The word thou (/ðaʊ/ in most dialects) is a second person singular pronoun in English. It is now largely archaic, having been replaced in almost all contexts by you. It is used in parts of Northern England and by Scots (/ðu/). Thou is the nominative form; the oblique/objective form is thee (functioning as both accusative and dative), and the possessive is thy or thine. When thou is the grammatical subject of a finite verb in the indicative mood, the verb form typically ends in -st, most often with the ending -(e)st (e.g., ""thou goest""; ""thou dost""), but in some cases just -t (e.g., ""thou art""; ""thou shalt""), although in some dialects of Old English (mainly in the North), this verb form ended in -s, hence the Quaker habit of using what looks like the third person form of the verb with ""thee"" as the subject (paralleling the usage of ""you""). In Middle English, thou was sometimes abbreviated by putting a small ""u"" over the letter thorn: þͧ.Originally, thou was simply the singular counterpart to the plural pronoun ye, derived from an ancient Indo-European root. Following a process found in other Indo-European languages, thou was later used to express intimacy, familiarity or even disrespect, while another pronoun, you, the oblique/objective form of ye, was used for formal circumstances (see T–V distinction). In the 17th century, thou fell into disuse in the standard language but persisted, sometimes in altered form, in regional dialects of England and Scotland, as well as in the language of such religious groups as the Society of Friends. Early English translations of the Bible used thou and never you as the singular second-person pronoun, with the double effect of maintaining thou in usage and also imbuing it with an air of religious solemnity that is antithetical to its former sense of familiarity or disrespect. The use of the pronoun is also still present in poetry.The fact that early English translations of the Bible used the familiar form of the second person in no way indicates ""disrespect"" and is not surprising. The familiar form is used when speaking to God, at least in French (in Protestantism both historically and today, in Catholicism since the post-Vatican II reforms), German, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Yiddish, Turkish, and Scottish Gaelic (all of which maintain the use of an ""informal"" singular form of the second person in modern speech). In addition, the translators of the King James Version of the Bible attempted to maintain the distinction found in Hebrew between singular and plural second person pronouns. As such, they used ""thou"" for singular, and ""you"" for plural; the very same usage that those pronouns originally possessed.In standard modern English, thou continues to be used only in formal religious contexts, in literature that seeks to reproduce archaic language and in certain fixed phrases such as ""holier than thou"" and ""fare thee well"". For this reason, many associate the pronoun with solemnity or formality. Many dialects have compensated for the lack of a singular/plural distinction caused by the disappearance of thou and ye through the creation of new plural pronouns or pronominal constructions, such as you all, y'all, yinz, yous, you ens, you lot, yous lot and you guys. Ye remains common in some parts of Ireland but these examples just given vary regionally and are usually restricted to colloquial speech.