Section 3-1 and Section 3-2 Book Work Review – Finding the Good Stuff! Pen/pencil, highlighter Section 3-1 What is Ecology? 1. What is ecology? ANSWER: The scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings. Leading into abiotic interactions and biotic interactions. Pole to Pole connections! 2. What does the biosphere contain? Definition for Species ANSWER: Group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring. A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area… POPULATION Define Community ANSWER: Assemblages of different populations that live together in a defined area. Define ecosystem. ANSWER: A collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical, environment. A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and dominant communities… BIOME SPECIES → 8. Why are many ecological phenomena difficult to study? ANSWER: Ecological phenomena occur over long periods of time or on such large spatial scales that they are difficult to study. Constraints! 9. Why do ecologists make models? ANSWER: To gain insight into complex phenomena such as the effects of global warming on ecosystems. Do all scientists make models? Whiteboard time! Q1. List the six different levels of organization that ecologists study in order from smallest to largest. Hold it up for Mrs. G to see. Whiteboard time! Q2. What is an ecosystem? Show Mrs. G. Whiteboard time! Q3. How would you know whether 2 individuals are of the same species or not? (If they look similar.) Share with Mrs. G. Whiteboard time! Q4. Give at least one reason we (as students) would use modeling as a method of research. Show Mrs. G. Whiteboard time! Q5. Beside each level of ecological organization, give examples in our Pacific Northwest. List: Individual, Population, Community, Ecosystem, Biome (which is PNW). Section 3-2 Energy Flow 1. What is at the core of every organism’s interaction with the environment? ANSWER: Its need for energy to power life’s processes. 3. What are autotrophs? ANSWER: Use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of simple inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules. 4. Why are autotrophs also called producers? ANSWER: They make their own food. Where do they get the energy? ANSWER: Photosynthesis. List 3 things needed for photosynthesis to occur. ANSWER: Sunlight, water, carbon dioxide 7. What is chemosynthesis? ANSWER: When organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates. 9. Heterotrophs are also called… ANSWER: Consumers. 10. Plant and animal remains and other dead matter are collectively called… ANSWER: Detritus Types of Heterotrophs Define Omnivore. ANSWER: Eat both plants and animals. Types of Heterotrophs Define Detritivore. ANSWER: Feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter. List organisms that are detritivores. ANSWER: Mites, earthworms, snails, crabs Types of Heterotrophs Define Decomposer. ANSWER: Break down organic matter. List a couple decomposers. (Not Bach.) ANSWER: Bacteria, fungi *** Bacteria – VERY important for nitrogen cycle 12. How does energy flow through an ecosystem? ANSWER: In ONE DIRECTION, from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to various heterotrophs (consumers). Feeding Relationships Food chain Feeding Relationships Food web 15. What is a trophic level? ANSWER: Each step of a food chain or food web. 16. In a food web, what organisms make up the first trophic level? ANSWER: Producers 18. What is an ecological pyramid? ANSWER: A diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. Each time you rise a level on an energy pyramid, what number do you divide the energy by? ANSWER: 10! 21. What is biomass? ANSWER: Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level. Grams of organic matter per unit area. (grams/meters squared) 23. What does a pyramid of numbers show? ANSWER: # of individual organisms at each trophic level. 24. Why can each trophic level support only one tenth the amount of living tissue of the level below it? ANSWER: Because each trophic level harvests only about one tenth of the energy from the level below, it can support only about one tenth the amount of living tissue.