Chapter 1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. Studies involving communication between infants and caregivers have reliably demonstrated which of the following? a. Without sufficient interaction, infants will likely develop severe mental illness later in life. b. Human interaction, specifically touch, is critical for development and health. c. Infants’ language acquisition occurs whether or not their caregivers communicate with them. d. Only a child’s biological parents are able to influence his or her social development. 2. a. b. c. d. Which of the following best defines stigma? an individual who is incapable of taking on the perspectives of another person communication that occurs in the context of marginalized or overlooked populations a characteristic that discredits a person because he or she is seen as abnormal or undesirable a pattern of interaction in which one person perpetually criticizes or condemns others because of characteristics that are out of their immediate control 3. According to the text, which of the following characteristics is NOT typically associated with some type of social stigma? a. being homeless b. being alcoholic c. having HIV d. having cancer 4. a. b. c. d. According to research, what is the most powerful predictor of happiness in life? physical attractiveness income health marital happiness 5. As defined in the textbook, communication can help us grow spiritually in all of the following areas EXCEPT a. developing a sense of our values. b. articulating morals (beliefs about right and wrong). c. discouraging the spirituality of others. d. finding a meaning for life. 6. Which of the following would be considered an instrumental need that can be met through communication? a. developing a romantic relationship with someone you find attractive b. convincing your roommate to turn off her music by midnight each night c. talking with your grandfather on the telephone after not speaking with him for a while d. making small talk with a stranger you just met at a party Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 7. a. b. c. d. Which term is used for anything that interferes with the accurate decoding of a message? channel noise feedback context 8. a. b. c. d. Which type of noise is associated with distractions that result from a loud environment? physical noise psychological noise physiological noise psychic noise 9. Which of the following is an example of feedback that someone might provide in response to a message? a. nodding to show that he is paying attention to and understanding the message b. looking at her watch anxiously as someone else is talking c. rolling his eyes or sighing in the middle of someone’s comments d. Each of these is an example of feedback. 10. Communication context includes all of the following EXCEPT a. the number of people who might overhear the conversation. b. the emotional climate of the situation. c. the connotation of the message. d. the location in which communication occurs. 11. Which model considers both people in a conversation to be senders and receivers simultaneously? a. action b. transaction c. interaction d. encoding 12. To say that words are symbols accurately reflects which of the following ideas? a. People give communication its meaning. b. Words are representations of ideas. c. Words can have different meanings for different people. d. All the answers are correct. 13. Which of the following is an example of a channel-rich communication context? a. writing a letter to someone b. interacting in an online chat room c. using text messaging on a cell phone d. chatting with friends at a party Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 14. When your roommate says “We’re out of detergent again” and you take that as a criticism, you are paying attention to which aspect of the message? a. context dimension b. relational dimension c. representative dimension d. content dimension 15. When people engage in communication about their communication, they are engaging in a process called a. perceptual identity checking. b. communication assurance. c. metacommunication. d. understanding maximization. 16. A sign in the library that reads “No Talking Allowed” would constitute an example of what? a. perceptual filter b. relational dimension c. explicit rule d. unintentional communication 17. In the United States, most people understand that they are expected to form a line and wait for their turn. That is an example of which type of rule? a. a culture-bound rule b. an explicit rule c. an implicit rule d. an orderly rule 18. The fact that some people lie in order to take advantage of others refutes which of the following myths of communication? a. More communication is better. b. Communication is inherently good. c. Communication can break down. d. Communication can be used to solve any problem. 19. According to the text, which of the following is NOT a necessary characteristic of interpersonal communication? a. It defines relationships. b. It happens over time. c. It relates to intimate information. d. It occurs between people. 20. Which aspect of communication relates to how well a message meets its goals? a. effectiveness b. clarity c. appropriateness d. ethics Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 21. Different cultures have different standards that define competent communication. This cultural variation speaks to which element of communication competence? a. effectiveness b. sensitivity c. appropriateness d. responsibility 22. Researchers use which term to describe how aware people are of their own behaviors? a. cognitive complexity b. self-monitoring c. adaptability d. self-disclosure 23. The ability to take another person’s perspective, and to think and feel as that person does, is called what? a. ethics b. sympathy c. empathy d. self-awareness 24. Imagine that you have just called a friend, but your friend didn’t take the call and it went to voicemail. At first, you assume your friend was simply away from the phone or busy, but you start to wonder if he might be angry with you or ignoring you. This exercise is an example of what? a. self-monitoring b. cognitive complexity c. communication competence d. interpersonal communication 25. A sense of morality and the judgment of right and wrong are known as a. competence. b. sincerity. c. cognitive complexity. d. ethics. True/False Questions 26. Human interaction is critical for the health of both infants and adults. 27. Instrumental needs are the least important needs served by communication. 28. In the communication process, noise can be either physical or psychological. 29. Context and feedback are aspects of the action model of communication. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 30. The concept of perceptual filters states that everyone will derive the same meaning from any given message. 31. Words have inherent meanings. 32. Metacommunication occurs when individuals discuss the meaning or subtext of their messages. 33. Most people in the United States believe they are above-average communicators. 34. Lack of effective communication is the most commonly cited reason for relationship failure. 35. Competent communication must be both effective and appropriate. 36. Having empathy means feeling sorry for someone else. 37. Ethical communication generally involves treating people fairly, communicating honestly, and avoiding immoral behavior. 38. Research shows that biology plays almost no role in how we communicate. Chapter 2 Multiple-Choice Questions 1. According to the textbook, all of the following are among the defining elements of culture EXCEPT a. values. b. symbols. c. language. d. ethnicity. 2. The process by which cultural traditions are passed from one generation to the next is known as what? a. enculturation b. cultural adaption c. cultural transmission d. acculturation Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 3. Which concept of culture includes judgments about how good, desirable, or beautiful something is? a. symbols b. values c. norms d. language 4. A group of students who attend the same high school and all belong to the school’s computer club would be an example of what? a. cultural norming b. enculturation c. a co-culture d. cultural adaptation 5. a. b. c. d. Which of the following is true in highly collectivistic cultures? People are expected to look out for themselves. People take an indirect approach to handling conflict. Children are taught that they are special and unique. Individual achievement is more important than group harmony. 6. a. b. c. d. In a low-context culture, people are taught to speak in an ambiguous manner. avoid offending people. criticize others only in private. share personal opinions. 7. a. b. c. d. Which of the following statements is NOT true about high-context cultures? Maintaining harmony is important. Offering personal opinions is valued. Offenses are to be avoided. Environmental cues are important for understanding messages. 8. a. b. c. d. The idea that “all people are created equal” would be characteristic of which type of culture? high-power-distance culture high-context culture low-power-distance culture low-context culture 9. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the attitude of someone from a low-power-distance culture? a. It is necessary to look for the deeper meaning in someone else’s statements. b. It is unacceptable to question a boss, especially in front of co-workers. c. It is acceptable to engage in aggressive behavior to achieve personal success. d. It is a person’s individual right to question authority. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 10. Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding feminine cultures? a. Feminine cultures value nurturance. b. Feminine cultures emphasize achievement. c. Feminine cultures value quality of life. d. Feminine cultures do not strongly differentiate between male and female roles. 11. Idioms and gestures are examples of a. communication codes. b. cultural truisms. c. cultural speech development. d. communication power-distance. 12. A verbal phrase whose meaning is purely figurative, such as “shake a leg” or “kick the bucket,” is called what? a. oxymoron b. idiom c. pun d. idiosyncrasy 13. Which of the following would be considered very specific communication codes, such as those used by doctors and dentists? a. idiomatic expressions b. specialized codes c. jargon d. clichés 14. Which gender role combines aspects of masculinity and femininity? a. bisexuality b. Turner’s Syndrome c. androgyny d. asexuality 15. Which of the following do NOT factor into determining an individual’s biological sex? a. psychological differences b. genetic differences c. anatomical differences d. social differences Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 16. Which sexual orientation refers to a lack of interest in sexual relationships? a. asexuality b. heterosexuality c. celibacy d. bisexuality 17. Some researchers believe women and men grow up in different speech communities. According to that idea, men are taught to do ________ and women are taught to do ________. a. intimate talk; expressive talk b. instrumental talk; expressive talk c. social talk; personal talk d. expressive talk; intimate talk 18. Which of the following is true regarding sex differences in verbal communication? a. Women are not more talkative than men. b. Women interrupt more than men do. c. Men use more disclaimers and hedges than women do. d. Women ask fewer questions than men do. 19. Which of the following linguistic patterns is associated with powerful speech? a. disclaimers b. hedges c. offering opinions d. asking questions 20. According to the distinctions between men’s and women’s linguistic styles, men are more likely to a. use modifiers to reflect the intensity of their statements. b. talk in shorter phrases. c. rely on the use of inclusive pronouns such as “we.” d. withhold opinions. 21. Among adults, which of the following is true about touch behavior? a. Women touch men more than men touch women. b. Opposite-sex touch is more common than same-sex touch. c. In same-sex pairs, men touch each other just as much as women do. d. None of these statements is true. 22. Which of the statements about touching behavior involving children is true? a. Among children, same-sex touching is more common than opposite-sex. b. Women are more likely than men to initiate touch with children. c. Boys and girls are equally likely to be touched. d. All of these statements are true. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 23. Which of the following is NOT an example of an affiliation behavior? a. head nods b. warm vocal tones c. talking in short phrases d. Each of these is an affiliation behavior. 24. With respect to sex differences in emotion, which of the following is true? a. Women are less likely to express positive emotions than men are. b. Men are more likely to express sadness and depression than women are. c. Women and men report experiencing the same amount of emotion. d. Men and women do not differ from each other in how they express jealousy. 25. Studies of affectionate communication have shown that a. highly feminine individuals are likely to express affection. b. highly masculine individuals are likely to express affection. c. both highly masculine and highly feminine individuals are likely to express affection. d. None of these statements is true. True/False Questions 26. Culture consists of the shared symbols, language, values, and norms that distinguish one group of people from another. 27. English is the most commonly spoken language in the world. 28. People from different cultures sometimes experience difficulty in understanding one another because they think differently. 29. “I gotta be me” might be the motto in a collectivistic culture. 30. In a low-context culture, people are expected to be direct and say what they mean. 31. In a low-power-distance culture, people are expected to choose friends or mates from within their own social class. 32. The use of idioms is primarily a North American behavior. 33. Biological sex is genetically determined, whereas gender roles are socially constructed. 34. Transsexual individuals are always born with one or more chromosomal abnormality. 35. On average, men express more opinions than women do. 36. Research suggests that women are more likely than men to use self-references, such as “me” and “I.” Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education. 37. Men are more likely than women to initiate touch with other adults, but women are more likely than men to initiate touch with children. 38. Most research has shown that femininity is positively related to affectionate communication, whereas masculinity is negatively related to it. Copyright © 2017 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.