Examining Scientific Claims PowerPoint
... Experimental: based on direct manipulation
of the independent variables. (polar bear
example from last week)
Observational: based on selecting existing
cases with different values for the independent
variables. E.g. thalidomide babies from the
fifties-look at adults, those whose mom’s took
vs. didn’ ...
... -- focus on areas that need more research
-- help decide how money for reducing risks should be allocated
-- stimulate public discussion for making informed decisions
(e.) public’s willingness to accept certain types of risks
-- risk of serious debilitating health problems or death from smoking
1 pa ...
Data/hora: 28/04/2017 22:39:14 Biblioteca(s): Área de Informação
... standard protocols, originally developed as laboratory tests with single chemicals (e.g.,
pesticides), and further enhancing both the approaches and protocols for the assessment of
contaminated lands. However, ecological relevance of some approaches remains
unresolved. The authors discuss the main c ...
Lab 8: Types of and Study Designs
... • Confounding derives from inherent differences at
baseline . . . How did investigators address
potential for confounding
• Table 1 -- no large differences by age, sex, type of
leukemia, stage of disease, kidney function, etc.
• Also adjustment of RRs [Mantel-Haenszel]
• Concluded: potential for con ...
Blue SDU - Department of Biology
... Blue interests: Global carbon cycle/budget, arctic biological carbon pump, carbon sequestration by
seagrasses, Invasive species
Research area: metabolomics, linking molecular approaches to ecosystems level marine eco-systems
biology, assessment of marine plants to sequestrate carbon, effect of globa ...
Principles of Technology 04-05
... This class is a lab and field-based course designed to help you learn about your world and to be able to make
decisions on how to use the energy, resources, and the environment. This course is intended to be the equivalent of
a one semester college level ecology course, which is taught over an entir ...
PEC/PNEC approach - Deltares Public Wiki
... These two assumptions have important consequences. By establishing which species is the most
sensitive to the toxic effects of a chemical in the laboratory, extrapolation can subsequently be based on
the data from that species. Furthermore, the functioning of any ecosystem in which that species exis ...
Biology and Your Future
... through a wetland and collecting frogs for a school project. The
students stopped to look at the frogs, and what they saw shocked
them. Many of the frogs had deformities, including missing legs, extra legs,
and missing eyes. What caused the deformities? Scientists investigated that
question by testi ...
Alternative assessments (pp. 81-83)
... intelligent (IQ) tests (WISC IV)
may include projective tests – psychological test
- inner feelings, e.g. InKblot test (what you see)
academic achievement test (by teachers), used
as screening test in special education
diagnostic tests – suggest areas of remediation,
pre-test for a unit
Yamamoto - Whole Effluent Toxicity Testing for Management of
... The number of chemicals registered in Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is now nearly 100 million and is still
increasing rapidly1). Some of these chemicals are used in human activities and eventually released into the
environment. However, the number of items in water quality criteria and discharge ...
Lecture 6 Toxicity Test Methods
... • Daphnia 45-h Acute Toxicity Test
– Most widely used test for evaluating
toxicity of water
– Three primary species
• Daphnia magna – general testing
• Ceriodaphnia dubia – chronic testing over
... groups of substances in aquatic ecosystems due to universal use, their chemicophysical properties and unknown mode of
action in aquatic organisms at low concentrations. After administration many
drugs and their transformation products
are retained only to some extent in wastewater treatment plants. ...
... neurotoxins, which affect the nervous system; and endocrine disruptors, which interfere with
the hormone system.
6. Toxicants may move with water in the environment, or be carried in the atmosphere. They
tend to be found near sites of their production or release, where they are soluble, and
... occur though contamination of water flowing through older pipes with lead solder, or by ingestion of
paint containing lead. Both of these uses have been largely discontinued, and in older homes, can be
abated. Asbestos was a commonly used insulating material, and can be inhaled if the material is
No Slide Title
... • Long term care facilities could generate one-third of
here  - University of Kent
... Using a detailed questionnaire, this risk assessment scheme for potentially invasive species
allows experts to share their knowledge regarding a specific species at a defined spatial
extent, as well as indicating their level of certainty in regards to their answers.
The questionnaire comprises a ser ...
Ecological impact of ionising radiation, an endpoint issue?
... Today’s concept: « reference organisms »
Typical, accessible, documented, various sizes and life cycles,
Generic virtual entities to serve as points of comparison to assess
exposure and effects
Devices to relate exposure to dose & dose to effect for some types of ...
Ecotoxicology: An Opportunity for the Experimental
... dose-response curves at the single species level of biological organization and
relatively few studies dealing with properties at higher levels of biological
organization such as natural communities and ecosystems. Detractors of the
attempts to incorporate ecological principles into the field of env ...
Exploring available options in characterising the health impact of
... costs – though their interpretation is difficult. A notable
example of a first level epidemiological approach is the
one of SENTIERI implemented in Italy. The SENTIERI approach was developed to describe the health
profile of populations living in national priority CS 
by an a priori selection of ...
The role of animal behaviour in the study of endocrine
... Animals are exposed to EDCs in the air, water and in their food. EDCs enter animals’ bodies
through the skin, gills, and even via the mother in utero or in ovo. One of the most insidious
characteristics of EDCs is that, because they are lipid-soluble, they tend to accumulate in animal
body tissues. ...
Biological invasions: a field synopsis, systematic review, and
... search several databases. Because of the large scope of our
review, we were not able to do so. As an alternative, we
used the search engine SCOPUS to analyze a more limited sample of papers, to determine the extent to which
the results would vary with the search engine and to
gauge the inclusiveness ...
The emerging discipline of evidence-based toxicology (EBT) is a process for transparently, consistently, and objectively assessing available scientific evidence in order to answer questions in toxicology, the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on living organisms and the environment, including the prevention and amelioration of such adverse effects. EBT has the potential to address concerns in the toxicological community about the limitations of current approaches to assessing the state of the science. These include concerns related to transparency in decision making, synthesis of different types of evidence, and the assessment of bias and credibility.The evidence-based methods and approaches now being introduced to toxicology are widely used in medicine, which is the basis for their nomenclature. The need to improve the performance assessment of toxicological test methods was the main impetus for translating these tools to toxicology. The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) concurs that new means of assessment are needed to keep pace with recent advances in the development of toxicological test methods. These new test methods capitalize on the recent advances in biochemistry and molecular biology that have enhanced scientists' understanding of the nature and mechanisms underlying how chemicals cause adverse effects, and the tests have the potential to be much quicker and less expensive than the tests traditionally used to evaluate toxicity.EBT can be applied to literature reviews of chemical effects, as well as test method performance. Historically, authors of reviews assessing the results of toxicological studies have searched, selected, and weighed the scientific evidence in a non-systematic and non-transparent way. Due to their narrative nature, these reviews tend to be subjective, are potentially biased and cannot be reproduced. Two examples highlighting these deficiencies are the cancer risk assessment of two persistent, organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trichloroethylene. Narrative reviews of PCBs published within a year of each other came to different conclusions about the cancer risk posed by these chemicals. Similarly, 27 different risk assessments of trichloroethylene have come to substantially different conclusions.A key tool used in evidence-based medicine that holds promise for EBT is the systematic review, which is a highly structured approach to reviewing and synthesizing the scientific literature while limiting bias. The steps to carrying out a systematic review include framing the question to be addressed; appraising and deciding how relevant studies will be identified and retrieved; determining if any studies need to be excluded from the analysis; and deciding how the included studies will be appraised in terms of their quality and risk of bias. Ultimately the data will be synthesized across studies, often by a meta-analysis. Typically, a protocol of how the review will be conducted is prepared ahead of time and is often peer reviewed.Scientists have made progress in their efforts to apply systematic reviews to evaluate the evidence for associations between environmental toxicants and human health risks. To date, researchers have shown that important elements of the systematic review methodology established in evidence-based medicine can be adopted into EBT with little change, and a limited number of such studies have been attempted. For example, an EBT-style systematic review responds to concerns in the pharmaceutical industry regarding why drug candidates recommended by animal studies have unexpectedly failed by identifying instruments that may ameliorate the problem. Researchers using systematic reviews to address toxicological concerns include a group of scientists from government, industry, and academia in North America and European Union (EU) who have joined forces to promote evidence-based approaches to toxicology through the nonprofit Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC). The EBT is applying systematic reviews to toxicological methods. This is just one of the avenues that the EBTC's members are researching to help toxicologists improve health protection and safety assurance.