METABOLISM OF MONOSACCHARIDES AND DISACCHARIDES
... • For fructose to enter the pathways of
intermediary metabolism, it must first be
• This can be accomplished by either hexokinase
or fructokinase (also called ketohexokinase).
Hexokinase phosphorylates glucose in all cells
of the body, and several additional hexoses
can serve as subst ...
... tissues and its conversion to glucose
• In the liver, the glucose exported to blood circulation
• In muscles, the glucose enters glycolysis for conversion to energy
Are Carbohydrates Healthy or Not? Fact Sheet
... Table sugar is actually made of two basic sugars, fructose and glucose, bonded together. When we consume
table sugar, our digestive system breaks up the bonds and we absorb the fructose and glucose separately.
Glucose is absorbed into the blood and carried for use by all our cells. Fructose is absor ...
... The Bowman's capsule surrounds each glomerulus, and collects the filtrate that the
glomerulus forms. The filtrate contains waste products (e.g. urea), electrolytes (e.g. sodium,
potassium, and chloride), amino acids, and glucose. The filtrate passes into the renal tubules
of the kidney. In the first ...
what is diabetes mellitus
... that produces hormones and an exocrine gland that produces digestive enzymes. It plays a
strong role in metabolism in the body.
Structures within the pancreas, known as Islets of Langerhans contain three different
types of hormone secreting cells:
Alpha Cells: secrete Glucagon
secrete In ...
Carbohydrate Metabolism 3
... 6- ↓↓ protein synthesis --> ↓↓ antibodies formation --> the
patients liable for infections and poor wound healing.
7- A number of tissues don't require insulin for the entry of
glucose into cells --> hence the intracellular glucose of
the tissues attains a level similar to that of blood, then
Early Chick and Poultry Mortality
... Recently reference has been made to the possible role of low levels of blood glucose in triggering some of the
non specific early mortality problems noted with chicks and poults .
A recent article by Dr. W.E. Donaldson provides further interesting information on the importance of maintaining
blood g ...
NME2.32 - Insulin and Glucagon
... o The three primary targets for insulin action are the liver, muscle and adipose tissue
There are significantly more receptors in the body than are needed for maximum response
o Insulin itself down-regulates the number of receptors in tissues it affects reducing sensitivity
o The same maximum respon ...
... - Can bind to a H+ ion when the H+
- Can release a H+ ion when the H+
Appendix B: Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Diabetes
... been reversed, the person
should have the usual meal
or snack that is due at that
time of the day to prevent
repeated hypoglycemia. If a
meal is > 1 hour away, a snack
(including 15 g carbohydrate
and a protein source) should
... • Complications of Type I diabetes
• Due to decreased insulin intake
• Marked by:
high blood glucose
Glucose M9Y Glucose M9Y medium, used to cultivate E. coli, is a
... supplemented with yeast extract. It is based on M9 salts6 with a pH of 6.9±0.2 and employs
glucose as the carbon source. Alternative carbon sources may be substituted. Buffering is
provided by a sodium-potassium phosphate system. Ammonium chloride provides a nitrogen
source. Yeast extract is added t ...
What is diabetes?
... When food is digested, the protein is broken down into amino acids; the fat is broken
down into fatty acids; and the carbohydrate is broken down into glucose. It is easy to see,
then, that most of the glucose (sugar) in your blood comes from the carbohydrate in
Glucokinase (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that facilitates phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Glucokinase occurs in cells in the liver, pancreas, gut, and brain of humans and most other vertebrates. In each of these organs it plays an important role in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism by acting as a glucose sensor, triggering shifts in metabolism or cell function in response to rising or falling levels of glucose, such as occur after a meal or when fasting. Mutations of the gene for this enzyme can cause unusual forms of diabetes or hypoglycemia.Glucokinase (GK) is a hexokinase isozyme, related homologously to at least three other hexokinases. All of the hexokinases can mediate phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), which is the first step of both glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. However, glucokinase is coded by a separate gene and its distinctive kinetic properties allow it to serve a different set of functions. Glucokinase has a lower affinity for glucose than the other hexokinases do, and its activity is localized to a few cell types, leaving the other three hexokinases as more important preparers of glucose for glycolysis and glycogen synthesis for most tissues and organs. Because of this reduced affinity, the activity of glucokinase, under usual physiological conditions, varies substantially according to the concentration of glucose.