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Choice based continuous assessment and grading pattern
Credit pattern of B.Sc. Hons. in Sugar Technology
Duration: 2 Semesters, Total Credit: 40
Credit offered per Semester:
Normal Pace -20, Accelerated Pace – 26, Slow Pace – 12, Add on facility – 28 (26+2*)
Paper
per
Sem
Credits
L:T:P
Credit
/ Sem.
Class
/week
(hrs)
Hard Core
2
4+4=8
Soft Core
2
3+3=6
Electives
from
Same
Discipline
Open
Elective
Add on
Elective*
/Self Study
Practical
1
2
2+2+0
2+2+0
2+1+0
2+1+0
1+1+0
4
4
3
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
100
100
75
75
25
25
25
15
15
05
25
25
15
15
05
50
50
30
30
15
1
2
1+1+0
1
1
25
05
05
15
1
2
0+0+1
1
1
25
05
05
15
2
2+2=4
0+0+2
0+0+2
0+1+3
8+8
0
50
50
50
10
10
10
10
30
30
50
Factory
Training /
Term
work
4
Tutorial Marks
/week
(hrs)
0
Marks for
continuous
assessment
I
II III
1
Credit pattern of M.Sc. in Sugar Technology
Duration: 2 Semesters, Total Credit: 36
Credit offered per Semester:
Normal Pace -18, Accelerated Pace – 24, Slow Pace – 10, Add on facility – 26(24+2*)
Paper
per
Sem
Credits
L:T:P
Credit
/ Sem.
Class
/week
(hrs)
Hard Core
2
4+4=8
Soft Core
2
3+3=6
Electives
from
Same
Discipline
Open
Elective
Add on
Elective*
/Self Study
Practical
1
2
2+2+0
2+2+0
2+1+0
2+1+0
1+1+0
4
4
3
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
100
100
75
75
25
25
25
15
15
05
25
25
15
15
05
50
50
30
30
15
1
2
1+1+0
1
1
25
05
05
15
1
2
0+0+1
1
1
25
05
05
15
2
2+2=4
0+0+2
0+0+2
0+1+3
8+8
0
50
50
50
10
10
10
10
30
30
50
Factory
Training /
Term
work
4
Tutorial Marks
/week
(hrs)
0
Marks for
continuous
assessment
I
II III
2
List of Core Papers
1. Manufacture - I
6. Sugar Chemistry I
2. Manufacture - II
7. Sugar Chemistry II
3. Manufacture - III
8. Sugar Engineering –I
4. Manufacture – IV
9. Sugar Engineering –II
(Capacity)
10. Sugarcane Agriculture
5. Chemical Control
List of Soft Core Subjects
1. Sugar
Engineering
I
12. Chemical Engineering – II
(Mechanical Engineering)
2. Sugar
Engineering
11. Chemical Engineering – I
II
13. Chemical Engineering – III
14. Chemical Engineering – IV
(Electrical Engineering)
3. Sugar Engineering III
15. General Botany
4. Sugar Engineering IV
16. General Biochemistry I
5. Statistics
17. General Biochemistry II
6. Statistical Quality Control
18. Plant Biochemistry
7. Industrial Management
19. Industrial Biochemistry
8. Allied Sugar Manufacture
20. General
9. Coproducts of Sugar Industry
10. Cogeneration
Industry
in
Sugar
biochemistry
practical I
21. General
Biochemistry
practical II
3
Hardcore Papers
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY - I
Unit 1
Flow chart of sugar manufacture with introduction to different operations and general
working of the factory. Screening of juice – DSM screen, rotary screen, weighing and
measurement of juice & water. Mill sanitation – its importance, chemicals used. Juice
Heating - Primary and secondary heating, construction & working of tubular heater,
direct contact heater & plate heater, vapor line & dynamic juice heater, removal of
condensate and non-condensable gases, pressure & vacuum equalization, scaling of
tubes, cleaning & testing of heater.
Unit 2
Preparation of milk of lime using rotary lime slacker, types of classifiers, storage of lime
in tanks, pumping of milk of lime, Specification of burnt lime, storage of burnt lime.
Production of sulphur dioxide gas - combustion of sulphur, construction & working of
continuous sulphur burner/film type sulphur burner, scrubber/after burner, cooling
arrangement, air blower & compressor, automation of sulphur burner, specification of
sulphur, storage of sulphur.
Unit 3
Composition of cane juice, effect of heating, liming & sulphitation on different
constituents of cane juice, defecation & carbonation. Liming and sulphitation vessel –
different designs. Principle of subsidation, floc formation, flocculants, significance of pH
– temperature - retention time on reducing sugar, effect of cane quality on clarification,
importance of clarification.
Unit 4
Velocity of juice, importance of flash tank, utilisation of flash vapor, construction &
working of multi tray clarifier (Dorr) and short retention time clarifiers, preservation of
juice during shut down, clear juice heating and filtration of clear juice, cleaning &
maintenance, juice & mud with drawl arrangement. Importance of mud filtration,
preparation of mud, description and working of rotary vacuum filter, washing of cake,
creation of vacuum – baby condenser, vacuum pump, filtrate clarification system, mud
decanters
4
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY - II
Unit 1
Introduction to evaporation, factors affecting heat transfer, single effect evaporator,
rellieuxs’ principles, multiple effect evaporators - operation and working of quadruple
and quintuple effect evaporator, construction & working of rising and falling film
evaporators & plate type evaporator, insulation, automation of evaporator.
Unit 2
Effect of condensate on heat transfer, methods of condensate extraction, circulation of
condensate for heat recovery - flash pot. Effect of non condensable gases on heat
transfer, sources of non condensable gases, methods of removal, recovery of heat from
non condensable gases.
Scaling in evaporators - causes & effects, composition of scales, prevention of scale,
chemical and mechanical cleaning, tube replacement, hydraulic test, off-seasonal
maintenance work.
Unit 3
Entrainment - effect, causes, prevention & control - internal & external catchall.
Importance of vacuum, creation of vacuum, distribution of vacuum in evaporator bodies,
principle of condensation, types of condensers, construction & working of jet condenser,
materials of construction, water requirement, automation of condenser, air ejectors,
injection water pumps, construction & working of spray pond & cooling tower.
Unit 4
Vapor bleeding for juice heating and pan boiling, steam balance calculations of different
evaporator configurations, vapour recompressors (thermo & turbo), efficiency of
evaporators – dessin’s formula, steam economy measures adopted at various stations to
bring down steam % cane.
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY – III
Unit 1
Characteristics of syrup, sulphitation of syrup, construction & working of syrup sulphiter,
syrup clarification by phosflotation. Temperature and brix of treated syrup, reheating of
syrup – syrup concentrator. Clarification of sugar melt by different process.
Unit 2
Description of batch pan, continuous pan - design features and operation, advantages &
disadvantages of continuous pan. Vertical Continuous Pan – construction & working,
pan control instruments, automation of batch & continuous pans - advantages.
5
Unit 3
Classen’s theory of pan boiling, co-efficient of super saturation, crystal per cent in
massecuite, Technique of pan boiling, different methods of graining – shock seeding,
true-seeding, crystal growth, importance of circulation, natural circulation, forced
circulation, heat transfer mechanism, conglomeration, false grain formation, molasses
conditioner, factors affecting massecuite per cent cane.
Unit 4
Boiling schemes (4, 3 & 2), cobenze’s method of purity control - grain charge purity,
grain cut purity, control of massecuite purity, quantities of feed material required in tones
and volume, steam requirement for pan boiling, calculation of massecuite % for various
boiling schemes, exhaustion of molasses - factors affecting etc.
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY – IV
Unit 1
Crystallisation while cooling, air cooled & water cooled crystalliser, vertical crystalliser,
cooling and reheating of massecuites, transient heater, molasses exhaustion, saturation
temperature, mechanical details of crystalliser drive, receiving crystalliser, pumping of
massecuite.
Unit 2
Theory of centrifugals, gravity factor, types of centrifugals, description & operation of
continuous centrifugals, description of batch centrifugal with AC & DC drives, operation
of automatic batch centrifugals, single & double curing, washing of sugar, super heated
wash water system, molasses/syrup separator, drying of sugar in centrifugals.
Microprocessor-based controls, timing of different operations in a curing cycle,
regenerative braking, mesh arrangements, pugmill, magma mixer, molasses pumps,
weighing and storage final molasses.
Unit 3
Characteristics of sugar, construction and working of hopper drier, fluidized bed drier,
rotary drier, sieving of sugar -grader, bins, dust collectors, hazards due to sugar dust,
grading of sugar, sugar standards, specifications of raw sugar, white sugar and refined
sugar. Keeping quality of sugar, safety factor, specification of gunny bag, Sugar bins,
storage conditions in godown, construction of godown.
6
Unit 4
Manufacture of raw sugar in India, process of clarification & pan boiling, storage &
handling of raw sugar. Manufacture of refined sugar from raw sugar – clarification and
pan boiling, Manufacture of sugar cubes & granulated sugar, liquid sugar.
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY -V (CAPACITIES)
Selection of site for a sugar factory – economics of factory location, types of layout,
gravity & non-gravity plants, cane yard, cane area, electricity & water requirement.
Capacity of cane handling equipments, feeder table, cane carrier (width, length and
drive), preparatory devices, crushing capacity of mills, increase of capacity – due to
TRPF/GRPF, Zeroth mill. Power required for preparatory devices, cane carriers and
mills, mill drive (turbine, electric & hydraulic).
Unit 2 Boiler and Electrical:
Heating surface of boiler, rating of ID & FD fans, capacity of feed water pumps.
Capacity of boiler, turbines & alternators for cogeneration, power factor, energy
conservation measures (steam & electrical), steam and power balance of factory.
Unit 3 Clarification
Raw juice and maceration pump capacities, juice screening, juice & water weighing
scale. Juice heater–heating surface, calculation of diameter of steam / vapour pipe,
condensate pipe, non-condensable gas outlet pipe. Capacity of sulphitation tanks, sulphur
furnace, air compressor, blower, lime slacker, milk of lime pump, dorr clarifier, rotary
vacuum filter & vacuum pump.
Unit 4 Evaporator & Pan Boiling
Calculation of heating surface of multiple effect evaporator, calculation of specific
evaporation coefficient (Dessin), diameter of vapour inlet & outlet, capacity of
condenser, injection and spray pumps, mist cooling system, cooling water requirement,
condensate extraction pump, syrup sulphitation tank. Capacity of supply tanks, capacity
of pans by massecuite % cane & solid balance methods, S/V ratio, capacity of crystalliser,
centrifugals, molasses pumps, hopper, grader, sugar bins, auto-weighing system, final
molasses weighing scale & storage tanks, sugar godown.
7
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY -VI (Milling Control)
Unit 1Technical definitions:
Fundamental formulae for cane, added water, mixed juice and bagasse; calculation of
brix % bagasse, fibre % bagasse, fibre % cane, undiluted juice lost in bagasse % mixed
juice, undiluted juice lost in bagasse % fibre, added water % fibre, added water % mixed
juice, added water extracted in mixed juice % added water in cane.
Unit 2Methods of Control:
Concept of refractometric brix, true purity, differential and inferential methods, primary
extraction, secondary extraction using simple and compound imbibition schemes, ideal
extraction, mill extraction, brix curves, brix free cane water, lost juice per cent fibre,
reduced mill extraction (Deerr), Whole Reduced extraction (Mittal Formula), E R Q V,
Cane preparatory index – Aldrich / Rayner CSIR Australian Method; Methods of
comparison of milling efficiency of factories.
Unit 3 Inferential methods:
Calculation of bagasse per cent cane, mixed juice per cent cane, brix per cent cane,
undiluted juice per cent cane, undiluted juice in mixed juice per cent cane, added water
per cent cane and calculation of weight of cane.
Unit 4 Mathematical formula
Bagasse per unit cane, mixed juice per unit cane and added water per unit cane.
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY VII (Boiling House Control)
Unit 1
S J M Formula and its postulates, Winter’s formula, relation between S J M formula and
Winter - Carp’s formula; Difference between commercial sugar, standard granulated and
Equivalent Standard Granulated (E S G), Difference between E S G and Java Crystal,
calculation of E S G, calculation of clarification factor, actual molasses per cent
theoretical molasses and non-sugar in molasses per cent non sugar in mixed Juice.
Unit 2
Calculation of Boiling House Recovery, Basic Boiling House Recovery, Boiling House
Performance and Boiling House Recovery (E S G).
Comparison of boiling house efficiency of different factories, virtual Purity of waste
molasses, Reduced Boiling House Recovery (Deerr) and Reduced Boiling House
Recovery (Gundu Rao), Reduced overall Extraction.
Unit 3
Preparation of various balances viz, pol balance, brix balance, non sugar balance and
crystal balance; comments on various balances and known and unknown sugar losses.
8
Unit 4
Time Account: Capacity utilisation, crushing rate / 24 hours operation and crushing rate /
22 hours operation, Downtime analysis.
Hard core: GENERAL CHEMISTRY - I
Organic Chemistry
……
Unit I: Stereoisomerism
Conformational, geometrical and optical isomerism, enantiomers, diastereomers, racemic
modifications, racemisation and R/S configuration.
Unit II: Carbohydrates:
Monosaccharides; classification, properties, reactions, inter conversion (taking glucose as
example), cyclic structures of glucose and fructose, fischer's synthesis. Di &
oligosaccharides; classification, properties, structure of maltose, lactose, sucrose &
raffinose. Polysaccharides; classification, polysaccharides of sugarcane, structure and
properties of cellulose, starch and dextran.
Unit III: Sucrose
Physical & chemical properties (Oxidation, Hydrolysis, Alkaline degradation, thermal
degradation), uses of sucrose (food applications, feedstock for chemical synthesis,
fermentation feed stock, pharmaceutical applications), nutritional aspects.
Derivatives of Sucrose; ethers, esters, nitrogen containing compounds, sulphur containing
compounds, oxidation compounds from enzyme isomerization, polymeric intermediates.
Sugar Alcohols; occurrence, manufacture of sorbitol, mannitol & xylitol.
Unit IV: Coloring Matters in Sugar Manufacture
Nature of coloring matter present in sugarcane juice and their role in the development of
color in sugarhouse products. General nature, structure and synthesis of anthocyanidin
and anthocyanin taking cyanidin and cyanin as example. Relationship between
anthocyanidin and flavanol.
9
Hard core: General Chemistry II
Physical Chemistry
Unit I
Colligative Properties
Definition and examples vapor pressure, Raoults law, elevation of boiling point, elevation
in boiling point during pan boiling due to brix and hydrostatic head.
Diffusion, Diffusion through cane - Milling process. Osmosis; Reverse Osmosis.
Chemical kinetics
Order of a reaction, Mechanism of chemical reactions-Inversion of sucrose, Role of
inversion of sucrose in Sugar Industry, mutarotation of sugars.
Unit II
Crystallization
Laws of crystallization, kinetics of crystal growth; rate of growth, concentration,
temperature, stirring, mechanism of growth (diffusion, viscosity, colloids,
crystallographic considerations) impurities, dissolution & regrowth
Indexing of crystal faces, crystallographic zones, forms of sucrose crystals, physical
properties & internal structure, impurities in sucrose crystals.
Colloids
Properties, isoelectric point, zeta potential, colloids in cane juice, elimination of colloids
in clarification process.
Unit III
Adsorption
Physical adsorption, chemisorption, adsorption of coloring matter, use of active carbons
in refineries, regeneration of active carbons.
Ion Exchange Resins
Types, theory of ion exchange process, capacity of resins, different techniques of ion
exchange, regeneration of resins, applications in sugar industry.
Unit IV
Electrochemistry:
Conductance measurements, solubility product, precipitation reaction in clarification
process in sugar manufacture, relation of conductivity of sugar solutions to their ash
content, Cuitometer. EMF measurements; measurement of pH using hydrogen electrode,
colorimetric methods.
Corrosion
Manifestations of corrosion, types, theories, effect of pH, nature of metal and dissolved
oxygen on corrosion, corrosion inhibition by painting, phosphating and anodic-cathodic
protection, corrosion in sugar factory.
10
Soft Core: GENERAL BOTANY (2 credits)
Unit I
Plant cell structure and organization; functions of plant cell organelles, diversity,
characteristics and classification of plants. Plant reproduction; heredity and evolution;
elements of ecology and types of habitats.
Unit II
A generalized survey of the plant kingdom based mainly on study of similarities and
differences in their external features with examples from viruses, bacteria, protozoa,
algae, fungi, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Unit III
Anatomy of Sugarcane: The stem, leaves, root system & the flower.
Unit IV
History, taxonomy, distribution of cane, area of production, productivity in India, major
sugarcane producing countries, present position of sugarcane cultivation and sugar
production in India, fluctuations in sugarcane production.
Soft Core: GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY I (3 credits)
Unit I
Acidity and alkalinity: pH and pKa values and their effects on cellular activities; Buffers.
Unit II
Chemistry/structures of carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids.
Unit III
Chemistry of amino acids, proteins and their derivatives; methods of isolation and
identification.
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins.
Determination and biochemical applications of the structures of proteins.
Unit IV
Nomenclature of nucleosides and nucleotides.Effects of acid and alkali on hydrolysis of
nucleic acids. Structure of DNA and RNA; prokaryotic versus eucaryotic organisms.
11
Soft Core: GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY II (ENZYMOLOGY) (3 credits)
Unit I
Introduction to Enzymes: types, properties, classification and nomenclature,
Unit II
Structures and functions of vitamins and coenzymes; Inhibition mechanisms in enzymecatalyzed reactions. Effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors etc on enzyme-catalyzed
reactions. Michaelis-Menten equation.
Unit III
Allosteric/regulatory enzymes; Active sites of enzymes; Estimation of kinetic parameters
– enzyme activities, Vmax, Ki, etc.
Isolation, purification and characterization of
enzymes.
Unit IV
Brief study on Amylase, Dextran Sucrase and Dextranase.
Soft Core: PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY (3 credits)
Unit I
Organization of plant cells; Brief study on plant metabolites and their role
Unit II
The plant cell wall structure, formation and growth; Lignin formation; Free amino acids,
pyrimidines, purines and nucleosides in plants;
Unit III
Metabolism of auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins; synthetic growth regulators and
herbicides and herbicides; Structure – function relationship of plant hormones.
Unit IV
Photosynthesis in C3 and C4 Plants, synthesis of starch and Sucrose.
12
Soft Core: INDUSTRIAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3 Credits)
Unit I
Historical aspects; Scope of microbiology; General characteristics of micro-organisms,
growth and reproduction, sterilization and disinfection;
Unit II
Brief survey of microbes as friends and foes. Brief study on Lactic acid bacteria and
Leuconostoc mesenteroides and their significance in Sugar Industry.
Unit III
A review of general pathways, control and application of industrial processes;
Continuous culture methods; principles and applications; The chemostat and its
application in industrial fermentations – alcoholic, amino acids, antibiotics, and other
secondary metabolites.
Primary and secondary metabolism; Process evaluation and
development; over production of metabolites – amino acids, taste enhancers, vitamins,
toxins, etc;
Unit IV
Methods for screening and selecting micro-organisms and plants for the purpose of
overproduction; Strain selection / development and enhancement; Gene dosage and its
applications in industrial processes.
Soft core: Microbiology practical (3 credits)
1. Microscopy, preparation of glassware, media and sterilization
2. Preparation of culture media for bacteria
3. Pure culture of bacteria
4. Measurement of the size of bacterial cell
5. Motility of bacterial cell
6. Staining of microorganisms
7. Measurement of bacterial number in sugarcane juice
8. Demonstration of the production of extra cellular enzymes by bacteria
9. Microbial examination of water
10. Evaluation of antimicrobial chemical agents
13
Soft Core: General Biochemistry Practical I (3 credits)
1. Preparation of buffers
2. Paper chromatographic separation of sugars
3. Column chromatography of pigments
4. Two-dimensional paper chromatographic separation of sugars
5. Estimation of protein by Lowry’s method
6. Electrophoretic separation of proteins
7. Extraction of total lipids
Soft Core: General Biochemistry Practical II (Enzymology) (3 Credits)
1. Quantitative estimation of enzyme activity from Sugarcane juice
a) Amylase
c) Dextran sucrase
b) Invertase
2. Effect of

i)Enzyme Concn

iv) Temperature

ii)Substrate Concn

v) Metal ions

iii) pH
on amylase, invertase and Dextran sucrase activity.
Soft core: CHEMISTRY PRACTICAL
Organic Chemistry
1. Qualitative analysis of sugars (Mono and disaccharides).
2. Preparation of crystalline derivatives of sugars.
3. Preparation of acetanilide and glucose penta acetate.
4. Estimation of nitrogen (Kjeldahl’s methods).
Physical Chemistry
1. Determination of specific rate of inversion of sucrose in presence of mineral acids.
2. Measurement of viscosity of sugar solution, syrup and massecuite.
3. Conductivity measurement – Determination of ash in sugars and juices by
conductance methods.
4. Verification of absorption isotherm – Determination of efficacy of active carbon.
5. Colloids – Preparation of Fe(OH)3, As2O3 sols.
14
6. Determination of isoelectric point of colloids.
7. Determination of colloid content of cane juice.
8. Determination of calcium in lime stone by redox method.
9. Determination of total hardness of water by EDTA method.
10. Conductometric determination of total acidity & alkalinity of waste water.
Hard core: SUGARCANE AGRICULTURE I
Unit I
Soil & Climate:
Types of soils, properties of soil – Visual & morphological properties, analytical
properties, fertility & soil problems, sustaining fertility, soil conservation – practices,
optimum climatic conditions, sugarcane agro climatic zones in India.
Planting:
Preparatory tillage, planting time, selection of seed cane, methods of planting - flat,
ridges & furrows, trench, IISR 86206, ring, spaced trans planting & polybag seedling
transplanting method.
Unit II
Growth of Sugarcane:
Germination, development of shoot & root - factors affecting, tillering, growth of leaves,
internodes & stem, factors influencing cane growth, formation and storage of sugar in
cane.
Irrigation:
Water requirement, scheduling, method of irrigation – surface, overhead or sprinkler, drip
irrigation, water quality, water logging, drainage – side, main & infield drains.
Unit III
Manuring
Cane nutrition, functions of macro & micro (trace) nutrients, fertilizers – N, P, K, S, Ca
& Mg carriers, Mixed or compound fertilizers, biofertlizers, foliar applications,
fertigation, organic & green manuring, time & method of application, visual symptoms of
nutrient deficiencies and disorders.
Ripening
Methods of judging ripeness or maturity, factors affecting ripening, accelerating ripening,
chemical ripeners.
Unit IV
Harvesting
Manual & mechanical harvesting of cane, transportation of cane, post harvest
deterioration of sugarcane – causes, effect & losses, effect of extraneous matter
(tops/trash) on processing, burning of cane.
Ratooning
15
Historical background, nomenclature, definition, yield & quality, number of ratoons,
advantages and disadvantages, area and productivity, causes for low ratooning, tillering,
verities for good ratoons, removal of compaction, gap filling, fertilizer application, water
requirement.
SUGARCANE AGRICULTURE II
Unit I
Weeds
Common weeds, aquatic weeds, losses due to weeds, methods of weed control –
mechanical, manual, chemical (time, method & dosage), integrated weed management,
measures to reduce the weeds.
Unit II
Pests
Leaf eating & sucking insects, stalk attacking insects, root attacking insects, soil insects
& Non insect species.
Unit III
Diseases
Major diseases (red rot, smut, pineapple, mosaic, wilt etc), period of occurrence, control
measures (chemical & biological), losses due to pests & diseases, plant protection
measures.
Unit IV
Sugarcane breeding
Cane verities, development of new varieties and their propagation.
biotechnology – utility of tissue culture for sugarcane improvement.
Application of
Soft core paper 1 (Allied Sugar Manufacture)
Unit I
Manufacture of Beet Sugar
Introduction to beet sugar industry, agro-climate condition for cultivation of sugar beet;
distribution of sugar in beet, harvesting, transport, dirt removal, beet handling, fluming,
beet feeders, trash catchers, tail separators, beet washers, diffusion, clarification and other
processes.
16
Unit II
Manufacture of Raw Sugar
Specification of raw sugar, process of clarification, process of boiling and boiling
schemes, storage, transport of raw sugar, keeping quality.
Manufacture of Refined Sugar
Refining quality of raw sugar – evaluation, calculation of raw value.
Affination,
clarification, decolorisation, evaporation and pan boiling, centrifugation, sugar drying
and conditioning, packing, storing. Refined sugar products – cubes & tablets, granulated
sugar, liquid sugar.
Unit III
Manufacture of Speciality Sugars
Transformed sugar, cocrystallised sugar, fondant sugar, free flowing brown sugar, natural
sugar granules (molasses, honey), pharmaceu-tical sugars, gelling sugar, reduced calorie
sugar, fortified sugar, amorphous sugar, bura sugar & rock candy.
Unit IV
Manufacture of Khandasari Sugar
Juice extraction, clarification process, open pan boiling, crystallisation, centrifuging,
drying and storage, advantages & disadvantages of Khandasari sugar.
Manufacture of Jaggery
Juice extraction, clarification and boiling, moulding and packing, composition,
advantages & disadvantages of due to jaggery production.
Soft core Paper 2
CO-PRODUCTS OF SUGAR INDUSTRY
Unit 1
Bagasse
Composition of bagasse, fuel value, use of bagasse for - paper, fibreboard, particleboard,
medium density board, xylitol, furfural, ethanol, plastics production. Use as cattle feed,
agriculture mulch and for biocompost.
Unit 2
17
Filter Cake:
Characteristics of filter cake, use of filter cake as manure, for production of cane wax.
Unit 3
Molasses
Composition, alcoholic fermentation -manufacture of rectified spirit, denatured spirit and
absolute alcohol; Non alcoholic fermentation - manufacture of acetone and butanol, lactic
acid, citric acid, monosodium glutamate, bakers yeast and Cattle feed, disposal and
classification of molasses.
Unit 4
Cogeneration
Soft core Paper 3
SUGAR ENGINEERING -I
Unit I
Combustion of fuel
Chemical principles, air for combustion; calorific values of different fuels – bagasse,
firewood, coal, and furnace oil - special characteristics of bagasse combustion, fuel
economy, products of combustion, heat losses in flue gas.
Unit II
Boilers & furnace
Classification, boiler mountings and accessories, description and working of highpressure boilers, performance of boilers, equivalent evaporation, thermal efficiency of
boilers, heat transfer in boilers, safety precautions, Indian boiler regulations in brief.
Requirements in furnace design, control of furnace operations, types of furnaces Spreader Stroker, Pulsating Grate, Dumping Grate, Travelling Grate, furnace cleaning.
Natural and artificial draught - Induced draught, forced draught, balanced draught,
chimney, flue ducts. Description and working of super heaters, economisers, air preheater
and their contribution to heat recovery. Combustion control, three element water level
regulators, instruments used in furnaces, operation and control.
Unit III
Boiler feed water
Contamination, de-aerator, feed water specifications, importance of boiler feed water and
condensates and make up water.
Properties of steam
Formation of steam, total heat of water; dryness fraction, liquid heat; latent heat and
sensible heat; wet, dry saturated & superheated steam, use of steam tables
18
Entropy
Introduction, entropy of a substance, gases & steam. Isotropic process of steam, throttling
process, temperature – entropy diagram, isothermal and adiabatic line, enthalpy – entropy
diagram.
Unit IV
Steam turbines
Classification – description & working of backpressure, extraction, and condensing type
turbines.
Soft core paper 4
SUGAR ENGINEERING - II (Hrs: 60)
Unit 1
Cane Handling
Weighing equipments – calibration of weigh bridge, Cane handling equipments–grab,
sling & bar etc, feeder table, auxiliary carrier, cane carrier, kicker.
Preparatory index and its importance, description & working of preparatory devices–
knives, shredder, fibrizer - merits and demerits.
Unit 2
Cane Milling
Feeding of cane – inter-carrier, donnelly chute, auto cane carrier, pressure feeders,
construction & working of three-roller mill, hydraulic pressure system, pressure
regulators, grooving of roller, lotus rollers, trash plate, mill drives – steam turbine,
electric & hydraulic type – advantages & disadvantages. Types of mills; self - setting,
auto setting mills – comparison, calculation of mill settings. Automation of mills. Factors
affecting capacity & efficiency of milling, brix curves, re-absorption of juice in mills,
merits and demerits of crushing cane in mills, maceration and imbibition, sugar losses in
milling - mill sanitation.
Unit 3
Cane Diffusion
Extraction of juice from cane by diffusion, description & working of cane diffusers,
bagasse diffusion, dewatering, comparison of milling & diffusion. Sugar beet diffusion description & working of beet diffusers.
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Unit 4
Lubrication
Science of friction & lubrication, types of lubricants, properties of a good lubricant,
methods of lubrication, lubricators. Plain bearings, grooving, antifriction bearings. Gears
& their lubrication, types of gear tooth. Lubrication of mills, turbines, crystallizers,
centrifugals etc in a sugar factory.
Soft core paper 5
MANAGEMENT
(Topics may be discussed with relevance to sugar industry)
Unit I
Management Theory
Evolution of management – traditional management, scientific management, principles of
management, latest management theories, management functions.
Forms of Business Organisation
Introduction, definitions, Types of business organization – Private, Partnership, Joint
stock companies (Private & Public limited company), Cooperative societies, State
ownership, Public corporations – advantages, disadvantages & distinction.
Unit II
Administrative & Management Structure
Introduction, Board of directors – Managing director, Company secretary, General
Manager, Personnel Manager, Division of labour, Chain of command, delegation of
authority & responsibility, line - staff organisation, financial organisation.
Purchase & Sales Organisation
Functions, methods of purchasing, Store keeping - methods of storing, system of
location of materials, spare parts management, stock or inventory control -functions of
sales department.
Unit III
Personnel Department
Functions, recruitment procedure, training, discipline, motivation, safety, welfare,
personnel administration.
Production & Productivity
Definition, factors affecting productivity, improvement of productivity, product quality,
total quality management (TQM). Quality Circle program.
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Unit IV
Finance Management
Elements of cost – calculation of different costs, calculation of indirect expenses.
Depreciation – definition, obsolescence methods of calculating depreciations – interest on
capital, idleness, maintenance - equipment replacement policy, loss & profit, budgetary
control.
Industrial Acts
Factories act, acts governing electricity, boiler, industrial disputes, compensation, wages,
ESI & trade union (in brief).
Open elective paper
STATISTICS
(Elementary knowledge of subject is to be imparted with emphasis on solving numerical problems)
Unit I
Introduction
Importance of statistics, applications in finance, production, marketing, management &
economics, limitations of statistics.
Collection of Data
Classification, elements, variables & observations, methods of collection, data sources.
Unit II
Statistical Methods
Measures of central tendency (location): – definition, arithmetic average, mean, median,
mode percentiles & quartiles - exercises.
Measures of Dispersion (variability): - definition, range, mean deviation, standard
deviation - exercises.
Skewness, Moments & Kurtosis – definitions, measures of Skewness, exercises.
Correlation – definition, types, methods of studying - exercises.
Regression – definition, methods of studying - exercises.
Interpolation & Extrapolation – definition, significance, methods of interpolation exercises.
Unit III
Statistical Quality Control
Definition, types, advantages, sampling techniques, control charts - exercises.
Unit IV
Application to Sugar Industry
Sugar factory operation and control using cane & process data, types of reports –
Daily(DMR), monthly(RT 7C) & yearly(RT 8C) manufacturing report
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SUGAR TECHNOLOGY PRACTICAL – I
1. Preparation of Reagents for clarification, Basic lead Acetate, Alumina Cream,
Deleading Solution.
2. Determination of total soluble solids by –Refractometer, Brix Spindle.
3. Determination of pol and calculation of purities in juices, syrups, massecuites and
other boiling house products.
4. Determination of sucrose and calculation of Gravity purity in juice, syrups,
massecuite and other boiling house products by;
a) Double polarisation method
b) Jackson & Gillis method
5. Preparation of chemicals for reducing sugars determination.
6. Determination of reducing sugars in juices, syrups, massecuite, molasses etc., by
a) Eynon and Lane Method
b) Potassium –Ferricyanide Method
7. Determination and calculation of total sugars in various boiling house products.
8. Determination of sulphited ash in juices, syrups massecuites, molasses etc.
9. Preparation of indicator solutions and test papers for pH determination of –
a) Raw Juice (Methyl orange)
b) Sulphited Juice (BTB solution & Papers)
c) Water (phenolphthalein papers)
d) Syrup
10. Determination of pH of various cane sugar products by different methods;
SUGAR TECHNOLOGY PRACTICAL-II
1. Preparation of chemicals for CaO determination.
2. Determination of CaO in clear juice, syrups, molasses etc. by different methods:
a) EDTA method (Indicator required to be used for CaO + MgO & only for CaO
be clearly informed and one experiment determining MgO be carried out)
b) Ammonium Oxalate method
c) Soap method.
3. Preparation of chemicals for phosphate determination.
4. Determination of phosphate content in juices by;
a) Uranium Acetate method.
b) Ammonium Molybdate method.
5. Preparation of acid and alkali solutions of different strengths.
6. Determination of Alkalinity and acidity in juices etc.
7. Determination of SO2 content in juices and syrups.
8. Analysis of Sugarcane for –
a) Sugar %
b) Fibre % - both direct and indirect methods.
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SUGAR TECHNOLOGY PRACTICAL-III
1. Analysis of bagasse for moisture and pol %
2. Analysis of filter cake for moisture % and pol %
3. Preparation of solutions and determination of sugar traces in condensate water by –
a)  - naphthol Test
b) Concentration procedure.
4. Determination of Crystal % massecuite by a) Ash Method
b) Non Sugar Method
c) Laboratory Centrifuge
5. Determination of available sugar in cane, juices, syrups, massecuites & molasses.
6. Analysis of jaggery and calculation of net rendement.
7. Determination of turbidity in juices by turbidity meter.
8. Boiler Water analysis for its major constituents
9. Determination of Starch & Dextran in sugar house products.
10. Determination of size of crystal in–seed slurry and different massecuites.
11. Determination of the colour of the sugar & sugar houses products.
References:
Organic Chemistry
1. Organic Chemistry by R.T. Morrison & R.N. Boyd.
2. Organic Chemistry by Part I – I L Finar.
3. Principles of Sugar Technology - Volume I by P Honig.
4. An Introduction to carbohydrate chemistry – J.Haneymon and Guthrie
Organic Chemistry Practical
1. Vogel’s Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th edition. – B S Furniss, A J
Hannaford, P W G Smith, and A R Tatehell.
2. Semi micro Qualitative Analysis – Cheronis, Entrikin and Hodnet.
3. Introduction to Sugar Analysis – Mathur.
Physical Chemistry
1. Text book of Physical Chemistry by S Glasstone.
2. Chemical Kinetics by K.J.Laidler.
3. Electrochemistry by S.Glasstone.
4. Principles of Sugar Technology - Volume I by P. Honig.
Physical Chemistry Practical
1. Practical Physical Chemistry – A. Findlay.
1. Experimental Physical Chemistry – F. Danicls et al.
23
2. Experiments in Physical Chemistry – Sheemaker & Garland.
3. Experimental Physical Chemistry – R C Das and B Behera.
Mechanical Engineering
1. Hand Book of cane Sugar Engineering – E. Hugot.
2. Treatise of Heat Engineering – V P Vasandami & Kumar.
3. Heat Engineer and Thermodynamics – Dankondwar.
4. Engineering Materials & their Applications, R A Finn & P K Trojan
5. Elements of Mechanical Engineering, Roy & Choudhary
Electrical Engineering
1. Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering & Electronics – B L Theraja
2. Elements of Electrical Engineering & Electronics – B R Sharma
3. The Electric Engineering Handbook – R C Dorf
4. Principles of Electrical Engineering & Electronics – V K Mehta
5. Basic Electrical, Electronics & Computer Engineering – R Muthusubramanian
Chemical Control
1. System of Technical Control for Cane Sugar Factories in India – STAI
2. Cane Sugar Factory Control - Banerjee
3. Sugarcane Factory Analytical Control - Payne
4. ICUMSA Methods of Sugar Analysis – 21st Edition, 1994
Sugar Chemistry (Theory & Practical)
1. Cane-Sugar – Noel Deerr.
2. Sugarcane Production – J.R. Kakade.
3. Physical And Chemical Methods of Sugar Analysis by Brown and Zerban.
4. Introduction to Sugar Technology – Chen & Chou.
5. Hand Book of Cane Sugar Technology – Noel Deer
6. Hand and book of cane sugar technology – R.B.L. Mathur.
7. Vogel’s Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis
8. Environmental Chemistry – A K De.
9. Introduction to Sugar Analysis – Mathur
10. Hawk’s Physiological Chemistry – B L Oser.
Sugar Technology (Manufacture) & Sugar Engineering
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1. Principles of Sugar Technology Vol. I – III, Peter Honig
2. Cane Sugar Handbook by D P Kulkarni
3. Handbook of Cane Sugar Technology – R B L Mathur.
4. Cane Sugar Production – J.R. Kakade.
5. Cane sugar – Noel Deerr.
6. Introduction to cane sugar Technology – G H Jenkins.
7. Introduction to Sugar Technology – Spencer
8. Hand Book of Cane Sugar Engineering – E Hugot
Chemical Engineering
1. Chemical Engineering, Vol I-VI, Coulson & Richardson.
2. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering – Mcabe, Smith & Harriot
3. Principles of Unit Operations, A S Foust, L A Wenzel, CW Clump
4. Introduction to Chemical Engineering, Walter L Badger & Julius T Banchero
5. Unit operations of Chemical Engineering, P Chattopadhya
Agriculture:
1. Sugarcane production – J R Kakade.
2. Sugarcane cultivation and management – H.Bakker
3. Sugarcane in agriculture and Industry – Gururaj Hunsigi
4. Cane sugar management – S.Soloman et al
5. Sugarcane production technologt in India – R S Verma
Co-products
1. Cane sugar handbook – Chen & Chou
2. Sugar Industry by Products - J.K.Pataru.
3. By Products of Sugar – Payne.
4. By Products of Sugar Industry – Published by DSI, Pune.
5. Industrial Utilisation of Sugarcane & its Co-products, P J Manohar Rao
Instrumental Methods
1. Instrumental methods of chemical analysis, Chatwal & Anand - Himalaya Pub.
2. Principles of Instrumental Analysis, Skoog, Holler, Nieman - Thomson Asia
3. Analytical Chemistry, G.D Christian - John Wiley Pub
4. Instrumental methods of analysis, Willard – CBS Pub
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Statistics
1. Statistical Methods – S P Gupta.
2. Fundamentals of Mathematical statistics – Gupta & Kapur
3. Fundamentals of Statistics – D.N.Elhance
4. Statistics for Management – R I Levin & D S Rubin.
Management
1. Industrial Organisation & Engineering Economics – T R Banga & S C Sharma.
2. Industrial Organisation & Management, R K Sharma & S K Gupta
3. Management, J A F Stoner & R E Freeman
4. Industrial Engineering & Management Science T R Banga, N K Agarwal & S C
Sharma
5. Management Organisation, K K Ahuja
Biochemistry/Botany/Microbiology
1. Basic separation techniques in Biochemistry – R O Okotore
2. Plant Biochemistry – Dey Harborne
3. Text book of Biochemistry – West, Todd, Mason and Van Bruggen
4. Modern Experimental Biochemistry – Rodney Boyer
5. Fundamentals of Biochemistry – J L Jain
6. Instant notes, Biochemistry – Hames and Hooper
7. Biochemistry – Keshav Trehan
8. A text book of Biochemistry – A V S S Rama Rao
9. A text Book of Biochemistry – Dr. Dhaka
10. Microbiology – Pelczar, Chan and Krieg
11. Industrial Microbiology – Prescott and Dunn’s
12. Laboratory manual in Biochemistry – J Jayaraman
13. Laboratory manual in Microbiology – P Gunasekaran
14. An introduction to Practical biochemistry – Plummer
15. Biochemistry – Voet & Voet
16. Biochemistry – Lehninger
17. Biochemistry – Streyer
18. Text book of Botany volume I, II & III – Sunder Rajan
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