Money in Politics
... Although there is a growing awareness about the problems
of party ﬁnance in Africa, solutions have not fully emerged.
Approaches taken in more developed democracies—including legal restrictions, reporting requirements, and public
ﬁnancing of parties—have not proven a panacea; rather,
they are tools ...
a decade of the pan-african parliament: prospects
... effect in May, 1994. The 1999 Sirte Declaration pushed for the immediate institution of the
organs provided in the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community. A meeting of
Legal Experts and Parliamentarians was later held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to consider a Draft
Treaty on the formation o ...
Tools for parliamentary oversight - Inter
... tools, such as parliamentary questions and short debates. These tools are considered by some commentators to be inefficient, although this may be a reflection on the way in which they are used rather than the tools themselves. While
some questions may focus on narrow constituency interests, they als ...
chronicle of parliamentary elections - Inter
... bloodiest. In Kenya, as many as 1,500 people were reportedly killed as a
result of post-election violence. This gloomy picture is tempered by the
relative peace in which voting took place in countries such as Armenia,
Papua New Guinea and Togo, where it had been violence-prone.
As in other years, in ...
parliamentary democracy in indian political environment
... legislative branch and often includes members of the legislature. Thus the executive (as the
majority party or coalition of parties in the legislature) has a majority of the votes, and can pass
legislation at will. In a presidential system, the executive is often chosen independently from the
World Bank Document - Open Knowledge Repository
... 5. Multiple parties are legal, but only one won seats (because other parties
did not exist, compete, or win seats)
6. Multiple parties competed and won seats (but one party won 75 percent or
more of the seats)
7. The largest party received less than 75 percent of the seats.
Three other variables sup ...
American Political Culture The dominant aspects of political culture
... Political parties operate at the local level in municipal and county elections (though many cities choose
officials — mayors and members of city council — through nonpartisan elections, in which candidates
effectively run as independents without party affiliation). In partisan elections, the party ...
NEW ZEALAND - Academic Web Services
... NZ uses a Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) voting
system which makes it unlikely that any one political
party (eg: National, Labour, Greens) will win a majority
of the seats in the House.
The party with the most votes usually needs to form a
coalition or agreement with another party or parties.
The Development of American Political Parties
... ____________ Party to oppose the spread of slavery in U.S. territories.
The Whigs faded from American politics leaving the Democrats and Republicans in a twoparty system that has dominated American politics ever since
Any party other than the two major parties can be called a “____ ...
... Multi-Party System - Systems in which more than two parties are
represented and elected to public office. In cases where there are
three or more parties, no one party is likely to gain power alone,
and parties work with each other to form coalition governments.
Example = Germany.
... A principal claim for parliamentary systems, which today make up the majority of democracies, is their
responsiveness and flexibility. Parliamentary governments, especially if elected through proportional
representation, tend toward multiparty systems where even relatively small political groupings ...
In a parliamentary system of government, a hung parliament is a colloquial expression to describe a state of a parliament when no single political party (or bloc of allied parties) has an absolute majority of seats in the parliament (legislature). It is also less commonly known as a balanced parliament or a legislature under no overall control. If the legislature is bicameral, and the government is responsible only to the lower house, then ""hung parliament"" is used only with respect to that chamber. It is the objective of parliamentary systems for the parliament to be able to form a stable government, preferably that lasts until the next election. This requires the government to be able to muster up sufficient votes in parliament to pass important legislation, especially to be able to pass the government's budget. It also needs sufficient votes to defeat votes of no-confidence in the government. If the state of the parliament is such that a majority government cannot be formed, the government may be referred to as a ""minority government"". The term hung parliament is used mainly in systems with two parties or two party blocs. Most general elections in such a system will result in one or other party having an absolute majority and thus quickly forming a new government; a ""hung parliament"" is an exception to this pattern, and may be considered anomalous or undesirable. One or both main parties may seek to form a coalition government with smaller third parties, or a minority government relying on confidence and supply support from third parties or independents. If these efforts fail, a dissolution of parliament and a fresh election may be the last resort.In a multi-party system with legislatures elected by proportional representation, it is rare for a party to win an outright majority of seats, so a ""hung parliament"" is the norm and the term is rarely used. However, the term may be used to describe an election in which no established alliance among the parties wins an outright majority, such as the 2005 German election.