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BIOLOGY 263, FALL 2004
MIDTERM EXAMINATION
Name
Date:
Laboratory Practical Stations. Answer the questions at each station. (8%, 4% per station)
1. a.
2. Complete the activity as directed.
b.
Hypothesis Evaluation. Is there statistically significant support for each of the following
hypotheses? (6%, 2% each)
1. Hypothesis: The number of plant species will be greater in mowed areas than in unmowed areas in
eastern Colorado.
Data: Mean number of plant species per 1 meter quadrat in unmowed areas = 9.6, Mean number of
plant species per 1 meter quadrat in mowed areas = 9.8.
p-value = 0.0001
Circle one: Hypothesis Supported
Hypothesis NOT Supported
2. Hypothesis: Field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis, is more common empty lots than in lawns.
Data = Mean # of Convolvulus arvensis plants per m2 in lawn = 18.5, Mean # of Convolvulus
arvensis plants per m2 in empty lots = 25.2
p-value = 0.0592
Circle one: Hypothesis Supported
Hypothesis NOT Supported
3. Hypothesis = There are more bacterial species in uncompacted soil areas than compacted soil areas.
Data = Mean # of bacterial species per 1g soil from compacted area on 1 plate of TSA nutrient
medium = 10.4, Mean # of bacterial species per 1g soil from uncompacted area on 1 plate of TSA
nutrient medium = 12.1,
p-value = 0.0560
Circle one: Hypothesis Supported
Hypothesis NOT Supported
Definitions. Define each BIOLOGICAL term from THIS LABORATORY in an accurate,
concise, and lucid manner. (24%, 4% each)
1. Bacterial Colony:
2. Blade (of a leaf):
3. Electrophoresis Gel:
4. Negative Control Group:
5. Simple Leaf:
6. Taxonomic Key:
Data Manipulation, Data Analysis, & Experimental Design. Address each question in as concise
and lucid a manner as possible.
1. Given the following data from a small, reproductively isolated, constant-sized population,
a) calculate the allele and genotype frequencies for every time period. (8%)
b) Create a properly labeled graph of the allele frequency of one of the alleles (NOT both)
over time. (5%)
c) Propose a plausible population genetic/evolutionary explanation for what you see happening
(or not happening) to the allele frequency over time. (2%)
generations
0
5
10
15
20
individuals
BB
6
4
8
5
8
Bb
12
14
14
13
12
bb
6
6
2
6
4
2. Use the following four gels on which are shown X and x alleles (all individuals are from the
same population) to calculate the allele and genotype frequencies for the population. Then
determine if the population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (10%)
wells
x
X
3. Create a phylogenetic tree based on the followings set of data. Be certain to indicate derived
characteristics on the tree. (12%)
Tyranosaurus
Velociraptor
Diplodocus
Brachiosaurus
Alligator - OUTGROUP
neck
short
short
long
long
short
teeth
sharp
sharp
blunt
blunt
sharp
walks on
2 legs
2 legs
4 legs
4 legs
4 legs
legs
under body
under body
under body
under body
splayed
forelimbs
small
small
large
large
large
3. Use the data to construct the most appropriate graph to address the following hypothesis:
There will be greater plant species richness in mowed areas as compared to unmowed areas.
Also indicate if the data support or reject the hypothesis.
(12%)
The grid provided below is solely for convenience and is not meant to imply a particular kind of graph.
plant species richness
data from 5 quadrat
samples in each area
mowed
area
unmowed
area
9
4
8
5
4
8
11
9
12
10
4. Experimental Design. Use the back of this page to design a rigorous experiment to test the
hypothesis that epiphyllic (meaning leaf surface) bacterial species diversity is greater on white
oak (Quercus alba) leaves than on red maple (Acer rubra) leaves. (10%) Create a scientific title
for the laboratory research paper you would write for this experiment. (3%)
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