Redefining Sufism in Its Social and Political Contexts
... emergence of Sufism’s popular axis, followed by its ascendancy to the point at which Sufism
acquired the status of a popular cult [Tonaga 2006: 13]. Subsequently, says Tonaga, a further
modification occurred. Starting in the eighteenth century, there was a resurgence of the ethical
axis, so much so ...
Understanding the Concept of Islamic Sufism
... These are the attitudes of Islam, Iman and Ihsan.There is a Hadith of the Prophet (saw) which describes the three
attitudes separately as components of Din (religion), while several other traditions in the Kitab-ul-Iman of Sahih
Bukhari discuss Islam and Iman as distinct attitudes varying in religio ...
An Introduction to Sufism
... (1933~), hold fast to the originality and authenticity of Sufism as the central, most powerful current of the Islamic Revelation. As
such, Sufism is perceived as an “an interiorization and intensification of Islam,”29 and as “Islam’s life-giving core.”30 This argument is
bolstered by pointing to Suf ...
... Towards the end of the first millennium CE, a number of manuals began to be written
summarizing the doctrines of Sufism and describing some typical Sufi practices. Two of
the most famous of these are now available in English translation: the Kashf al-Mahjûb
of Hujwiri, and the Risâla of Qushayri.
Countering Extremism through Sufi Practices
... Towards the end of the first millennium CE, a number of books began
to be written about the doctrines of Sufism, illustrating select Sufi practices.
Of these, two have been rendered into English as well: the “Kashf al-Mahjub”
of Hajveri, and the “Risala” by Qushayri. Two of Imam Al Ghazali’s greates ...
THE PRACTICE OF MYSTICISM IN SUFISM HAJRA AMAD
... To understand the Sufi practice of mysticism, it is essential to journey back to the seventh century
after the passing of the Prophet Muhammad. This provides a context and foundation from which
Sufism arose; eventually this led to the origins of mysticism. In the seventh century, the basis for
The Principles of Naqshbandi Sufi Order
... the inner states. The Naqshbandi Sufi Order divides that travel into two categories. The first is
external journeying and the second is internal journeying. External travel is to travel from one
land to another searching for a perfect guide to take and direct people to their destination. This
3 5 7 8 9 Sufism: A Look into the History of Islamic Mysticism Corey
... It is also necessary to note that poetry played a major role in Sufism. Among its leading
poets were Rumi, Ibn al-‘Arabi, and Ibn al-Farid. The works of theses individuals were a
tremendous source of inspiration to followers of Sufism. The works of Rumi, at least in the
Persian speaking part of the ...
2011 HSC Studies of Religion Exam solutions Question 4 — Islam
... books, these instructors or masters are experienced practitioners of Sufism
and because of this, Sufism is based on a Master/Disciple relationship.
Following the teaching – “Ask those who know if you know not” Qur’an 16:43.
Tariqas or schools of Sufism exist around the world and many of these trace ...
Sufism (Arabic: تصوف, Ta'sawwuf), according to its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam. Practitioners of Sufism (Tasawwuf), referred to as Sufis (ṣūfī) (/ˈsuːfi/; صُوفِيّ), often belong to different ṭuruq or ""orders""—congregations formed around a grand master referred to as a Mawla who maintains a direct chain of teachers back to the Prophet Muhammad. These orders meet for spiritual sessions (majalis) in meeting places known as zawiyahs, khanqahs, or tekke. Sufis strive for ihsan (perfection of worship) as detailed in a hadith: ""Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him; if you can't see Him, surely He sees you."" Jalaluddin Rumi stated: ""The Sufi is hanging on to Muhammad, like Abu Bakr."" Sufis consider themselves to be the original true proponents of this pure, original form of Islam.All Sufi orders (turuq) trace many of their original precepts from the Islamic prophet Muhammad through his cousin and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib, with the notable exception of the Sunni Naqshbandi order who claim to trace their origins through the first sunni Caliph, Abu Bakr. Sufi orders are largely Sunni and follow one of the four schools of Sunni Islam and maintain a Sunni Aqidah or creed. Over the years various Sufi orders have been influenced by and adopted into various Shi'ite movements including Ismailism- which led to the Safaviyya order's conversion to Shi'ite Islam and the spread of Twelver Shi'ism throughout Persia. Sufi orders include Alevi, Bektashi, Burhaniya, Mevlevi, Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Rifa'i, Khalwati, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Oveyssi, Qadiria Boutshishia, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhiliyya, Suhrawardiyya, and many others.Classical Sufi scholars have defined Sufism as ""a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God"". Alternatively, in the words of the Darqawi Sufi teacher Ahmad ibn Ajiba, ""a science through which one can know how to travel into the presence of the Divine, purify one's inner self from filth, and beautify it with a variety of praiseworthy traits"". Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, define Sufism as purely based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of Muhammad. Some Orientalists, however, have proposed a variety of diverse theories pertaining to the nature of Sufism, such as Sufism being influenced by Neoplatonism or was an Aryan reaction against Semites. Seyyed Hossein Nasr, states that the preceding theories are false according to the point of view of Sufism. According to William Chittick, ""In a broad sense, Sufism can be described as the interiorization and intensification of Islamic faith and practice.""Muslims and mainstream scholars of Islam define Sufism as simply the name for the inner or esoteric dimension of Islam which is supported and complemented by outward or exoteric practices of Islam, such as Islamic law. In this view, ""it is absolutely necessary to be a Muslim"" to be a true Sufi, because Sufism's ""methods are inoperative without"" Muslim ""affiliation"". Orthodox views also maintain that Sufism is unique to Islam. In contrast, author Idries Shah states Sufi philosophy is universal in nature, its roots predating the rise of Islam and Christianity. Some neo-Sufis in Western countries allow non-Muslims to receive ""instructions on following the Sufi path"". Some Muslim opponents of Sufism also consider it outside the sphere of Islam.Classical Sufis were characterised by their attachment to dhikr, (a practice of repeating the names of God, often performed after prayers) and asceticism. Sufism gained adherents among a number of Muslims as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad Caliphate (661–750 CE). Sufis have spanned several continents and cultures over a millennium, originally expressing their beliefs in Arabic, before spreading into Persian, Turkish, and Urdu among dozens of other languages.