Oral Tradition in the Writings of Rabbinic Oral Torah
... As early as the twelfth century (MS Erfurt) there circulated a
manuscript compilation of mishnaic-style traditions entitled the Tosefta
(“Supplement” or “Amplification”). Similar to the Mishnah in content and
form, but larger in size, the Tosefta was commonly believed by medievals to
be identical to ...
Why Study Talmud in the Twenty-first Century?
... While Talmud study held pride of place in most Jewish communities in previous centuries by sheer force of tradition, this book seeks out the reasons for
this privileged position. After all, Talmud study requires a tremendous investment of time and eﬀort, and the payoﬀ from struggling through its mea ...
The Making of the Mishnah and the Talmud
... Judah the Prince. Two Talmuds, that is, compendia of analysis, expansion, and interpretation, grew
up around the Mishnah. An Aramaic term for Talmud, which has become more common today,
is Gemara, literally “teaching.” This term was for the most part introduced into the talmudic text
by Christian ce ...
Oral Law 2 - Beth David Messianic Congregation
... that flexibility, defining the interpretations of the later rabbis as having
Mosaic authority and standing in a continuous chain of tradition. At the
same time, strict adherence to the principles of Jewish law meant that
Talmudic Judaism could stand firm against the challenges posed by
Law and Hermeneutics in Rabbinic Jurisprudence
... supplement the oral tradition; it can never be
the explanation of a text. In contemporary
terms, this means that the rabbis viewed the
text as a semiological composition whose unit,
the word, is a sign which is not subject to
definition; it is either recognized or not. As
Emile Benveniste shows, "in ...
RLST 124I: Varieties of Ancient Judaism
... rabbi (Rab/Rav, Rabban, Rabbenu): a respectful form of address, literally “My Master” apparently used
among Jewish teachers by the tannaitic era; variations include “Rab” or “Rav” (“The
Master), “Rabban” (our master), and “Rabbenu” (also “our Master”); abbreviation, “R.” (ex.:
Rav Sherir ...
The Jewish Basis for Shareholder Activism
... salaries, using false weights and measures, creating pollution or endangering someone’s health.
• One should not allow one’s assets
to cause damage, and one is liable if
damages occur. The classical example
from the Talmud is about oxen. If ten
people hold shares in an ox and that
ox causes damage, ...
The Written and Oral Torah
... Focuses on concerns pertinent to Land of Israel
Completed in 6th Century CE (100+ more years of discussion)
Written in Eastern Aramaic more precise expressions
Used by Jews living elsewhere throughout the ancient world
Introduction – Rabbinic Judaism
... “Moses received Torah from Sinai and handed it down to Joshua; and Joshua to
the Elders; and the Elders to the Prophets; and the Prophets handed it down to the
Men of the Great Assembly…” Mishnah Avot 1:1
Judaism is often believed to be a religion based primarily in the Hebrew Bible, or even
more sp ...
What is the Talmud? - Becoming Jewish.Org
... at Mount Sinai at the time that the Written Torah was transmitted. The Mishnah was kept in
the oral tradition until it was written down in the
time of Rabbi Judah the Holy (aka Rabbi Judah
the Prince) ca. 130-220CE. It was written down
to help ensure that in the time of duress and
danger that it wou ...
Ki Tetze-A Rebellious Son
... May we recognize that like American law, Jewish law does not get
frozen in time but continues to develop, with one eye looking towards
the words of our great sages of the past and the other eye looking
towards our contemporary and future needs.
Damages (Jewish law)
In Jewish law, damages (Hebrew: nezikin נזיקין) covers a range of jurisprudential topics that roughly correspond in secular law to torts. Jewish law on damages is grounded partly on the Written Torah, the Hebrew Bible, and partly on the Oral Torah, centered primarily in the Mishnaic Order of Nezikin. Since at least of the time of the Mishnah, Rabbinic culture developed and interpreted the laws of damages through communal courts, judges, and enforcement. While Jewish communities exercised relatively little authority over criminal law in the diaspora, quasi-autonomous communal oversight of damages (tort law) continued to be extensive until the modern era. Today, observant Jews may voluntarily submit themselves to adjudication of damages disputes by rabbinic judges and courts (beit din). In addition, aspects of rabbinic law have been absorbed into tort law in Israel.Torts or ""damages"" include any wrongful act, neglect, or default whereby legal harm is caused to the person, property, or reputation of another. Damages usually give rise to some form of compensatory liability, though some exceptional damages may be prohibited (or merely deprecated) without concomitant liability. Under rabbinic law, there are important distinctions between damages caused by persons or by property, and between direct and indirect action. When people cause damage directly, they are covered by the rabbinic equivalent of either assault and battery, against another person, or trespass against another's property. When one's property causes damage, Jewish law may distinguish torts due to such factors as accidents, negligence, fault or wilful fraud.As a religious law, Jewish law or halakhah characterize a variety of actions as damages, though these may not correspond to secular legal conceptions. Notably, Jewish law tends to go beyond secular law in prohibiting or regulating acts of hurtful speech, humiliation, betrayal, and self-injury.