milli-extraction column for liquid-liquid phase separation
... Additive Manufacturing has a high potential in chemical process
engineering because the components are getting smaller and more
complex. Additionally, they are optimized for the specific application.
Especially for the efficient extraction of a material from a solvent,
Additive Manufacturing can be ...
Inweld Nibral, Aluminum Bronze 46
... Inweld Nibral is sometimes referred to its generic name, Nickel-Aluminum-Bronze. This filler
metal is used for MIG and TIG welding of cast and wrought nickel-aluminum-bronze parts where
there is a requirement for high resistance to corrosion, erosion and cavitation in salt or brackish
water. The mos ...
... identification of M23C6 carbides and MX carbonitrides, respectively, in the 0.078%C steels after heat
treatment. The M23C6 carbides were identified as face-centered cubic structure having a lattice parameter
of 1.067 nm. This is consistent with a reported result 1. The orientation relationship betwe ...
CHAPTER 1 CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS 1 CHAPTER ONE
... calculation. For addition/subtraction, the result has the same number of decimal places as the
least precise number used in the calculation (not necessarily the number with the fewest
• An alloy is a multi-component system where the
constitutive elements are completely miscible in
each other and can have varying stochiometry.
• The problem arises due to the different
vaporization rates of the components.
• Even if initial concentration ratios are adjusted to
take this int ...
... Basic MEMS materials
Silicon and its derivatives, mostly
• Micro-electronics heritage
Si is a good semiconductor, properties can be tuned
Si oxide is very robust
Si nitride is a good electrical insulator
Bulk etch characteristics of colorless LR 115 SSNTD
... diﬀerent etching periods, detectors were removed from
the etchant and immediately rinsed by distilled water. After
drying, the portions of the detectors with the active layer
were scanned using FTIR spectroscopy. The scanned diameter was 9 mm so the scanned area was 0.64 cm2.
To establish the correl ...
... The assumption that the diffusion coefficient is independent of composition will introduce significant error in the
concentration profiles of coatings produced in a low activity
pack. In this case, only the NiAl phase is formed, in which the
interdiffusion coefficient varies by approximately three
Study of C4F8 `N2 and C4F8 `Ar`N2 plasmas for highly
... substrate. Normally, etch rates are thought to decrease with
the fluorocarbon thickness.5 On the other hand, ion-induced
defluorination of the fluorocarbon layer enhances the etch
rate, by providing an additional etchant for the substrate.6 In
this work, we introduced nitrogen into the discharge in ...
Chapter 23 Metals and Metallurgy
... • Most metals are found in solid inorganic
compounds known as minerals.
• Minerals are named by common, not
High Temperature Corrosion of Stainless Steels in Low Oxygen
... weldability are favoured, but is kept high when high strength, hardness, fatigue, and wear
resistance are required . Alloy steels are steels to which alloying elements (like chromium,
nickel, manganese etc.) have been added to improve steel properties . Alloyed steels can be
commonly divided i ...
Corrosion of Ceramic and Composite Materials, Second Edition
... Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and
recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permiss ...
In materials science, superplasticity is a state in which solid crystalline material is deformed well beyond its usual breaking point, usually over about 200% during tensile deformation. Such a state is usually achieved at high homologous temperature. Examples of superplastic materials are some fine-grained metals and ceramics. Other non-crystalline materials (amorphous) such as silica glass (""molten glass"") and polymers also deform similarly, but are not called superplastic, because they are not crystalline; rather, their deformation is often described as Newtonian fluid. Superplastically deformed material gets thinner in a very uniform manner, rather than forming a ""neck"" (a local narrowing) that leads to fracture. Also, the formation of microvoids, which is another cause of early fracture, is inhibited.In metals and ceramics, requirements for it being superplastic include a fine grain size (less than approximately 20 micrometres) and a fine dispersion of thermally stable particles, which act to pin the grain boundaries and maintain the fine grain structure at the high temperatures and Existence of Two Phases required for superplastic deformation. Those materials that meet these parameters must still have a strain rate sensitivity (a measurement of the way the stress on a material reacts to changes in strain rate) of >0.3 to be considered superplastic.The mechanisms of superplasticity in metals are still under debate—many believe it relies on atomic diffusion and the sliding of grains past each other. Also, when metals are cycled around their phase transformation, internal stresses are produced and superplastic-like behaviour develops. Recently high-temperature superplastic behaviour has also been observed in iron aluminides with coarse grain structures. It is claimed that this is due to recovery and dynamic recrystallization.