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Name _________________KEY____________________ Date of final _______/________
Semester I Review sheet
Filtration, chromatography, distillation, evaporation, and decanting are PHYSICAL
separation methods.
1. Which of the above methods would you select to separate:
a. The sand from a sand and water mixture
evaporation, decantation or filtration_
b. The salt from a mixture of salt and water
___evaporation___
c. The dyes from a mixture of dyes in ink?
_chromatography_
d. The H2 and the O2 from a sample of H2O?
_none of the above_
2. What types of matter are classified as pure substances? Elements & compounds
3. Are pure substances homogeneous?
4. What is a solution?
5. Are solutions homogeneous?
_____Yes_________
_homogeneous mixture_
_______Yes________
6. What type of matter does not have uniform properties throughout?
Heterogeneous mixtures
7. Draw the flow map to show how we classify matter.
Use the following options to identify the samples described in questions 7-14.
A. Element
C. Compound
B. Homogeneous mixture
D. Heterogeneous mixture
8. Sample is a liquid.
____B____
Sample appears uniform throughout.
Sample can be separated into simpler components using distillation.
9. Sample has uniform composition.
____C____
The compositions of all samples of this matter are identical.
Sample contains more than one type of atom.
10.
Sample is homogeneous.
____B____
Different samples of this type of matter can vary in their composition.
11.
Sample is homogeneous.
____A____
Sample cannot be broken into simpler components using either chemical or physical
methods
12.
Sample may be separated into simpler components using filtration.
____D____
Some portions of the sample are liquid but other portions are solid.
13.
Sample has uniform composition.
____C____
Sample has definite composition.
Sample can be separated into simpler components only by chemical reaction.
14.
Sample has uniform composition.
___B____
Sample has variable, NOT definite composition.
Sample can be separated into simpler components using chromatography.
15.
Sample is homogeneous.
____B____
Sample contains more than one type of atom but they are not bonded to each other.
16.
Mark an X in the column(s) that satisfy the description.
You may select more than one.
Description
Solid
Capable of flowing
Liquid
Gas
X
X
Compressible
X
Greatest distance between
particles
X
Most orderly particle arrangement
X
Slowest Particle Motion
X
Fixed volume
X
X
Highest energy
X
Occupies the volume of the
container
X
Most rapid particle motion
X
17.
Determine if the following changes are physical changes or chemical
changes. Mark an X in the appropriate column.
Change
Physical Change
Chemical Change
Water Boils
X
Iron rusts
X
Sodium Chloride dissolves in water
X
Wax melts
X
Wood Burns
X
Methane gas combusts
X
Dry ice sublimes
X
CaS is formed from Ca and S
X
Magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid
X
18.
Extensive property
Intensive property
Definition
A property that is proportional to the
amount of sample present.
A physical property that does NOT
depend on the amount of sample
present.
Mass, volume, shape/size.
Density, odor, luster, malleability,
conductivity, color, reactivity,
hardness.
Examples
19.
Determine if the following properties are Extensive or Intensive. Mark an
X in the appropriate column.
Property
Extensive Property
Intensive Property
Color
Mass
X
X
Density
Volume
20.
X
X
Conductivity
X
Malleability
X
Reactivity
X
What information does the atomic number of an element provide?
The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element. If it
is an atom (not an ion), it is also the number of electrons.
21.
What does it mean to say that two or more atoms are isotopes of each other?
They are the same element (same number of protons), but have a different mass number
due to a change in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.
22.
What do magnesium-24 and magnesium-25 have in common? How are these
isotopes different?
Same number of protons
A different mass number due to a different number of neutrons.
23.
Do all chlorine atoms weigh 35.453 amus?
_____No_____
Explain.
35.453 is the weighted average of all of the isotopes of chlorine. Some isotopes are more
abundant than others.
24.
What information does the atomic mass provide?
The weighted average of all of the isotopes of the element.
25.
An element has three isotopes. Given the abundances and relative masses,
calculate the average atomic mass and determine (from the periodic table) which element
it is.
1. Convert % to decimal by moving the decimal point 2 places to the left.
2. Multiply by the amu.
3. Add the products.
0.005%
234.0409 amu
234.0409 X .00005 = 0.01170205
0.720%
235.0439 amu
235.0439 X .00720 = 1.692316
99.275%
238.0508 amu
238.0508 X .99275 = 236.3250
+ ___________
Atomic mass: ____238.0290 amu_____
Element: _______Uranium_________
26.
Copper has 2 isotopes: Copper-63 (62.93 amu) and Copper-65 (64.927 amu).
Their abundances are 69.17% and 30.83%, respectively. Calculate the average atomic
mass for Copper.
**Same instructions as #24
.6917 X 62.93 = 43.53
.3083 X 64.927 = 20.017
43.53 + 20.017 = 63.55 amu
27.
Why is sodium placed before magnesium on the periodic table?
The periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number (number of protons).
Sodium has 11 protons and Magnesium has 12 protons.
28.
Why is Tellurium placed before Iodine on the periodic table?
The periodic table is arranged by increasing atomic number (number of protons).
Tellurium has 52 protons and Iodine has 53 protons.
29.
Why do all of the elements in group 17 have similar chemical properties?
They have the same number of valence electrons.
30.
How many valence electrons are in a Halogen? How do get the number?
7. From the group number.
31.
What charge will an Alkali metal have when it forms an ion? Why?
1+ because it loses one valence electron.
32.
Does a member of the Nitrogen family form a negative ion or a positive ion? What
charge will the ion have? What do we call this ion?
Negative
3Anion
33.
Does an alkali Earth metal gain or lose electrons when it forms an ion? What
charge will the ion have? What do we call this ion?
Lose
2+
Cation
34.
a.
Element Q is in the Boron family.
Draw the dot structure of an atom of Q.
Q
b. Draw the dot structure of an ion of Q.
Q3+
35.
Element X is an Alkaline Earth metal
a. Draw the dot structure of an atom of X.
X
b. Draw the dot structure of an ion of X.
X2+
36.
How many valence electrons do transition metals have?
_2__
37.
Name the two series that make up the Inner Transition Metals.
_____lanthanide_______ and _____actinide______
38.
These are Dalton’s Postulate regarding the nature of the atom:
1. All matter consists of indivisible particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of the same element have the same shape and mass.
3. Atoms cannot be created or destroyed.
4. Atoms of different elements may combine with each other in fixed, simple, whole
number ratios to form compound atoms.
Which of these postulates are consistent with the modern concept of the atom?
3&4
For those that are no longer considered true, explain WHY they are no longer considered to be
true.
1: Atoms are not indivisible, they are made up of smaller subatomic particles.
2: Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different masses.
39.
The atom hasn’t changed over time, but our understanding of it has. Sequence the
descriptions of the atom below in the order that best represents the order of increasing
understanding.
a.
b.
c.
d.
II, IV, I, III
II, I, IV, III
III, I, IV, II
IV, II, III, I
40.
What were the two major conclusions drawn from Rutherford’s Gold Foil
experiment?
1. The nucleus is small, dense and positively charged.
2. Most of an atom’s volume is empty space.
41.
What was JJ Thomson’s contribution to chemistry and what was his model?
Plum Pudding Model
Electrons were negative particles (plums) stuck in the positive ‘pudding’.
42.
What was Chadwick’s contribution to chemistry and what was his model?
Discovered the neutron, located in the nucleus with the proton.
43.
Identify the properties below as being more typical of Metals or NonMetals. Mark an X in the appropriate column.
Property
Ductility
Relatively few valence electrons
Metal
X
X
X
Hold valence electrons tightly
X
Gain electrons when forming ions
X
Brittle
Form bonds with others of their kind due to a delocalized
“Sea of Electrons”
X
X
Non-conductors of electricity
Form positive ions
Heat conductors
Malleable
Lustrous
May have an electron configuration that ends in a
“d” sublevel
Form bonds with others of their kind by sharing electron
pairs
Non-metal
X
X
X
X
X
X
44.
If electronegativity values are not available, how do decide if a compound will bond
ionically or covalently?
Placement on the periodic table.
45.
What causes the bond between two metals?
Attraction of cations to the sea of delocalized electrons.
46.
Determine if the statements listed in the table below are referring to ionic
or molecular substances. Mark and X in the appropriate column.
Ionic
Molecular
Statement
Substance
Substance
Electrons are shared
Electrons are transferred
X
X
Made up of atoms
X
Conduct electricity when melted or dissolved
X
Made up of ions
X
High melting points
X
Contain only non-metals
X
Low boiling point
X
Hard but brittle
X
Most are solids at room temperature
X
Representative particle is the molecule.
Representative particle is the formula unit.
47.
a.
X
X
An element Q, forms the following compounds: QCl2, QO, and Q3N2.
Is Q a metal or a non-metal?
____metal______
b. To which family does Q belong?
___alkaline earth_
c. How many valence electrons are in an atom of Q
_______2_______
d. What is the charge on the ion that Q forms?
______2+_______
e. Will Q’s last electron be placed in an s, p, or d sublevel? _____s_______
f. Draw the dot structure of an atom of Q.
Q
48.
a.
An element X, forms the following compounds: K3X and Sr3X2.
Is X a metal or a non-metal?
___non-metal____
b. To which family does X belong?
___Nitrogen_______
c. How many valence electrons are in an atom of X
_______5_______
d. What is the charge on the ion that X forms?
_____3-_________
e. Will X’s last electron be placed in an s, p, or d sublevel? ______p______
f. Draw the dot structure of an ion of X.
X3-
49.
Using dots and arrows show how a compound forms between Calcium and
Chlorine.
Ca
Cl
Cl
When this process occurs,
a. Which atoms give up electrons?
____Ca____
b. Which atom gain electrons
____Cl_____
c. What is the formula for the compound that forms
__CaCl2____
d. What charge is on the calcium ions in the compound that forms?
___2+_____
e. What charge is on the chloride ions formed? ___1-_____
f. What charge does the compound have? ____0_____
g. How many total ions are in one formula unit of the compounds? ____3_____
50.
What is the name given to the electrons in the highest occupied energy
level of an atom?
a. orbital electrons
c. anions
b. valence electrons
d. cations
51.
What is the charge on the strontium ion? How do we find it?
Based on Strontium’s location on the periodic table, it is a metal with 2 valence
electrons. When it loses those 2 valence electrons it will have a 2+ charge.
52.
a. 0
What is the charge on the cation in the ionic compound sodium sulfide?
c. 2+
b. 1+
d. 3+
53.
Which of the following occurs in an ionic bond?
a. Oppositely charged ions attract.
b. Two atoms share two electrons.
c. Two atoms share more than two electrons.
d. Like-charged ions attract.
54.
What is the net charge of the ionic compound calcium fluoride?
a. 2–
c. 0
b. 1–
d. 1+
55.
How many valence electrons are transferred from the nitrogen atom to
potassium in the formation of the compound potassium nitride?
a. 0
c. 2
b. 1
d. 3
56.
How many valence electrons are transferred from the calcium atom to
iodine in the formation of the compound calcium iodide?
a. 0
c. 2
b. 1
57.
d. 3
Which of the following is a molecular formula?
a. MgS
b. PCl5
c. Cr2O3
d. AgBr
58.
In the tables below, identify the type of compound as follows:
M = molecular compound
BS = binary salt
TS = ternary salt
Substance Name
Type of Substance
Formula
Carbon monoxide
M
CO
Potassium oxide
BS
Dicarbon pentahydride
M
C2H5
Sodium bicarbonate
TS
Na1+ HCO31- NaHCO3
Copper II bromide
BS
Cu2+ Br- CuBr2
Lithium acetate
TS
Li1+ C2H3O2 LiC2H3O2
Ammonium sulfite
TS
Strontium nitrite
TS
Sr2+ NO2-
Iron III arsenate
TS
Fe3+ AsO43-
K1+ O2-
NH41+ SO32-
K 2O
(NH4)2SO3
Sr(NO2)2
Fe(AsO4)
Substance Formula
Type of Substance
Name
N2O2
M
Dinitrogen dioxide
(NH4)3N
BS
Ammonium nitride
PbF3
BS
Lead III fluoride
Mn(ClO)2
TS
Manganese II hypochlorite
C2N
M
Dicarbon mononitride
Ca(CN)2
TS
Calcium cyanide
CuCl
BS
Copper I chloride
Ni2S
BS
Nickel I sulfide
BaF2
BS
Barium fluoride
N2O5
M
Dinitrogen pentaoxide
59.
Draw the molecular Lewis dot structure for the following compounds and
determine the shape of the molecule.
Compound
Dot Structure
F
F
B
BF3
Shape name
Trigonal
planar
F
Tetrahedral
H
CH4
H
C
H
H
Bent
H2S
H
S
H
Trigonal
pyramidal
H
NH3
N
H
60.
H
Fill in the table below
Noble Gas
Element or Ion of
element
Electron Configuration
P
1s22s22p63s23p3
[Ne] 3s23p3
B
1s22s22p1
[He] 2s22p1
Cl
1s22s22p63s23p5
[Ne] 3s23p5
S2-
1s22s22p63s23p6
[Ne] 3s23p6
K+
1s22s22p63s23p64s1
[Ar] 4s1
Configuration
61.
Calculate the wavelength of light (in meters) that has a frequency of 6.19 X 1014
-1
sec .
C=f
62.
3.0 X 108 m/s =  x 6.19 X 1014 sec-1
What is the energy, in Joules, of a photon that has a frequency of 4.23 X 1014 Hz?
E = hf
63.
64.
 = 4.85 X 10-7 m
6.626 X 10-34 x 4.23 X 1014
E= 2.80 X 10-19 J
Calculate the energy of a photon of light if the wavelength is 4.25 X 10-7m.
C=f
3.0 X 108 = 4.25 X 10-7 x f
f= 7.06 X 1014 Hz
E= hf
E = 6.626 X 10-34 X 7.06 X 1014
E = 4.68 X 10-19 J
Is the energy of light directly or inversely proportional to frequency?
Directly
65.
Is the energy of light directly or inversely proportional to wavelength?
Inversely
66.
Is the frequency of light directly or inversely proportional to its wavelength?
Inversely
67.
An atom has the following electron configuration: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
a. What element is this? _____Sulfur_________
b. How many valence electrons are in this atom? ____________6__________
c. How many unpaired electrons are in this atom? ____________2__________
d. What is the electron configuration of the ion of this atom? ___1s22s22p63s23p6_____
68.
Which is more important when determining the periodic trends that occur when
comparing elements in the same group or family, addition of energy levels (shielding) or
nuclear charge? Why?
The addition of energy levels (shielding). This increases the atomic radius and weakens
that attraction between the nucleus and valence electrons.
69.
Which is more important when determining the periodic trends that occur when
comparing element in the same period, addition of energy levels (shielding) or nuclear
charge? Why?
The nuclear charge determines the trends across a period. As you go across, additional
protons in the nucleus increase the ‘power’ of the nucleus to attract the valence electrons
and also decreases the size of the atom.
70.
As you go down group 2, do the following properties increase, or decrease?
a. Atomic radius
_______I________
b. Electronegativity
_______D________
c. Ionization energy
_______D________
d. Metallic character
________I_______
e. Non-metallic character
________D_______
71.
As you go across period 3, do the following properties increase, or decrease?
a. Atomic radius
______D________
b. Electronegativity
______I________
c. Ionization energy
______I________
d. Metallic character
______D________
e. Non-metallic character
______I________
72.
Record these measurements to the correct number of significant figures.
**What you can read from the LINES on the instrument, plus one more place
as an estimate!!
21.6OC
4.50 cm
20.38 mL
46 mL
73.
Perform the following operations. Record your answers to the correct number of
significant figures.
3.001 + 8.6
____11.6_______
0.0010 - 3.0000___-2.9990______
324.1 + 1.032 ___325.1______
62000. + 3200. __65200._______
3240 - 0.379
___3240_______
3496  2.1
____1700_______
3.1  500
____0.006______
6.1  7.81
0.002 X 44
2.2 X 5.00
_____.78_________
______0.09_______
______11________
74.
These numbers are in scientific notation. Put them in standard notation. Think
carefully about when to place a decimal point at the end of a number.
_____.300______
_____20.1_______
3.00 X 10-1
2.01 X 101
______.0001____
1 X 10-4
_____60000_2SF_
6.0 X 104
______875______
8.75 X 102
___830.001_____
8.30001 X 102
_____770_______
7.7 X 102
____.00045_____
4.5 X 10-4
_____.006401___
6.401 X 10-3
____7050_______
7.05 X 103
75.
These numbers are in standard notation. Put them in scientific notation. Think
carefully about when to place a decimal point at the end of a number.
0.000 000 000 154 __1.54 X 10-10__
0.00418 ____4.18 X 10-3_____
3.0800____3.0800 X 100____
709 __7.09 X 102_____
91,600 ____9.16 X 104___
0.00003005 ___3.005 X 10-5___
250. ___2.50 X 102______
780,000,000 ___7.8 X 108_____
Convert the following:
76.
7.9 X 103g = ________ g
7.9 X 103 g / 1 g__
/ 106g
77.
How many meters are in 67 dam?
67 dam
/
/
78.
= 7.9 X 10-3 g
101 m
1 dam
= 6.7 X 102 m
2,470 kL = _________ L
2470 kL / 103 L = 2.47 X 106 L
/ 1 kL
79.
Convert 7.45 X 10-3dsec to Msec
7.45 X 10-3 dsec / 1 sec / 1 Msec = 7.45 X 10-10 Msec
/ 101 dsec / 106 sec
80.
Three students made multiple massings of a copper cylinder, each using a different
balance. The correct mass of the cylinder is 68.32 g.
Mass of Cylinder (g)
Sarah
John
Luke
Massing 1
68.10
68.45
68.95
Massing 2
68.94
68.39
68.91
Massing 3
67.83
68.42
68.89
Massing 4
68.47
68.41
68.93
Describe the representation of the accuracy and precision of the data collected by the
three students
Sarah: Not Accurate, Not Precise (Measurements are all over the place.)
John: Is Accurate, Is Precise (Very close to each other, and to the true amount.)
Luke: Is Precise, Not Accurate (Not close to true amount, but are close to each other.)
81.
Three different people weighed these blocks on the same balance and they each
obtained a measurement of 7.98 g. The mass of the blocks was 5.00 g. Describe the
representation of the accuracy and precision of the data collected by the three students
The measurements are precise because they are all the same. The measurements are not
accurate, because they are not close to the actual value.
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