... This dissertation is dedicated to my father, Dr David Moyer, who passed away during
its completion. Many of the ideas that follow are inspired by his example. He was
an anthropologist by profession, but a polymath by disposition, he explored human
knowledge in the broadest possible terms – from the ...
Social norms and identity dependent preferences
... In our choice experiment, subjects are first either primed with their (homegrown) political identity or
they are treated with a neutral prime. Then they are asked to make decisions in each of eleven redistribution
situations. For the eleven redistribution situations, we begin with the standard dicta ...
1 - LISC
... model than with the simple averaging, which for some values of u and U may lead to a larger number of clusters.
The reason is that in the weighted averaging, the low uncertainty agents have more influence. We note that in
general, some confident agents stay at the extremes of the distribution and do ...
Treatment interventions for people with aggressive behaviour and
... No single biological or environmental cause of aggressive behaviour in people
with autism or intellectual disability has been identified. Many developmental
pathways contribute to the current form of a particular person’s aggression.
Further, the current factors maintaining aggression may change ove ...
Norms and Values
... range of instances of the more general and more abstract
phenomenon of normative solutions to the problem of 'bridging'
between values and conduct.
The distinctive feature of this project lies in its multi-level and multidisciplinary approach. Previous work has been radically fragmented
both within ...
The Legacy of B
... B.F. Skinner has found that negative reinforcement in learning
A) usually serves to eliminate a response
B) has little or no effect
C) has the same effect as punishment
D) usually increases the behavior which it follows
According to Skinner, punishment is widely used in efforts to modify behavior
DJ1N 34 Understanding and Supporting Behaviour
... Outcome 1 explores the explanations of why behaviour that challenges occurs. This will
include looking at different psychological theories about human behaviour in relation to
aggression e.g. psychodynamic, social learning, humanistic, etc. Challenging behaviour
should be discussed in the context of ...
influencing behaviour through public policy
... So whilst behavioural theory has already been deployed to good effect in some
areas, it has much greater potential to help us. To realise that potential, we have
to build our capacity and ensure that we have a sophisticated understanding of
what does influence behaviour. This report is an important ...
Ch 14 ppt
... – Magnification - the tendency to interpret situations as far more
dangerous, harmful, or important than they actually are.
– All-or-nothing thinking - the tendency to believe that one’s
performance must be perfect or the result will be a total failure.
– Overgeneralization - the tendency to interpr ...
Change of Mental Representation with the Expertise of Mental Abacus
... interfered with the subliminal stimuli than the experts
(practicing abacus for ten years and more), when they counted
on abacus in their minds. Then we measured, using a NIRS
(Near-infrared Spectroscopy), the difference in brain activity
during mental calculation between the apprentices and the
5. Operant Conditioning V2
... Skinner believed that ALL behaviour could be
explained by the relationships between the
behaviour, its antecedents (events occurring
before it) and its consequences.
COMPLETE REVISION SUMMARY
... which an animal or person learns to associate a
reflex response with a new stimulus
• CLASSICAL CONDITIONING SCHEDULE is the steps in
the procedure to condition a new response
• UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (UNS) is the stimulus
that produces a reflex response, such as the food for
• UNCONDI ...
Lecture 2 Foundations of Individual Behavior
... 2. People are likely to engage in desired
behaviours if they are positively reinforced for
3. Rewards are most effective if they immediately
follow the desired response.
4. Any situation in which it is either explicitly stated
or implicitly suggested that reinforcements are
contingent on s ...
... all of this
In response to attempts at artificial intelligence, Skinner
responded, “The important question is not whether machines
can be made to think, it is whether humans think”
Consider this in light of the “Conditioning to Kill” situation
and its possible links to post-traumatic stress disorder ...
... His attitude, behavior, needs and reactions play an
important role in regard to marketing plans and
policies of companies.
Companies study the behaviours of consumers
constantly for their benefits.
Consumer behavior is comparatively new area within
the scope of business management.
The purpose ...
... against psychoanalytic perspectives due to their…
– overemphasis on unconscious, drives or instincts
– problems to verify introspective information
– abstract & difficult to measure nature of psychoanalytic theory
Psychological Disorders - Stephen F. Austin State University
... Somatoform Disorders
• Somatoform disorders - disorders that
take the form of bodily illnesses and
symptoms but for which there are no
real physical disorders.
• Psychosomatic disorder - disorder in
which psychological stress causes a
real physical disorder or illness.
• Psychophysiological disorde ...
No Slide Title - e
... Voluntary behavior is controlled by consequences
Both Learning Models influenced the development of
Lesson - Short Courses
... by salivating.
Pavlov set up the dog in a soundproof laboratory, with a special device to measure the
salivating response (attached to the salivary gland). A light was then turned on following
delivery of meat powder by remote control. A high degree of salivation was measured. The
procedure was repe ...
Social Science PETER WINCH The British Journal of Sociology
... and there may be borderline cases in which he has to decide whether the
situation he is in constitutes having an appointment to keep or not. It must
be possible to ask whether he is behaving consistently, and if, on some occasion,
he fails to try to be in good time for an appointment he cannot rebut ...
No Slide Title
... The Past: Abnormal Behavior and
the Psychoanalytic Tradition
Freudian Theory – Overview and Development
Structure and Function of the Mind
Id (pleasure principle; illogical, emotional, irrational)
Ego (reality principle; logical and rational)
Superego (moral principles; keeps Id and Ego in ...
animal behaviour - Careerline Courses
... will explore its surroundings. It will
eventually discover the bar, and
play with it. In effect, the rat is
voluntarily operating on its environment. After a while, the experimenter introduces a food pellet
through a food chute to coincide
with the times when the rat
presses the bar. The rat will ea ...
... Therapy treatments that all stem from behaviourism (ie
behaviour analysis, behavioural intervention etc) have
been very useful in changing harmful behaviour in both
children and adults.
Why is this negative reinforcement?
... • • Sally could have a star system where she gets a star for not shouting
out/for concentrating on her work/eq;
• • At the end of the week she could have a small prize depending on the
number of stars she has collected/eq;
• • If Sally is attention seeking she could be made to stand outside the
... To gather knowledge about people in a work
At minimum, the filed seeks to gather knowledge
for its own sake just like some sciences like
Physics and chemistry; the practical use of certain
findings may not be practical for years.
Same could apply to Organizational Behaviour.
Some early theor ...
Normality (also known as normalcy) is the state of being normal. Behaviour can be normal for an individual (intrapersonal normality) when it is consistent with the most common behaviour for that person. Normal is also used to describe individual behaviour that conforms to the most common behaviour in society (known as conformity). Definitions of normality vary by person, time, place, and situation – it changes along with changing societal standards and norms. Normal behaviour is often only recognized in contrast to abnormality. In its simplest form, normality is seen as good while abnormality is seen as bad. Someone being seen as ""normal"" or ""not normal"" can have social ramifications, including being included, excluded or stigmatized by larger society.Although it is difficult to define normality, since it is a flexible concept, the existence of these ramifications also makes it an important definition. The study of what is normal is called normatology – this field attempts to develop an operational definition distinguishing between normality and abnormality (or pathology). The general question of 'What is normal?' is discussed in many fields, including philosophy, psychology and sociology. The most comprehensive attempt to distinguish normality from abnormality comes from clinical psychology, in the Diagnostics and Statistics Manual. The DSM shows how normality is dependent on situation, how it changes throughout history and how it often involves value judgements.