Looking Through the Lens of Individual Differences: Relationships
... understanding of how the processing mechanisms underlying different behaviors are organized. In the current
set of studies, we applied an individual-differences approach to the study of sources of variation in individuals’
personality traits, cognitive control, and linguistic ambiguity resolution ab ...
Cognitive Concepts of Craving - CE
... on information processing, cognitive
architectures, memory, and decisionmaking, is more clearly representative of
contemporary cognitive psychology. Until
recently, however, this paradigm did not
substantially influence craving research.
Both the cognitive-behavioral and
information-processing appro ...
... reflects the multidisciplinary ideals of its foundation. Is it the case that constituent disciplines have merged to form a new discipline, or is it the case that cognitive science forums
have become places where psychologists present psychology, computer scientists present
computer science, linguist ...
Course Handbook for students 2007-08
... cognitive and behavioural difficulties that characterise particular disorders and shall
describe specific treatment interventions designed to target them.
In the third term we will introduce specific issues in treating more difficult, complex
cases and work on developing individualised developmental ...
Chemotherapy and Cognitive Impairment
... catecholaminergic tone in the prefrontal cortex and striatum
and increases dopamine signaling through multiple pathways
(for a review, see ref. 34). By contrast, methotrexate (MTX)
chemotherapy has been shown to decrease hippocampal cat
echolamine levels in healthy rats.25 In humans, MPH treatment
PDF - H4H Initiative
... body hyperthermia, as well as water intake ensuring euhydration in the control condition, are known to be
confounding factors (Grandjean 2007; Lieberman 2007; Masento et al. 2014).
More recently, Armstrong et al. and Ganio et al. published two well-controlled studies involving exerciseinduced mild d ...
... – focused on how humans learn through observing
• Social cognitive learning
– results from watching, and modeling and does not
require the observer to perform any observable
behavior or receive any observable reward
Visual paradox and cognition - Department of Cognitive Science
... Figure 6: Cowan and Pringle, 27 rectangles
Three groups of judges were used, each trained on a
different 9 rectangles, and asked to rate the remainder by
degree of possibility from 1 to 10. Clearly degree of
possibility is related inversely to degree of impossibility. It
is conceivable that there co ...
Definitions of cognitive science
... We claim that all the above objections do not apply to the most
intuitive and the most appropriate definition of the subject of cognitive
science coming from Harnish. Cognition seems to be the most
suitable characterization of the subject of cognitive science in both the
broad and the narrow sense. ...
Cohabitation: Computation at 70, Cognition at 20
... mistake of Wittgenstein’s) is to conclude that if we cannot introspect the rules for
categorizing things (today we would say “if their representation is not ‘explicit’”) then
those rules do not exist. A more valid inference is that cognitive science cannot be
done by introspection. If we are to expl ...
From systematicity of thought to systemicity of habits
... Iconicity thesis: there is a homology between the
structure of a scene (Filmore) as an organiced Gestalt
and the structure of the sentences which describe it.
Syntax and case roles emerge from the morphology of
a semantic dynamics of cognitive performance.
It is possible to generate systematic (synt ...
Syntax in music and language: The role of cognitive control
... Figure 2: Stroop interference (incongruent minus neutral)
by the harmonic condition of the final chord (the tonic chord
or an unexpected chord from another key) in Experiment 1.
Data are plotted as untransformed means of participant
means and dots indicate individuals’ scores.1
A counter explanation ...
Psychology in Cognitive Science: 19782038
... in the first two issues of Cognitive Science in each decade, beginning in 1978. The proportion
of papers authored by psychologists has increased steadily from 1978, when psychologists
constituted about a quarter of the authors, to 2008 when psychologists constituted over half
of the contributors. If ...
Sample pages 1 PDF
... between instructional methods and learning processes and/or
outcomes, it should be stressed that these are never straightforward relations. There are numerous conditions that affect
the relationships between methods and outcomes. These
conditions deal, for example, with the characteristics of the
Cognitive Science: Emerging Perspectives and Approaches
... loss and not in a all-or-none manner that is typical of computer memories. Smolensky
(2000) have pointed out that connectionism entails commitment to mental representations
are distributed patterns of neural activity and mental processes involves parallel
transformations of neural activity patterns ...
D2.1c Comparative Cognitive Mapping Guidelines
... method results in very comprehensive maps, but the method is also more time-consuming and
labour intensive and is seen to be tedious by participants. In addition, Hodgkinson et all (2004) have
found that participants in their study rate representativeness of the resulting maps as much lower
than of ...
... professional status, the intellectual level and the participation in leisure, cultural, social
and cognitive activities. These experiences can influence brain anatomy, increasing
Cognitive sciences. - University of Waterloo
... this view, and since the 1990s cognitive psychology has increasingly been integrated with
neuroscience. Similarly, there are growing signs of recognition of the relevance of the
cognitive sciences to the social sciences, for example in the subfields of cognitive
sociology and neuroeconomics. The soc ...
Summaries of Learning Theories and Models
... instruction has an inherent difficulty associated with it (for instance, calculating 5+5). This
inherent difficulty may not be altered by an instructor. However many schemas may be
broken into individual “subschemas” and taught in isolation, to be later brought back together
and described as a combi ...
A coincidence detector neural network model of selective attention
... In addition to influence from top-down spatial goals, the
neural activation of each stimulus is progressively
modulated by top-down signals of semantic information.
We propose that a correlation control mechanism that
includes coincidence detector neurons determines the
correlation between semantic ...
In cognitive psychology, cognitive load refers to the total amount of mental effort being used in the working memory. Cognitive load theory was developed out of the study of problem solving by John Sweller in the late 1980s. Sweller argued that instructional design can be used to reduce cognitive load in learners. Cognitive load theory differentiates cognitive load into three types: intrinsic, extraneous, and germane. Intrinsic cognitive load is the effort associated with a specific topic. Extraneous cognitive load refers to the way information or tasks are presented to a learner. And germane cognitive load refers to the work put into creating a permanent store of knowledge, or a schema. Researchers Paas and Van Merriënboer developed a way to measure perceived mental effort which is indicative of cognitive load. Task-invoked pupillary response is a reliable and sensitive measurement of cognitive load that is directly related to working memory. Heavy cognitive load can have negative effects on task completion, and it is important to note that the experience of cognitive load is not the same in everyone. The elderly, students, and children experience different, and more often higher, amounts of cognitive load. High cognitive load in the elderly has been shown to affect their center of balance. With increased distractions and cell phone use students are more prone to experiencing high cognitive load which can reduce academic success. Children have less general knowledge than adults which increases their cognitive load..