... hypothesis that a psycholinguistic investigation of a phenomenon can shed the light on some unresolved linguistic
problem. The second approach advocated by cognitive science suggests that ideally we would study every
construction in a language from both linguistic and psycholinguistic points of view ...
An investigation of concurrent ERP and self
... Another disadvantage of using the fixed-rate RSVP display is
that different presentation rates may bias toward the engagement
of different cognitive processes. Evidence for this comes from a
recent set of studies suggesting that faster presentation rates are
associated with an increased influence of ...
The scope of linguistic anthropology - Assets
... human existence and, hence, in bringing about particular ways of being-in-theworld. It is such a dynamic view of language that gives linguistic anthropology its
unique place in the humanities and the social sciences.
1.2 The study of linguistic practices
As a domain of inquiry, linguistic anthropolo ...
The term linguistic performance was used by Noam Chomsky in 1960 to describe “the actual use of language in concrete situations”. It is used to describe both the production, sometimes called parole , as well as the comprehension of language. Performance is defined in opposition to “competence”; the latter describes the mental knowledge that a speaker or listener has of language.Part of the motivation for the distinction between performance and competence comes from speech errors: despite having a perfect understanding of the correct forms, a speaker of a language may unintentionally produce incorrect forms. This is because performance occurs in real situations, and so is subject to many non-linguistic influences. For example, distractions or memory limitations can affect lexical retrieval (Chomsky 1965:3), and give rise to errors in both production and perception [) or distractions. Such non-linguistic factors are completely independent of the actual knowledge of language, and establish that speakers' knowledge of language (their competence) is distinct form their actual use of language (their performance).