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Emotion
• Emotion – basic
components:
4Theories of Emotion
• James-Lange Theory
• Cannon-Bard Theory
• Two-Factor Theory
• Opponent-Process
Theory
James-Lange Theory
• Emotions are experienced in the
following sequence:
a)
b)
c)
an emotional stimulus is presented,
causing one to experience
• Different emotions have
physiological differences
• Examples:
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
• The emotional stimulus
triggers
both physiological change
and cognitive awareness
• Emotional stimulus is
simultaneously routed to
• Example:
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
AKA Schachter-Singer Theory
• Experience of emotion depends on two
factors:
Cognitive Label
“I’m Afraid”
• The label people give an emotion depends
on what they find in their environment.
• Arousal without a label is not an emotion
• Example:
Spill Over Effect
• Spill over effect- emotional arousal
from one event spills over into our
response of the next event
– Supports
– Example:
Theories of emotions
Opponent Process Theory
Richard Solomon
• Every emotion triggers an opposing
emotion
– Happiness/
–
/Relief
– Pleasure/
–
/Hate
• Emotions disrupt
…opposing
emotion enables a return to homeostasis
• Example:
Theories of Emotion Practice
• Paul encounters a growling wild animal, and
feels a faster heartbeat, widening eyes, and a
physical urge to flee.
• Monica is smiling and laughing and wants to
hug Mrs. Joseph because she just received a
5 on her AP Psych Exam.
• Zak just received a 1 on his AP Psych Exam
(because he has Mr. Jeter…just kidding Mr.
Jeter) and feels a pounding in his chest,
perspiration runs down his face and he has an
urge to hit someone.
• Use each of the theories of emotion to
explain Paul, Monica and Zak’s emotions
Emotions and the Autonomic
Nervous System
• Autonomic nervous system –
regulates physiological arousal of
emotion
– Sympathetic nervous system
• Arousing
– Parasympathetic nervous system
•
– Moderate arousal is ideal
• Higher on well-learned tasks
Emotions and the Autonomic
Nervous System
Brain Differences and Emotion
• Brain activity is different depending on
emotion - consistent with James-Lange
Theory
–
–
–
–
Amygdala –
Thalamus/ Right Hemisphere –
Right prefrontal cortex/frontal lobe –
Left prefrontal cortex/Frontal lobe • Nucleus accumbens –
– Anterior Singulate Cortex -
Cognition and Emotion
• Some emotions
occur without
cognition,
• Go directly from
thalamus to
= fast/ automatic
emotional response
Physiological Differences
– Polygraph – supports
• Used to detect
• Measures
• Problems
• Guilty Knowledge Test –
Injecting a person with an excitatory chemical
that activates the sympathetic nervous system
is likely to increase his or her subjective
experience of intense fear and anxiety. Use one
of the major theories of emotion to account for
the effects of this chemical on a person's
emotional state. Which theory of emotion would
have the greatest difficulty explaining these
effects? Why?
Cognition and Emotion
1. Sometimes emotions
(Zajonc)
–
Develop emotional preference for stimuli
to which have been unknowingly exposed .
2. Some emotions occur without
cognition,
(LeDoux).Go directly from
to
= fast/ automatic
emotional response
–
Ex. Jump at rustling bushes in the forest
(fear most likely precedes conscious
thinking)
1. Emotions arise when
Injecting a person with an excitatory chemical
that activates the sympathetic nervous system
is likely to increase his or her subjective
experience of intense fear and anxiety. Use one
of the major theories of emotion to account for
the effects of this chemical on a person's
emotional state. Which theory of emotion would
have the greatest difficulty explaining these
effects? Why?
Detecting Emotion
• Nonverbal cues
•
than
better
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal
Behavior
better than
•Detecting emotions
•Empathy
•Emotional responsiveness
•Facial expressions of emotion
•Exception:
•
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal
Behavior
Culture and Emotional Expression
•Similarities:
•Eckman’s research - display and
interpret facial expressions –
•Differences
•Individualistic countries –
•Display rules (Eckman) –
•Gestures
Levels of Analysis for the Study of
Emotion
The Effects of Facial Expressions
• Facial feedback – effect of facial expressions
on emotion
– Example:
• Behavior Feedback Theory – effect of your
behavior on emotions
– Example:
• A newspaper advice columnist suggests that
thinking can be controlled and changed but
that emotions are gut-level, biological
reactions that can't be controlled or modified.
Use your knowledge of emotion research and
theory to either support or refute the
columnist's claim.
Basic Emotions
• 10 Basic Emotions at birth(Izard)
• Other’s are combo of the 10 basic
Fear
• Adaptive value of fear
• Learned
– Conditioning –
– Observational Learning
• The biology of fear
–
• Fear =
• Gene
• Twin studies
• Phobias –
• A motivational speaker claims “Fear is a
learned response! Babies are not born with
fears; they learn fears, which means fear can
be unlearned!” Use your knowledge of the
relationships between conditioning and the
biology of fear to critique the motivational
speaker's claims.
Anger
• Anger
– Evoked by events – actions are
– Catharsis – emotional release
• Catharsis hypothesis –
– Directed against
–
– Target not
• Example: Punching a pillow
– Expressing anger can increase anger
•
– Handling anger
• Wait until physiological arousal i
• Express grievance in ways that promote
• Lisa is furious because her steady boyfriend
(Thomas) spent half an hour talking with his
former girlfriend at last night's school dance. A
friend suggests that Lisa ought to get the
anger out of her system by repeatedly
pounding her pillow while she imagines that
she is hitting her boyfriend. Explain why this
might be an ineffective way for Lisa to reduce
her anger. Suggest better ways.
Happiness
• Happiness
– Well-being – happiness/satisfaction
with life
• Example:
– Feel-good, do-good phenomenon –
people are more helpful when in a
good mood.
• Example :
Happiness
The Short Life of Emotional Ups and
Downs
• Watson’s studies
Happiness
Wealth and Well-Being
Diminishing Returns Phenomenon
Happiness
Wealth and Well-Being
Happiness
• Happiness and Prior Experience
– Adaptation-level phenomenon - tendency
people have to quickly adapt to a new
situation, until that situation becomes the
norm.
• Example –
• Happiness and others’ attainments
– Relative deprivation – tendency for our
personal happiness to be heavily influenced
by others’ attainment
• Example -
Happiness
Predictors of Happiness
• Jim, a 42-year-old engineer, is unhappy about
his yearly salary, although it is the highest
salary he has ever earned. His wife, Carla,
suggests that he vividly recall how little he
earned at the age of 32. She also recommends
that he watch a TV program about famine
victims in Africa.
• Use your understanding of psychological
principles to explain why Carla's suggestions
might help to increase Jim's feelings of
economic satisfaction.
Stress and Health
• Health psychology - subfield of psychology that
contributes to the prevention and treatment of
illness
– Example:
• Behavioral medicine - interdisciplinary field that
integrates and applies behavioral and medical
knowledge to health and disease
– Example:
Stress and Illness
• Stress - process by which we perceive
and respond to environmental threats
and challenges.
– Stressor – event or situation that
causes stress
•
– Stress reactions – physiological
arousal, emotional responses
•
– Stress appraisal - stress arises less
from events than how we appraise
them
•
Stress and Illness
• Stress Reactions
–
• Mobilizes
• Motivates
– Prolonged =
• Activation of sympathetic nervous system
• Fight or flight (Cannon) - Adrenal glands secrete
epinephrine and norepinephrine into blood steam
–
• Tend and befriend (women)
–
• Telomers – bits of DNA at the end at the end of
chromosomes
–
Seyle’s General Adaptation
Syndrome
• Describes our
response to a
stressful event.
• Three stages
1. A
2. R
3. E
General Adaptation Syndrome
Stressful Life Events
• Significant Life Changes
– Social readjustment rating scale
(SRRS)
– Life Changing Units (LCUs)– The more LCUs you have the higher
your score is on the SRRS.
– Those who score higher are more
likely to have stress related disease.
• Catastrophes
– Natural disasters, 9/ll –
• Daily hassles
Stress and the Heart
• Coronary heart disease – closing of vessels that
nourish the heart
• Type A versus Type B (Friedman and Rosenman)
– Type A –
– Type B –
Stress and Susceptibility to
Disease
• Psychophysiological illnesses – stress related
physical illness
– Examples –
• Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – how psych,
neural and endocrine system affect immune
system
– Lymphocytes – 2 types of white blood cells
• B lymphocytes –
• T lymphocytes –
– Macrophage –
– Natural Killer (NK cells) -
Stress and Disease
• Arthritis –
• AIDS – stress can
• Cancer – doesn’t create
• What advice would a health psychologist give
to a student about the stress of an AP exam?
What are the potential benefits of this
stressor, and what are the possible
disadvantages of long-term stress?
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