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Cognition
Chapter 1
An Introduction to Cognitive
Psychology
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
Introduction
Important Terms
cognition
cognitive psychology
cognitive approach
Study of mental processes -- memory, perception,
language, learning, problem solving, …
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
Introduction
Why learn about cognition?
 Cognition occupies a major portion of human
psychology
 Cognitive psychology will help you appreciate many
other areas of psychology, as well as disciplines
outside psychology
 Cognitive psychology provides an "owner's manual"
for your mind
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Origins of Cognitive Psychology
Aristotle
empirical evidence
Wilhelm Wundt
Introspection – objective reports of experiences
Early Memory Researchers
Ebbinghaus – memory abilities
Mary Whiton Calkins - recency effect
first woman president of APA
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Origins of Cognitive Psychology
William James
Principles of Psychology - function
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Behaviorism
behaviorist approach – objective, observable
Watson
Skinner
operational definition
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Origins of Cognitive Psychology
The Gestalt Approach
Gestalt psychology - organization
Frederic C. Bartlett
memory as active, constructive process
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology
1956 & the MIT symposium
Ulric Neisser's Cognitive Psychology
Factors Contributing to the Rise of Cognitive
Psychology
•
•
•
•
Disappointment with Behaviorism
Linguistics; Noam Chomsky
Memory research
Developmental psychology; Jean Piaget
object permanence
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology
The Information-Processing Approach
a) a mental process can be compared with the
operations of a computer
b) a mental process can be interpreted as
information progressing through the system in a
series of stages, one step at a time
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
A Brief History of
Cognitive Psychology
The Emergence of Modern Cognitive
Psychology
The Information-Processing Approach
Atkinson-Shiffrin model
Sensory Memory
Short-term Memory (Working Memory)
Long-term Memory
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology
ecological validity
Cognitive Neuroscience
social cognitive neuroscience
Brain Lesions
Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan) – several
seconds
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) – 1
second
Event-Related Potential Technique (ERP) – fraction of
a second
Single-Cell Recording Technique
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology
Artificial Intelligence
The Computer Metaphor
structures and processes
Pure AI
Efficiency, maybe different
Computer Simulation/Computer Modeling
take human limitations into account
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology
Artificial Intelligence
The Parallel Distributed Processing Approach
parallel distributed processing (PDP) - - connectionism
cerebral cortex - - neural networks
serial processing
parallel processing
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
Current Issues in
Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Science
Interdisciplinary—cognitive psychology,
neuroscience, and artificial intelligence PLUS
philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, sociology, and
economics
Focus on internal representations
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
An Overview of Your
Textbook
Preview of the Chapters
Five Themes in the Book
Theme 1: Cognitive processes are active, rather
than passive.
Theme 2: Cognitive processes are remarkably
efficient and accurate.
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
An Overview of Your
Textbook
Five Themes in the Book
Theme 3: Cognitive processes handle positive
information better than negative information.
Theme 4: Cognitive processes are interrelated
with one another; they do not operate in
isolation.
Theme 5: Many cognitive processes rely on
both bottom-up and top-down processing.
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
An Overview of Your
Textbook
How to Use Your Book
Chapter Outline
Chapter Preview
Opening Paragraph
Demonstrations
Individual Differences
Feature
Applications
New Terms and List at End
of Chapter
In-Depth Feature
Section Summaries
End-of-Chapter Review
Recommended Readings
Glossary
Cognition 7e, Margaret Matlin
Chapter 1
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