"A Liberal Theory of Natural Resource Property Rights"
... I.3.3 Contemporary Liberal Supporters of Equal Claims ..............
I.3.4 Contemporary Liberal Opponents of Equal Claims ..............
I.4 Lessons, Lacunae, and Unresolved Controversies .........................
I.4.1 Natural Resources and their Value .......................................
Preserving Rockefeller Center - Santa Clara University Law
... land. It was the site of an old and interesting, if a bit run-down, neighborhood dating back to the middle of the nineteenth century.30 Before
Rockefeller Center rose on the site, over 200 four-story mid-nineteenth
century brownstone homes and shops existed on the three original
blocks bounded by Fi ...
THE PLACE OF INDIVIDUALS`DUTIES IN INTERNATIONAL
... 2. 2. Toward defining the concept of human rights: The philosophical
analysis of the concept........................................................................................................... . 47
2.2.1. What is a right?........................................................................ ...
who owes what to the very poor? - UNESDOC
... the project from the very beginning and has given precious advice and support to
the team despite diﬃculties and obstacles. I would like to express my deep gratitude to the central figures of the project who gave their support and collaborated
with the team: Stephen Marks, Arjun Sengupta, Paul Hunt, ...
What Happened to Property in Law and Economics
... the use of resources exclusively in terms of bipolar disputes between A and
B. Wittingly or not, this gave rise to a conception of property as a cluster of
in personam rights and hastened the demise of the in rem conception of
In order to appreciate Coase’s impact on the modern understandi ...
... morality. Some acts are morally obligatory regardless of
their consequences. Moral principles or duties apply to
everyone regardless of a person’s feelings or culture.
A famous example of this is the Golden Rule, or the
principle of reciprocity, which exists in every major world
religion and ethical ...
Jones - McGraw Hill Higher Education
... Societal Ethics
Standards that govern how members of
a society should deal with one another
in matters involving issues such as
fairness, justice, poverty, and the
rights of the individual
People behave ethically because they have
internalized certain values, beliefs, and
with power comes responsibility: human rights and corporate
... include direct references to environmental obligations: [G]; anti-corruption measures: [E]; and consumer
protection provisions: [F]. Environmental damage has a clear nexus to human rights, with Shell’s oil
extractions in Ogoniland in Nigeria (which caused environmental damage and consequently impact ...
rightscritique.full 7/25/01 The Critique of Rights in Critical
... Rorty, Carol Gilligan, Jurgen Habermas, Jacques Derrrida, and others). In the 1980s,
they were joined by Central European theorists of “limited revolution” under the banner
of human rights. All show that philosophy, something at once higher than, more
intellectually sophisticated than, and also more ...
... Deontological ethical systems hold that a person renders
ethical decisions if he or she acts based on what is right,
regardless of the consequences of the decision. In this
formalistic view of ethics, what is right is based on the
categorical imperative, which is the notion that every person
... – Happiness results from living a life of virtue
– Intellectual virtue: developed through education
– Moral virtue: developed by repeating appropriate acts
– Deriving pleasure from a virtuous act is a sign that the virtue
has been acquired
c. virtue ethics - University of San Diego
... 4. Is there any such thing as a state of nature or, as Rawls says, an original position? Does it
make sense to think of ourselves as pre-social beings before the existence of a social
Social contract theorists have responses that attempt to refute all of these objections.
5. Intuitional Mo ...
... Case Against Cultural Relativism
• Because two societies do have different moral views
doesn’t mean they ought to have different views
• Doesn’t explain how moral guidelines are determined
• Doesn’t explain how guidelines evolve
Chapter 2 Discussion: Ethical Principles in Business
... In terms of “means” (methods) versus “ends”
(results) in what way does the utilitarian moral
principle focus on the “ends” (results)?
If an action does me (personally) the most good
and the least harm of all actions I can take, that
doesn’t mean the action is ethical according to
the utilitarian ...
chapter 2 - TEST BANK 360
... For the consequentialist, the key to determining whether an action or rule is ethically
proper or improper is a determination of the consequences of performing the action or
following the rule. Here you should distinguish between egoism, where the scope is very
narrow -- viz. the individual -- and u ...
... Four Challenges
© 2011 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Moral Philosophy and Business
... bad for everyone affected by our actions. By “good” utilitarians mean happiness, or pleasure.
The basic theme of this view is held in the work of Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill.
Bentham thought that pleasure and pain were types of sensation, and offered a “hedonic
calculus” of six criteria for ...
No Slide Title
... differing political and religious views, ethnic and linguistic
traditions, and so on - is best contained within a society
that allows for the greatest possible independence for
states, which can, in their forms of government, express
those differing conceptions of the 'good life'. This position
is e ...
Week 2 – Rights and Relativism
... C1 (P2): Therefore, there are no universal
C2: Therefore, moral standards are a
function of the societies that accept them
2. The Demonstrability Argument
P1: There is no means by which to
demonstrate the correctness of any specific
moral standard (like the scientific method).
C: Ther ...
Natural and legal rights
Natural and legal rights are two types of rights. Legal rights are those bestowed onto a person by a given legal system. (i.e., rights that can be modified, repealed, and restrained by human laws) Natural rights are those not contingent upon the laws, customs, or beliefs of any particular culture or government, and therefore universal and inalienable (i.e., rights that cannot be repealed or restrained by human laws).The concept of natural law is closely related to the concept of natural rights. During the Age of Enlightenment, the concept of natural laws was used to challenge the divine right of kings, and became an alternative justification for the establishment of a social contract, positive law, and government — and thus legal rights — in the form of classical republicanism. Conversely, the concept of natural rights is used by others to challenge the legitimacy of all such establishments.The idea of human rights is also closely related to that of natural rights: some acknowledge no difference between the two, regarding them as synonymous, while others choose to keep the terms separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with natural rights. Natural rights, in particular, are considered beyond the authority of any government or international body to dismiss. The 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights is an important legal instrument enshrining one conception of natural rights into international soft law. Natural rights were traditionally viewed as exclusively negative rights, whereas human rights also comprise positive rights. Even on a natural rights conception of human rights, the two terms may not be synonymous.The proposition that animals have natural rights is one that gained the interest of philosophers and legal scholars in the 20th century and into the 21st.The legal philosophy known as Declarationism seeks to incorporate the natural rights philosophy of the United States Declaration of Independence into the body of American case law on a level with the United States Constitution, since the unanimously agreed upon Doctrines of the Declaration of Independence is the foundational authority upon which the People and the Continental Congress of the 13 British Colonies of America based their power to legitimately separate from England and establish its own government (i.e. the Constitution of the United States). Declarationism philosophy, therefore, insists that if the United States rejects the natural rights philosophy of the Declaration of Independence upon which it was founded, it of necessity becomes, retro-actively, an illegitimate government in treasonous rebellion against its rightful government of Crown and Parliament in London; and therefore, the Declaration and Constitution must be held as legally inseparable throughout the entire United States of America (both Federal and State) and its territories.