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a As.
GRAMMAR
JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE,
W. GrKS TON,
JAPANESE SECRETARY,
D. LIT.,
H. B. M.'s LEGATION, TOKIO, JAPAN.
FOURTH EDITION.
FOR SALE BY LANE, CRAWFORD & Co., PUBLISHERS.
KELLY & WALSH, LIMITED.
THE HAKUBUNSHA.
lon&on
TRUBNER &
Co.,
:
LUDGATE HILL.
1888,
PREFACE
TO THE
FOURTH EDITION.
THIS Edition has been thoroughly rewritten. It is
much enlarged, and is almost completely a new
also
work.
More
Tokio
exclusive attention has been paid in it to the
dialect, which now bids fair to become the
language of the upper classes of Japan generally.
At the suggestion of a friend, a literal interlinear
No
examples has been added.
translation, however, has ordinarily been given of the
Their meaning can be
particles which occur in them.
translation
of the
found in the chapter on particles.
The author takes this opportunity of acknowledging
the assistance which he has derived from the writings
of
He
MR. E. M. SATOW and MR. B. H. CHAMBERLAIN.
is also indebted for some hints to DR. IMBRIE'S
Japanese Etymology.
TOKIO, NOVEMBER, 1888.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
I.
II.
III.
Syllabary Pronunciation.
Parts of speech
.
. .
.
i
. .
. .
. .
5
Noun
IV. Pronoun.
V. Numeral.
7
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
11
. .
. .
.
.
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
.
.
. .
. .
VI. Verb
42
VII. Adjective.
VIII. Auxiliary words.
.
'
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
.
. .
. .
IX. Particles
XII. Honorific and
Humble
forms.
. .
. .
. .
. .
157
..161
166
. .
. .
XIII. Syntax
182
XIV. Time, money, weights and measures.
XVI.
Errors in speaking Japanese.
Extracts
Index...
93
108
118
X. Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions and Interjections.
XI. English into Japanese.
..
..
..
..
..
XV.
34
..
..
..
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .
186
. .
. .
. .
191
192
..
..
..
..
..207
A GRAMMAR
OF
THE
JAPANESE SPOKEN LANGUAGE,
CHAPTER
I.
THE SYLLABARY PRONUNCIATION.
i. IN Japanese, every syllable is supposed to end in a
vowel, and generally does so, e.g. sa-yo de go-za-ri-ma-sii.
The exceptions occur mostly in foreign words, or are owing
to
some
letters
as
in
in
consonants, the
is
at fifty.
of them,
seventy-five.
There are
final
necessarily small, and is reckoned by
forty-seven according to one arrangement,
of syllables
the Japanese at
and by another,
of
There being no
contractions.
number
There
are,
however, modifications
by which the number
is
increased to
Japanese no means of writing separate
European languages, and each
syllable
is
therefore represented by a single character, n final, which
has a character to itself, being an exception.
But n is
supposed to represent an older mu.
The
following table shows the syllables of the Japanese
is called the
Go-jiit-on,
language arranged according to what
or fifty sounds.
JAPANESE SYLLABARY.
a
PRONUNCIATION.
It will
be seen that there are a
and repetitions
in the
above Table.
3
number of irregularities
These are owing to the
circumstance that there are certain sounds which a Japanese
For si, he says
cannot, or at any rate, does not pronounce.
shi, for Int,fu; foryi, wi, wit
These
on.
irregularities play
and we, i, i, u and ye, and so
an important part in the con-
jugation of verbs, and ought therefore to be carefully noted.
a
2.
i
,,
o
,,
,,
a in fat, father.
ay in say.
ee in meet.
o in more.
u
,,
,,
oo in fool.
is
pronounced
like
e
I and
jare
,,
In such cases they
frequently almost inaudible.
have been written
i,
u.
Thus,
shita, 'below,' is
pronounced
very nearly shta ; tatsx, 'a dragon,' almost tats. Longer
double vowels are distinguished by a line drawn above them
thus,
and
i,
n,
The
o, u.
must be
depends upon
while koshi
it.
Koshi
means
soto, 'outside
;'
distinction between
i
and
carefully attended to, as the
6 and o,
u
often
means an ambassador,'
Soto means 'suitable,' but
for instance
'the loins.'
i,
meaning
'
kuki, 'the atmosphere,' kuki, 'the stem of a
plant.'
The consonants are pronounced as in English,
3.
except r, h, f, n, d, t, and g, which differ somewhat from
the corresponding English sounds.
The true pronunof these letters must be learnt from a Japanese,
but the following hints may be found useful.
R before i is the most difficult of Japanese sounds for a
ciation
European
to reproduce correctly.
It
is
then pronounced
except that the tip of the tongue touches the
roof of the mouth farther back.
Some Japanese make it
nearly like d,
Before other vowels the Japanese
nearly j in this position.
more resembles the English sound. There is never any-
r
thing in Japanese like the rough pronunciation given this
PRONUNCIATION,
4
French and
letter in
R is often omitted before
Italian.
in the
i
words gozaiinasH, nusaimasu, for gozariinasu, nasariinasii.
and / are considered the same letter in Japanese and
The under lip
their pronunciation is not very different.
H
does not touch the teeth in pronouncing /;
ches them as in pronouncing n'h in which.
Tokio
is
dialect the syllable hi
it
only approaIn the vulgar
undistinguishable from ski.
is
In pronouncing the Japanese d and t the tip of the tongue
pressed forward against the teeth instead of only touching
Little or no distinction
dzu and zn.
between
most
by
Japanese
G at the beginning of a word is pronounced
the o
gum as in English.
o
English
^hard
;
any other position like the
in
made
is
like the
German
(not
'
the English) ng in finger.'
In the syllable yc the y is in
and
so,
is
most words
silent, or
nearly
often omitted in romanized Japanese.
must be sounded.
must be pronounced differently
In the case of double consonants, both
Thus
ainmci, 'a shampooer,'
from aina, a fisherwoman
'
'
;'
katta,
bought,' from kata,
^4.
The
The
syllables ga, gi, 311, gc, go, za
'
side.'
nigori.
above
t
j:,
zit, ze,
zo etc.,
begin with
type
the
consonants and are considered by
Japanese not as
different syllables but simply as modifications of the syllables
printed in
small
italic
in the
table, all
soft
beginning with hard consonants in the lines immediately
above them. This distinction is indicated in writing by a
small mark, which is often omitted. Ka for instance with
a diacritic mark
The formation
is
read ga,
of
shi,ji and so on.
compounds and
derivatives
companied by the modification of a hard
ing soft consonant, so that
change, which, with the
this
is
called in
it
is
often ac-
important to take note of
mark by which
Japanese nigori, or
is
into the correspond-
'
impurity.'
it is
indicated,
CHAPTER
II.
PARTS OF SPEECH.
The words Noun,'
'
5.
meanings
and
it
subject
Adjective' and
'
Verb' have two
ordinary grammars of European languages.
noun' is sometimes applied to a class of words
in
The term
inflected
'
'
a
in
way, with
particular
cases
means anything capable
also
of a
In other words
proposition.
and number,
of being
it
made
the
means, one
thing for etymological purposes and another in syntax, one
thing in respect to changes within itself, another in its relations to other words.
'Verb' and 'Adjective' have double
This mode of classifying
significations of a similar kind.
words according
of inflection and
to
two
distinct principles viz. (i) the
form
(2) their syntactical relations, is not with-^
out inconvenience even in European grammars, where it has
led to the introduction of the awkward term
participle,'
'
word which is partly a verb and partly an
But such forms are after all the exception in European languages, where it is the general rule
that words which as regards their declension or conjugation
meaning
a
adjective or noun.
are nouns, adjectives or verbs are also nouns, adjectives or
verbs for purposes of syntax.
In Japanese, however, this
is by no means the case.
Here it is rather the rule than
the exception that a word with or even without a change of
inflection can be converted at pleasure into a verb, an adIku, to go,' for instance, looking to its
jective or a noun.
'
is
a verb, but
conjugation
sentences as sugu ni iku,
if
'
we
consider
its
position in such
he goes at once,' iku ga yoroshi,
PARTS OF
O
'
'
Si'KliCH.
the going is good,' i.e. he had better go,' iku hito ga ant,
a going person is,' i.e. there is somebody going,' it is
'
'
only in the
sentence,
first
in
case that
the second
it
it
plays the part of a verb in the
is a noun, and in the third an
adjective.
The Japanese grammarians have avoided
by classifying words as na or
'
this
ambiguity
;
uninflected
names,'
words,' kotoba or hataraki-kotoba, 'words' or 'inflected
words,' including the verb and adjective, and tcnin>oha
.or 'particles.'
duce a more
But
i.e.
this is not the place to attempt to intro-
scientific
English terminology. It will be
words, noun, verb and adjec-
sufficient to retain the familiar
tive, taking care to use them in such a way as to prevent
confusion between these two significations.
j
The noun
6.
is
uninflected.
All
Chinese words
in the
Japanese language are uninflected, and are therefore strictly
speaking nouns, but most of them, by the help of Japanese
terminations are made to do duty as verbs, adjectives, or
adverbs.
Along with the noun or uninflected word are classed the
pronoun and numeral adjective, which in Japanese have no
inflection.
They have some peculiarities however which
make
it
There
convenient to consider them separately.
no
Prepositions and conjunctions are
included mainly under the head of particles. Adverbs do
not form a separate class of words. A particular form of
is
article.
the adjective does duty as an adverb, and other words which
must be rendered as adverbs in English are in Japanese
nouns, or parts of verbs.
The verb and adjective have a substantially similar mode
of inflection in Japanese and should be considered as really
forming only one part of speech.
CHAPTER
III.
THE NOUN.
In Japanese nouns have no inflections to distinguish
7.
masculine from feminine or neuter, singular from plural, or
one case from another, but they are preceded or followed by
particles which serve these and other purposes.
With
Gender.
8.
words such as musuko,
'
son
'
mttsiime,
;
'father;' haha, 'mother,' no distinction
'
or
bull
When
on
'
cow
'
;
muma
is
either
necessary, gender
for the masculine,
o ushi
is
'
a bull
dori, 'a hen.'
'
;
me
me
is
or
ushi,
These are
'
'
horse
'
daughter
is
'
or
chichi,
;
ordinarily
Thus
between the masculine and feminine.
'
common
of a few
the exception
'
'
ushi
is
made
either
mare.'
distinguished by prefixing o_ or
Thus
men for the feminine.
a cow;' on dori,' a cock;'
really
compound nouns.
men
Such
phrases as otoko no ko, 'a male child;' onna no ko, 'a female
'
child
'
are
also in use,
otoko
meaning
'
man
'
and onna
woman.'
Number. As a general rule the plural is not dis9.
tinguished from the singular, but a plural idea can be expressed whenever necessary by the addition of one of the
particles ra, gata,
more
domo,
tachi, or shin,
which
particularly described in Chapter IX.
will be
found
NOUN.
ft
Examples.
Yakunin gata.
Xinsoku domo.
Kodomo
Kodomo
Officials.
Coolies.
ra or
Children.
shin.
Neko domo.
Cats.
Some nouns have a kind of plural formed by reduplication. But these
forms correspond rather to the noun preceded by every than to the
Thus shina is an article,' shina jiiia, all sorts of
ordinary plural.
articles
tokoro a place,'
kuni, a country,' kunigitni, every country
tokoro dokoro, 'different places.'
The first letter of the second half of
these forms almost invariably takes the nigori. (See
4.)
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
;
'
;
10.
Case.
j
Properly speaking, Japanese nouns have:
no cases, but a declension can be made out for them by the
help of certain particles, as follows
:
TORI, 'A BIRD.'
Nominative.
Genitive.
Tori or tori ga, a bird.
Tori no_or tori gcL, of a bird or a
Dative.
Tori ni or tori
Accusative.
Tori or tori
Vocative.
Tori or
yc,,
700,
tori yOj
bird's.
to a bird.
a bird.
O
bird
!
Ablative.
Tori kara or toriyori, from a bird.
Locative.
Tori
Instrumental.
Tori dc, with or by means of a bird.
The
ni, at, to or in
plural terminations
the noun, as
a bird.
come between these
particles
and
:
Yakmiin gata
Official
ni
to
wo
tnciijii
passport
I
showed
my
passport to the
officials.
miscmashita.
showed
The
student
is
referred
to
Chapter IX
for
an account of these
particles.
j
ii.
1st
Compound nonns. Compound nouns are formed
From two nouns. Ex. Kazngnntimi a wind-mill,'
'
THE NOUN.
from kazc,
wind,' and kurunia,
'
9
'
a wheel
flower-garden,' from liana,
'
a flower,' and
a boat,' from ko,
'
a child,'
'
kobunc,
func, 'a boat ;'
ya, 'a house.'
;'
hanazono,
'
a
'
a garden ;'
soiio,
something small,' and
from lion, 'a book,' and
'
Jioityn, 'a book-seller,'
'From the stem of an adjective and a noun. Ex.
Akagane, copper,' from aka, stem of akai, red,' and kane,
metal ;' Nagasaki, long cape,' the name of a place, from
2nd
'
l
1
'
naga, stem ofnagai,
'
From
yd
'
shiri,
a
long,'
and saki
stem
the
of
l
'
'
'
to draw.'
verb
a
Mono-
Ex.
verb.
a thing,' and shiri,
a dictionary.' from/f, a
from mono,
stem of shiru, 'to know'; jibiki.
character,' and hiki, stem of hiku,
ifth
a cape.'
noun and the stem of a
a learned man,'
From
'
and
a
noun.
Urimnno, a thing for sale,' from uri, stem of uru,
and mono,' a thing.'
'
'
Ex.
to sell,'
From the stem of an adjective and the stem of a
a man who swallows
as
verb,
Supensuni no maru-nomi,
Herbert Spencer whole,' where maru is the stem oimarni,
$th
'
1
round,' and nomi, the stem ofnoDitt, 'to swallow.'
From two
6th
verbal stems, as hikidaslri, 'a drawer,'
a pull-out ') from hiki, stem of hiku, 'to pull,' and
(lit.,
daslii,' stem of dasu, 'to bring out ;' kigaye, 'a change of
to wear,' and kaye, stem of
clothing,' from hi, stem of Mm,
'
'
'
kciycru,
The
to change.'
letter of the second part of a compound noun
takes
the nigori.
Thus the k of kane
generally
(See
4.)
is changed into g in the compound
akagane, the / of June
first
into b in kobnne.
The
final
vowel of the
first
part of a
compound
is
often
most common change being from e to
modified,
Thus from sake, 'Japanese rice-beer' and te, 'hand,'
the
a.
is
THE NOUN.
IO
formed sakate, 'drink money ;' from shiro, the stem of sJiiroi,
white,' and kc, hair,' is formed shiraga,
grey hairs.'
'
l
'
The
prefixes denoting gender and the honorific prefixes o, nil and
which see Chap. XII) must be considered as forming compounds
with the nouns to which they belong.
(for
Abstract nouns are formed from
Derivative nouns.
12.
adjectives by adding sa to the stem, as takasa
tahai,
'
It is
high.'
'
'
from
height
occasionally added to words of Chinese
derivation asfubinsn,
The
'
pitiableness.'
adjective follow-
ed by koto, thing,' is also used in a nearly similar significaIt denotes however
tion, as in the following examples.
rather the degree of a quality than the abstract quality
'
itself.
Takasa
wa
Takaikoto! do.no!
high thing some how
Ima no
wakasa
is
?
in height
What
At
ni.
of
present youthfulness at
Many nouns
How many
desu ka ?
Iku-kcn
how many ken
height
ken
is
it
?
a height!
your
young
time
life.
are simply the stems of verbs without any
remainder,' stem of nokoru, to
change of form, as nokori,
'
'
stem ofkakusu, 'to conceal ;'
stem
of
watasu, to make to cross over.'
watashi,
ferry,'
A few stems of adjectives are used in the same way, as
be
left
over;' kakushi, 'pocket,'
'
'
sJiiro,
white,' a dog's
'
name, stem of shiroi,
'
white.'
There
here however a slight change of meaning, nokori, kaknsJii,
watashi, and shiro having a more concrete signification
is
than the verbs or adjective from which they are taken.
It will be seen later that for purposes of syntax, certain parts of the verb and adjective must be considered
as nouns.
CHAPTER
IV.
THE PRONOUN.
'
WatakZshi, 1 (plural watakushi domo, 'we'), is
the ordinary word for the pronoun of the first person.
Ore
is less respectful, and is the word
(plural orera)
mostly used
1
13.
by
what haughty word.
'
I
To
each other.
coolies, etc., to
inferiors
it
is
a some-
Students and soldiers say bokn for
ivaga hai for we '.
Temaye is a humble word for
'
',
'
I,'
much used by
the lower
classes of Tokio in addressing their superiors.
It is also
Some
people use
used as a pronoun of the second person.
their
surname instead of the personal pronoun of the
first
person.
Other words for
ivashi
women),
'
'
are ivatashi (familiar), waiai (by
familiar), wattchi (rustic), sessha
I
(very
(formal), oira (familiar), jibtin (properly
'
self).
Examples.
Watakushi
vaa
zeikan
no
I
am
a customhouse officer.
customhouse
I
yakunin de gozarimasu.
am
officer
Ore mo
I
O
(hon.)
hi tori.
alone
ikv.
I'll
go
too.
too will go
yama
no taisho
mountain of general
ore
I
I'm the king of the castle,
the children's game.)
(in
THE PRONOUN.
12
Xtinda
what
a
ore
is
\Vntukiishi
wa
I
go
tiny
(hon.]
Watakiishi
wa
duino
fit
drunk
Not
?
a
bit
same with me.
like
I
them, but
they wont
fit
I
am
afraid
me.
me
men.
will not
(polite)
wa
dc
Tekurada
gozarimasu.
o
ffajinifff
for the first
the
watakiishi
I
Fittoslu
I
It is just
i
like
somehow
Watakushi
<
wo suku
sore
annasit
to
!
ti
same
them
I
wa
;
?
thing
m
of
mono ka.
(for yotte iru)
keredomo,
although
What
vottcru
being drunk
I
nl
VIC
time (hon.) eyes
kakarimashtta,
I
am Tekurada
Futoshi.
I
have
the honour of meeting you for the
first time.
on
have hung
Senncn
iro-iro
all
lye! wafakushi koso
I
No,
(emph.
when
boku
I
have become
shikan ni
too
officer
become
14.
On
navy
the contrary,
it
was
I
who...
part.)
mo kaigun no
mini
j
I
was much
I
indebted for your kindness.
nattara
Okiku
big
former times
In
go
kinds (hon.)
ni adziikarimashita.
ko-on
great favours have experienced
former year
I
too,
when
I
grow
big, intend
to be a naval officer.
tsnmorl dcsu.
intention is
The
personal pronoun of the second person differs
according to the rank of the person addressed.
Anata, for ano kata 'that side,' (plur. anata gala) is properly a pronoun of the third person but like the German Sic
has come to be used for the second. It is sometimes a noun
Anata is
this gentleman.'
used when speaking to superiors or equals, or in fact, to any
one who has a claim to be addressed with civility. Omnyc
as in the phrase kono anata
'
THE PRONOUN.
13
(plural omaye gatd) is familiar and condescending, and is the
word used in addressing servants, workmen, the members
of one's own family, etc.
Omaye san is almost the same as
anata, but more familiar, and is used chiefly by women.
Kisama and temaye are used in addressing coolies and other
persons of the lowest class in a familiar way. Kimi is
much used among soldiers and students sensei in address;
ing men of learning a servant says danna (master), dannasan or danna-sama (rarely anata) in addressing his master.
;
Other words for
'
are konata (for kono kata, ' this
side'), sonata, (for sono kata, 'that side,' familiar) sono ho
(by magistrates to prisoners or witnesses), sochi (to inferiors),
nnshi
ware
('
'
you
master', very contemptuous), o nushi (very familiar),
(rustic), unit (abusive),
found enough
pniaye< will be
sokka (formal).
for
But_rtwo&Land
most Europeans
to trouble
themselves with.
Examples.
Anata
you
tai
ni o
koto
there
here
you
Kisama wa
sum ?
do
master
you
ore no uchi
du
Danna
Kimi
matte
ore.
waiting remain
how
haifte,
wa
is
something
I
want
to
Sir,
by
you
is
ni
my
you
ration
There
te n
ga gozarimasu.
Omaye koko
ku
wish to
talk
thing
entering
hanashi
mfJshi-
ni
house into
no o rnuma no shita's
horse
prepa-
Do you
wait here,
What
do
coming
into
you mean,
house ?
my
Your horse
is
ready, Sir.
yoroshiu gozarimasu.
is
good
wa
doko
where
ye
to
iku ka.
go
?
Where
are you going
?
THE PRONOL'N.
Bokn wa gakka
I
yc kacru
to return
college
am
I
co n ege
on
the
way back
to
.
tokoro da.
am
place
A
ic a
elder brother)
sciiscl
!
you
(lit.
Knn
iiioto
df
gozaimasu
Mr. (predicate)
ka
Go
?
are
wa
ku-mci
(hon.) high
?
name
iikctamawatte
tc
ously having heard
Mina-
Ah are you Mr. Minamoto ? I
have already heard of your high
!
reputation.
kancprevi-
orimasu.
remain
I
nushi dachi.
You
fellows
Unit dorobo me.
You
thief!
You
are lying
Unit
ttso
t
falsehood
sk u
!
!
stick
xe.
(emph. particle)
A
! ii
kokoromochi d'atta
ah good sensation
was
Kisabiiru kisama iva du
you
da
how
:
Ah how pleasant that was
Kisaburo, will you have a turn ?
!
?
is ?
!
(Master, leaving bath, to servant.)
The pronoun of the third person is arc (plural
has no gender. It is often replaced for persons
Arc
arerd).
by the more polite form ano Jilto, 'that man' or 'that
ano o kata, that gentleman or lady or ano
woman
j
15.
'
'
'
'
'
;
onna, 'that woman.'
These words add gata
to
form the
plural.
Aitsu,aitsura are contemptuous equivalents for arc, arcra.
(plural karcra) is sometimes used instead of arc by
Kare
educated people, but it belongs rather to the book language
than to the colloquial. To-nin the person in question' is
sometimes used for he.' Ikken is used when there is a sly
'
'
emphasis on the pronoun, as
come.'
i
lkkcn ga kita,
'He has
THE PRONOUN.
15
Examples.
Arc wa
m<~>
Kobe
He
ni tsitki-
has
already
mashltaru.
(she or
arrived in
it)
Kobe by
has
probably
this time.
probably arrived
Ano
hlto
wa junsa
He
dc goza-
is
a policeman.
policeman
rimasu.
is
Ano
o kata Hifigo
no akindo
Isn't
he a Hiogo merchant
?
merchant
ja nai ka ?
is
not
?
The above
are by no means the only personal
they will be found sufficient for most
Europeans to know, and few persons will have occasion to
use more than watakZshi, watakiishidomo, for the first
16.
pionouns
in use, but
person, anata, anatagata or omaye, omayegata for the second
and are, qvnhito or ano kata for the third. The grammar of
same as that of nouns and they affix the
IX.
in the same way as nouns.
With
Chap.
the pronouns of the first and second person however the use
of the plural particles when two or more persons are inthe pronouns
is
the
particles in
tended
is
the rule, instead of being the exception as
A Japanese
the case of nouns.
sJiidonio,
waga
The use
for
'
where
in
it is
in
'we' (wataku-
I.'
of personal pronouns
Japanese than
in cases
hai~)
often says
English.
They
their omission
is
much more
limited in
are not employed except
would cause ambiguity, or
an emphasis upon them. Thus, 'I am going
to Tokio to-morrow,' will be Mionichi Tokio ye mairimasii,
except where it is doubtful whether the speaker refers to
where there
is
himself or to another person, when ivatakiishi is added. If
is an emphasis on the pronoun, as in the phrase,
I
don't know what you may do, but / shall go to Tokio to-
there
'
THE PRONOUN.
l6
morrow,'
to
must not be omitted. Japanese generally prefer
person by some of the honorific or humble
it
indicate
modes
of expression described in Chap. XII.
indiscriminate use of pronouns is a very common
committed by Europeans in speaking Japanese, and
even disfigures some manuals of conversation which have
The
fault
been published.
Not one personal pronoun
Japanese where there are ten
in
used
is
in
English.
Possessive Pronouns are in Japanese nothing more
j 17.
than personal pronouns, with the addition of the possessive
particle no or ga.
Examples.
Ano
hito
that
man's
rcvi
iyc
His house
is
a long
way
off.
house
tui.
yohodo
very
no
much
is far
Watakushl ga ynbi
my
u-a itamlc
I
have a pain
in
my
finger.
painful
finger
int.
is
Omayc no
klnkin x-n ikitra
wages how much
your
'Mine,'
?
'his,'
'yours,'
What
are your
wages
?
?
'hers,'
'theirs,'
are
in
Japanese also 'i'atakushi no.nnata no, arc no etc.. but thc-v
can easily be distinguished from 'my' 'your' etc. by the
particles
which accompany them or by the context.
Examples.
Korc
ti'a
this
annta no tsuyc
stick
your
tie
(sign of pred.)
scnu ka?
not ?
wa
gozaimais
Is not this
your stick
?
THE PRONOUN.
Hei! Watakushi no
Yes
mine
Watakushi no da
mine
is
dcsii.
Yes,
it is
mine.
is
(for
de aru)
I
mistook
it
for
mine.
omotte machigaimashita.
-mistook
to
that thinking
Watakushi no wa atarashiu
mine
new
gozaimasu
;
is
new; yours
is
old.
wa furu
anata no
is
Mine
old
your
gozaimasu.
Ano
wa ikemasenu:
with can go not
kilo no dc
his
wa
jibun no de nakute
own
without
His won't do
but
my
I
:
don't like any
own.
ki ni
mind
irimascnu.
enter not
kashi
Watakushi no wo o
mine
(hon.) lend
mushimcisU
I
will lend
you mine, so please
don't hesitate (to use
it.)
go
kara,
(humble word) became (hon.)
nakn
ycnr'io
ceremony without
Anata gata no wa
hitotsu
one
your (plural)
ka
There were one or two of yours.
or
futatsu ga arimashita.
two
there were
Arc no wo itadaite
mo
his
having accepted even
yoroshiu gozarimasu ka ?
is it
?
good
tamatta
Taihcn
Great change
na
!
Kono
(exclam.) This
wa
ikntsu
collected
nchi
omaye no
among
bakari
yours
aru ?
how many amount are
Tcmayc no wa sukoshi hoka
little
I
goznrtjiiasei:u.
are
not
other
May
I
What
been
accept his
?
a tremendous
collected
these are yours
a few.
lot
have
How many
!
?
Mine
of
are only
and
words
of
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THE PRONOUN.
i
The
root
this.'
only found in the compounds shown in the
is
'
in
table,
'
Ko, ka,
19.
19
ko-toshi,
this
year,'
and perhaps one or two
other words.
Kore
(plural korera), kono.
more
thing,' or
'
rarely
Kore
is
this person,'
a noun
'this
meaning
and corresponds
'
'
to the
kono an adjective equal to ce
cette
ces.'
Kore no is also in use but with a different meaning from
kono.
Kore no liako for example would mean 'the box of
French
'
'
'
'
ceci,'
the box to which this belongs,' kono liako simply
this box.'
Similar distinctions are to be made between
'
this,'
'
Kore wa, sore wa, are wa, are often
pronounced korya, sorya, arya, or even kord, sord, ard, but
sore, sono, sore no, etc.
it is
better not to imitate these contractions.
Konata
for
kono kata,
'
this side,'
ought properly to be a
person and it is sometimes used for I,'
but it is more common as a pronoun of the second person.
It is
The second ko means
Koko, here.'
place.'
found in a few other combinations as for instance miyako
pronoun of the
'
first
'
1
the
'
capital,'
lit.
The
'
honourable-house-place.'
plural
added to koko, kochi, gives them a vaguer
Thus kokora means 'hereabouts,' kochira
signification.
ra
particle
1
hitherabouts,'
'
somewhere
same
sochira etc., ra has the
Konna, konnani,
Konna
'
is
'
In sokora
force.
this kind of,'
'
'
for kore naru,
being
this,'
in this
kind of way.'
konnani for kore naru
in
being this.'
Koitsu this fellow,'
ni,
in this direction.'
'
It is for
is
ko-yatsu, yatsn
also used for inanimate things.
meaning
'fellow,'
and
is
a very
contemptuous word.
Kono yd
kono yd na, 'this kind of
have nearly the same meaning as kayo, kayo na, and are
ni,
more common.
'in this manner,'
THE PRONOUN.
2O
Kahodo
'
this
Korc hodo
much.'
nearly identical sense.
Kaku, ko 'thus.' Kakii
use in
also in
is
the older and book form but
is
use in certain phrases, such as to mo kaku
'even so, even thus,' i.e. 'howsoever,' 'at all events.'
is
in
still
Examples
ic<i
nanl da ?
What
Korc
wa
tcppo dc gozaimasii.
This
gun
ic a
Kouo
Kono
Kono
a gun.
How much
This
this?
is
tree.
This watch.
tokci.
This gentleman.
do you
kata.
Korc wa Nikon o dc nan' to
this
Japanese in, what
'
this?
is
is
is
iknra ?
ki.
o
mo
of korc, kouo, etc.
Korc
Korc
a
What
1
Japanese
call
this
in
?
mdshiinasu ?
call
Annta
you
ni
in
kr>
It
shimpai
to thus called anxiety
really inexcusable in
is
me
have caused you such anxiety.
to
irajitsu ni sitminia-
kakctc
having hung
does
truly
sen a.
not finish
Baku
wo
mo gakumon
I
even learning
has
u'a korc dc
this
I
shifn
da.
niiigcn
done human being
Danna
iva
master
after
all
a
man who
through a course of
learning.
am
kochira dc
here abouts
am
gone
Is
go-
the master anywhere here-
abouts
?
zarimasii kn ?
5
;
KO
in
thus called
ba-ai
posture of affairs
Because
this
is
the
posture
o f a ffa i rs>
da kara.
is
because
Korchodo osoroshikatta koto
this
wa
much
afraid
gozarimasenii.
is not
was
thing
I
j
n
never
mv
j[fe<
was
so
frightened
THE PRONOUN.
j
Sa
20.
'
or 50
that.'
There
Sore, sono.
and sono that there
sono
alone,
words
is
21
the
is
same
distinction between sore
between kore and kono.
is
joined
Sore stands
The remarks on
nouns.
to
the
column of the table also apply to the
words in this column and need not be
in the first
corresponding
repeated here.
Examples
wa
Sore
of sore, sono etc.
kinodoku na koto de
sad
thing
that
That
is
a sad thing,
gozaitnasu.
is
Doko de
where
sono kura
that saddle
wo
o kal
buy
Where
sa ddle
did
you
buy
that
?
nasatta ?
did
Sonnara(foisorenara)yoroshi.
if it be that
it is good
In that case
Sore ja
Well then,
(for sore
de wa)
in that case
Well then
Sore ya kore ya de
o ukagai
that or this or for (hon.) call
no
us go!
let us go
(more polite than last).
if it
moshita
let
right,
go
nara ikimasho.
be will go
Sayo
thus
ikiJ.
will
it is all
I
called
!
!
on you partly
for that,
partly for this<
desu.
(humble word, pasttense)is
Sii
mo
to
!
St~>
to
mo
Yes Yes
!
!
!
so that even
Sonna
If that is your object the best
naru) mokuteki
object
plan is to give it up>
nara
ho ga ii.
yoshita
if it is have given up side is better
(for sore
that kind of
Sore
wa
Shite,
Let that be so
the subject.
so to.
thus
that
'
having made,'
last sentence.
is
i.e.
to
change
understood at the end of the
THE PRONOUN.
22
Sh<~>
a
shO sokora (or sokolra) dc
thereabouts
Wait
a
little
Such
is
the
thereabouts.
little
matte
lire.
waiting remain
Yo no naka no koto
\vorld interior
u-a
mina
wav
of the world.
all
thing
sonna mono
sa.
such thing (emph. part.)
So da
that
So
so yo.
is
would appear.
it
appearance
Sore nl
sono
toki
linjimcte
that time
that to
first
In addition to that,
the
first
I
then for
time learnt the truth.
hontu no koto ico shitta.
true
learnt
thing
Anata
you
tea
You
osshahnasu
s<>
so
say so. Sir, but-
say
kcrcdomo
but
Sonnani
so
much
koto
o
nnji nasarn
(hon.) anxious do
no reason
is
for
your
u-a gozaimasciiii.
there
thing
is
not
Sahodo no koto dc
somuch of thing
mai
ira
aru-
(pred.) will
so even
if is
If that
inikan U'O sukoshi
at orange
a little
iii
kndasaiiiiascnit
give (neg.)
ka
katte
would not so very
rain
furl
fall
Fiifn nl
s<~>
And
mi.
is
won't
opportunity of
few oranges?
you
take
buying
the
me
a
?
mo
even
d,-su.
nai.
is
It
seems they did not meet.
It
does not seem likely to rain.
It
seems they have become man
is
not
initte
husband and wife having become and
s<J
not even so
?
s<~>
Ame ga
is
bought
Ai wa itasanakatta
did not
meet
so
remain
it
signify.
not
Soshitc (or so shite) tstiule
thus having done opportunity
im
thought
thought
Sa mo nakcrcba
come
I
much
omotta.
to
not be
kite
There
being so anxious.
wife.
THE PRONOUN.
Sora
there
There
kisha ga
the train
(for sore iva)
!
!
23
the train
!
is
starting,
dertt.
is
starting
Sore
hodo
that
quantity'
sum
how do
dil
who
will
you do with
all
that
quantity?
so
A
21.
Are and
said so
That
is
?
said
ga
place
Who
iimaslnta?
s<~/
Soko
j
being
?
Dare ga
that
What
arimashlte iva
da.
kanjin
important is
the important point,
'that.'
ano and sono must not be used
sore,
criminately.
Just as kore
may
indis-
be called the demonstrative
pronoun of the first person, sore is the demonstrative pronoun of the second and are of the third person. Sore, sono
refer to
mind
his
something present before the speaker's eyes or to
are, ano to something a little way off or not in
;
Sore, sono refer to the immediate subject of conversation are, ano are used when a fresh subject is started.
sight.
;
Sono
you
muma
for instance
are speaking
etc.
Ano yo
phrase
'
'
that horse
'
i.e.
the horse
'
which you have bought,' or of which
ano muma, the horse you rode yesterday,'
are riding,' or
we
means
'
'
'
;'
'that world'
this that
means
and the other
'
is
the other world.'
'
The
a fair translation of kore,
sore, arc.
Kore, kono are the Italian questo
and ano, are are quello.
;
sore, sono are cotesto
A Japanese often begins a sentence with an ano which
has no meaning whatever and which merely serves to
draw the attention
of the person addressed.
The three'words konata
(for
side
kono kata] this side,' sonata
and anata (for ano kata 'that
'
(for
sono kata] 'that side,'
should when used as
')
pronouns mean respectively
THE PRONOUN.
24
'you' and 'he,' 'she' or 'it,' but curiously enough
they are all used in the second person, though konnta
may sometimes stand for 'I.' Anata for 'you' resembles
'I,'
the
German use
of sic
'
'
as a pronoun of the second
they
person.
Asiiko
use
The
irregularly formed.
is
in the
regular form ako
in
is
western dialect.
Ayo and
aliodo are not found
ano yd, are
;
are
liodo
used instead.
Examples
Are wa
nan'
da
that
what
is
Ano
1
wa
daiku
Aral
Anna
hajimatta.
a-a
Omaye
wi
are
shite
dr>
?
Ano
koko
here
Ano-vatakusJn ka
?
that carpenter
come
?
There you are at it again. (Did
any one ever hear) such bad
ano ua g e ?
-
l
?
How
is it you are here ? Eh
I? (the use of ano
ideates embarrassment.)
Is
it
!
Ah
Bakufu
ano
'i'
that
Shogunate
in
!
Mr. Ikeda.
Since the
fall
of the Shogunate.
manner
after
in
way
y<~>
say
kara.
natte
having become
A
I
called
hanasJii
It
story
is
seldom we hear a story
of that kind.
mcttani kikimasaiii.
hear
seldom
A
in
fuzctsn
report
i;ara>ini.
do not become
ate
ni
dependence
One cannot depend on
of that sort>
!
here
I
Ikcda san.
that
?
.
how having done
you
i>
ka
that
!
again
(for are naru)
have begun such
kttchi no warm koto
mouth
bad thing
is
?
mata
)
there
Has
kita ka ?
are
(tot
What
?
come
that carpenter
of are, ano, etc.
reports
THE PRONOUN.
22.
'
Ka,
The words
that.'
column have the same meaning as the
in this
corresponding words in the previous one but they are much
less commonly used and only by educated people.
They
belong properly to the book language. Kano has some-
times the meaning
In
'
a certain.'
some phrases kare
is still in
common
use.
Examples.
Kare kore him
noon
desu.
Kare kore iwazu
Nanno
go
nani no} kanno
(for
kare
MO)
makebe beaten
to
oshimi
wo itta.
reluctance
said
wa
Hito
is
just
about noon.
None of your objections, but
be off with you.
to ike.
not saying
(for
It
is
kare kore to
that
people
iwanai keredomo.
not say although
wa
this
He went on talking as much
as to say that he was not going to be beaten.
Though people do not make
any remarks.
Nani ya ka ya.
Anything whatever.
Da, 'who'.
23.
Dare, who,' is the only word in this column, the places of
the others being supplied by the derivatives of do 'which.'
'
Dare da
Who
?
Dare no mosen
Dare
Dare ga
so iimashita ?
who
so
Dare ka
to
/sign of indi-\
tara.
thought
who
blanket
To whom
goes there
he
give
money ?
Who
said so
*
/
omotwhile
I
?
wondered who
?
?
did
said
\rect clause.
I
Whose
?
ni kane wo yatta ?
to money
gave
who
is it ?
it
was.
the
THE PRONOUN.
26
Do, 'which.'
24.
Dore, 'which.' An old form of dore is idzure which
in use in the sense at all events,' at any rate.'
It
'
still
'
here put short for idzure ni mo,
Donata,
(for
dono knta,
'
which
substitute for dare, 'who.'
is
'
lit.
A
whichever
in
more
is
(ca'se).'
used as a polite
side'), is
still
is
respectful phrase
donata sama.
From
of our
somehow
'
or other,'
somehow,' both of which words have nearly the force
'
doka,
'how,' are formed dozo,
do,
'
please.'
Examples
Dore
which
masu?
iv a
yoroshiu
Which do you
gozari-
prefer
?
is
good
Dono func ?
Dono gurai yoroshiu
Which
gozari-
what quantity good
masu ?
Doka
somehow
of dore, etc.
?
ship
How much
do you require
Please do,
beg of you.
?
is
o
negai
(hon.)
beg
I
mdsktmasti*
(humble word.)
Do
how
hanashi
in
called
talk
What
de
is
all
it
about?
(predicate)
gozariinasu ka ?
is
?
Donata dc
Who
gozainiasu, ?
who
is
Donnani ureshi ka shirema-
how much
joyful
there
is
?
(polite.)
cannot
?
cannot
I
I
lighted
tell
you
how
de-
am.
scnit.
know
Do
how
What
shlyu ?
shall
shall
I
do?
do
Dore ! dore ! kore
which which this
desu,
ka?
is
?
Let
it
this
me
see
one
?
!
let
me
see
!
is
THE PRONOUN.
Doann
ka
yosii
state of affairs
to
?
27
Wondering what
was
affairs
the state of
.
omotte.
thinking
Ima
now
idzure
DO
wa
kokoro-atari
mind
nai ga,
not
is
hit'
tadzunete
mimashd.
having inquired will see
Do
make
i
nqu
j ri
have nobody
I
at
events
al j
I
in
will
es .
do you propose to do
?
do
nasaimashita ka?
ka
somehow have done
Sono shUgiin
wa Napoleon
general
to dochi ga tsuyu gozaimasu ?
and which strong
is
Do
Which
how having thought even
over
the
is
general or
No
mo.
kangayete
Is anything the matter with
you
?
?
that
that
stronger
Napoleon?
how
matter
I
think
it.
Na, 'what.'
25.
is
but
What
nasaimasii ?
how
At present
view
There
Nani, 'what,' is used of inanimate objects only.
no adjective form. Nani no, usually contracted into nan-
no or dono,
is
used instead.
is for na-zo-ye, zo being an emphatic and ye
an exclamatory particle. See Chap. X.
Nanihodo, contracted into nambo, is used by the Japanese
of the central and western provinces instead of the familiar
'
Naze,
ikura,
'
why,'
how much,'
of Tokio.
Examples
Nanda
(for
nani de
am)
of nani etc.
What
?
matter
What
Kono mono wa nanda ?
this thing
what is
Sono
gunman
that
man-of-war
to in ?
called
wa
nan'
what
What
ca u e d
or
is
it ?
is
this
what
is
the
?
?
is
thing
that
?
man-of-war
THE PRONOUN.
28
What have you come to do
what has brought you here ?
Nan: shi
what do
ni
kiln ?
to
have come
Nan!
what
iniimawo hitonce horse having
here at once.
nani narcba)
Well then
What
? sugiini
at
?
(nonsense)! lead the horse
koi.
te
come
led
Nannara
because
(for
ivatakushi
to
mo
hitna desu kara,
leisure is because
I
o
iotno
'i-o
to
is
good
do,
have nothing
have you any objections
my accompanying
you
?
?
?
Suppose you go along with me.
issho
Nani shiro
what do(imperative) together
nasal.
ni iki
(polite imperative)
Bimbu da
kokoro
nan'to
in
what
called
poor
wo
I
itashitc-
yoroshiu gosaimasu ka
even
go
as
accompany having done
(hon.)
mo
!
what
it is
heart
Putting away the feeling that
was poor
I
or anything of that sort.
haislnte.
giving up
Yubin-bato ni shi-kotnu to ka
train that ?
post-pigeon as
nani
to ka ittc.
something that
Nani
yd
desii
(hon.) business
to
ka
it
as a
of
pigeon or something
that sort.
saying
?
Nan no go
what
Saying he was training
carrier
shiyG
is
wa
do manner
What
ka?
is
your business
?
?
Is
art-
will
there
be done
which
nothing
can
?
tnasnmai ka
?
not be
Naze hayaku konai ?
why quickly not come
Why
Naze
To
why
Nani,
to iyeba.
if
in
don't you
come quickly ?
explain the reason why.
say
the combination
nan'desii
'what
is
it'
and
constantly introduced by some speakers
in a meaningless way, something like our
don't you
know.'
similar phrases,
is
'
THE PRONOUN.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
26.
By
29
the addition of the
pronouns become
particles ka, mo, demo, zo, interrogative
indefinite pronouns.
Dare
'
ka,
somebody.'
Example.
Dare ka shitani matte
below
oru.
Somebody
is
waiting below,
waiting remains
Dare mo, 'anybody,'
is
generally used with a negative
verb.
Examples.
Dare mo
Dare
Nobody knows.
shiranii.
ye
mo
to
even
You
iwanai
not say
don't
tell
anybody,
(imperative.)
yo.
(emph.
part.)
Dare de mo means
'
any one whatever.'
Example.
Dare de mo yoroshiu gozariis
good
Anybody whatever
will do.
masu.
Dore mo,
used
'
any
in a similar
Nani
one,' dore de
way
to dare
mo,
'
any one whatever,' afe
dare de mo.
mo and
'
ka,
something,' anything.'
Examples.
Kono hako no naka
box
ka halite
ni nani
ka
iru
having entered
anything
in this
box
?
?
is ?
Kojikl ni nani kao yari nasare.
do
beggar to
give
Nani mo,
Is there
inside
'
anything at
Give something to the beggar,
all,' is
used with negative verbs.
THE PRONOUN.
30
Example.
Nani mo gozarimasenu.
Nanl
dc mo,
Kono
mits-imc
'
There
nothing at
is
all.
anything whatever.'
Examples.
wn
nanl dc
mo
g irl
This
eats
girl
anything
whatever.
tabcru.
eats
Nani de mo
Nanl
He knows
iru.
shitte
every thing.
zo, usually contracted into nanzo,
another,'
'
something or
'
any.'
Example.
Nanzo omoshiroi
zarimascnu ka
is
Have you not some
shinibun go-
news
diverting
news
to tell
me
diverting
p
?
not
In the
definite,
same way
as doko
where,' dokodemo
may become
interrogative adverbs
'
where,' dokka
doko ka)
(for
'
in-
some-
'
anywhere.'
Example.
Doko ka de mi to.
yd
ni
seen manner
I
think
have
I
seen
(him)
somew here.
omoimasu.
think
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS. Jibun, self,' Jibuti no,
one's own,' is the commonest reflexive pronoun in the
Japanese spoken language. It is sometimes replaced by
'
j
27.
'
Waga means
jishin or onore.
icaa ko, 'one's own child,'
brothers and sisters,'
perhaps some others.
wnga
'
one's
\i~aga
own
'
in
kiodai,
knni, 'one's
own
the phrases
'one's
own
country,' and
THE PRONOUN.
Examples
de
yibun
of jibun etc.
Because
kara
because
dekinai
can't
lending hand
is
Tegami
wa yd
ni
use
letter
It is his
own
fault.
bad
himself
A
tatanai ;
stands not
no use
letter is of
talk to the
man
go and
:
himself.
o hanashi nasare.
Itte
going
do
speak
jibun no
(hon.)
by my-
it
please.
give
ga waru.
Go
can't do
kudasare.
tetsudatte
jishin ni
I
me
help
self,
own
tokl
de
time
at
do at your own time.
It will
yoroshiu gozarltnasu.
it is
good
da
Yokei
na o
sewa
needless (hon.) trouble
jibun no atama no hai
head
wo
brush the
what
is
It
is
so cold,
;
own head.
or
not clear
what they
know
don't
I
my own
whether they are
siitcte,
yibun no inochi wo
life
abandoning
hito
from your
oye.
ka wakaranu.
is ?
want your assistance
flies
drive off
flies
Samukute, jibun no te da ka
hand is ?
being cold own
naii'da
don't
I
:
it is
hands
are.
Throwing away
his
own
life,
he aided others.
wo tasukemashita.
aided
Observe the force of hito
For each
'
'
other,'
tagai ni which
in this sentence.
one another,' Japanese use the adverb
means
'
mutually.'
Examples.
Tagai
ni mite
orimasMta.
They looked
Tagai ni tasukcru.
28.
They
The
RELATIVE PRONOUNS
has no relative pronouns.
verb of the relative clause
the relative pronoun refers.
assist
at
one another.
each other.
Japanese
language
To
is
express the same idea, the
put before the word to which
In the case of passive verbs a
THE PRONOUN.
32
similar construction
man who was
found
is
murdered,'
we
which corresponds exactly
sareta
'
English. Thus, for the
may say, 'the murdered man,'
in
to the
Japanese phrase, koro-
hlto.
Examples.
Anaia ga
o uri nasattajukiscn.
hobune.
Sakujitsu katta
yesterday bought sailing-ship
Hayaku susnmn
Nihon
.
go
language
J a ? an
sold,
The
which (we)
sailing vessel
bought yesterday.
A
fune.
advance ship
quick
The steamer which you
steamer
did
sell
ship
fast
which
sailing
sails
fast,
or
a
ship.
wakara-
A man who
not
stand j apanes e.
does not
under-
hi to.
tt
understand
man
Instead of korosh ita Into, 'the man
ta hlto, 'the man who was killed,'
who
killed,'
is
it
korosare-
possible to say
koroshita tokoro no hito, korosarcta tokoro no Into, tokoro
'place,' but this construction can hardly be said to
belong to the colloquial language. Such phrases, however,
as kiita tokoro niyotte, 'according to what I have heard,'
are not unfrequent.
meaning
OTHER PRONOMINAL WORDS
29.
Hito man'.
'
Hlto
man, the French
It
may
also
on,
mean
'
is
used
:
in a similar
and the English
way
'
one
German
to the
'
or
'
people.'
other people.'
Examples.
Hlto
wo
baka
fool
people
nl
to
shite,
making
You should
peop
i
not
make
fools of
e>
ikenai.
cannot go
Hlto ga
in
say
no
ni.
in
According to what people say.
THE PRONOUN.
H',to no kodomo.
children
Mina,
Mina
Other people's children,
used either alone or after a noun.
is
'all,'
They have
kareta.
Ki ga
Mina
33
The
m'nia karcta.
all
have
trees
How many
de ikutsu ?
Mina
san
yokn
all
Mr.
well (hon.)come
You
irasshai-
are
in
withered.
all
withered.
all?
welcome, Gentle-
all
merii
mashlta.
(past)
Ika (root)
'
how
'
is
as iltani or ikaga,
'
only found in a few combinations such
how,' ikahodo,
'how much.'
Iku, 'what number,' appears in the following combinations
'how many,'
ikutsu,
'how many
flat
'
'
7/57*,
'
itsuzo,
'how much,' ikumai,
ikura,
ikuhoHy'how many
how many
cylindrical
days, ikutari or ikunin,
men,' and other similar phrases.
objects,' ikitka,
many
objects,'
when,'
at
another,'
is
found alone and
some time
itsu
mo
in
or another,' itsuka,
or itsu
demo,
'at
the
'how
combinations
on some day or
any time at all,'
'
'
always.'
Rio-ho,
mo
is
lit.
'both sides,'
commoner.
is
used for 'both,' butdockira
CHAPTER
V.
NUMERALS.
30.
The
Japanese
language
has
two
series
of
numerals, one consisting of original Japanese words, the
other borrowed from the Chinese. The Japanese series
extends no further than
the
number
ten,
after
Chinese numerals only are used.
List of
Numerals
:
JAPANESE.
I
CHINESE.
which
NUMERALS.
35
Larger numbers are expressed by multiples of man.
Ex. 150,000, jiu go man; a million, liiaku man. Consecu-
numerals follow the same order as
tive
in
Ex.
English.
1868. sen hap piaku rokujiu Iiachi.
Rio
'
'
both
sometimes used instead of ni
san nin, two or three persons.'
is
Nana
is
jiu
sometimes
used
instead
such phrases as nana jissen
seventy,' in
'
two as
in
'
the phrase rid
1
'
'
of shichi jiu,
seventy cents.'
The following rules are to be observed in the use
31.
of numerals
:
The
1.
under
only cases in which the Chinese numerals
eleven are employed are alone or before unor monosyllabic
compounded
Ex.
go
jfiu
men;' hap
The
letter
'
kin,
nouns of
'
fifteen
catties
Chinese
roku
origin.
'
nin,
six
piaku (for hachi hiaku), 'eight hundred.'
changes which take place will be best
from the numerous
understood
;
examples
in
32
and
elsewhere.
The Japanese numerals when
2.
prefixed to
nouns of
Japanese origin lose the final syllable tsu.
Tsu
is
really
an old possessive
particle.
Examples.
Two
Futa hako.
Ml
tsutsumi.
Three
Yo
hiro.
Four fathoms.
3.
The
possessive particle no
is
between the numeral and the noun.
'
boxes.
two
4.
parcels.
sometimes introduced
Ex. FutatsU no mono,
things.'
The numeral
is
very often placed after the noun,
NUMERALS.
36
Examples.
Yanm
Two
fittatsf:.
Four oranges.
Miktin yotsK,
The numeral may stand by
5.
mountains.
itself.
Example.
Ikiitsu
Jin
am ?
How many
AUXILIARY
32.
NUMERALS.
seldom that the numeral
?
is
It
joined
is
comparatively
immediately
to
the
be called Auxiliary Numerals are much
correspond to the English phrases, 'six
What may
noun.
in
are there
There are eleven.
ichi gozcirimasii.
use.
head of
They
'four brace
cattle,'
of
'
partridges,'
two pair of
shoes.'
Examples.
Kami
ichlmai.
Hiikimono issoku
(for ichi soku).
Most of these
fall
sheet of paper.
One
pair of shoes.
Eleven merchants
chants eleven men).
Akindo jin i:hi nin.
and
One
mer-
(//.
auxiliary numerals, are of Chinese origin,
A few
i
of the preceding section.
under Rule
are Japanese words, and
tomai, 'one godown.'
fall
under Rule 2 as knra hito
are
They
commonly placed after
the noun, but a construction similar to that described in
Rule 3 is also admissible. Ex. Sanniit no akindo, three
'
merchants.'
These numerals
some
of
them
is
are in daily use, and
absolutely necessary,
a
knowledge of
NUMERALS.
The most common
are
:
37
NUMERALS.
FOR HOUSES. FOR SHIPS.
GLASSES OF WINE,
SHOES.
CUPS OF TEA, ETC.
NUMERALS.
39
ORDINAL NUMBERS. The ordinals are formed by
the word dai or affixing ban to the Chinese
33.
prefixing
numerals.
Dai ichi
Dai ni
Dai san
Dai ski
Dai go
I St.
'
2nd.
3rd.
.
4th.
5th.
Ichi ban.
or
Ni
ban.
,,
Sam
,,
Yo
Go
&c.
ban.
ban.
ban.
&=c.
The
ordinals precede the noun, the possessive particle no
introduced
between.
being
Examples.
Dai
Ni ban
Dai
The
no yakti.
ichi
first,
or highest office.
The second
nofitnc.
ban mean
ichi, ichi
'
literally
often added after ban, as ni ban
ship.
number
me no
one.'
'
fiine,
Me
is
the second
ship.'
FRACTIONS.
34.
in the
Fractional quantities are expressed
is hiaku bun no ni
following manner: ar-iooths
one hundred parts twenty one.)
The
bu
substituted
and
for
bun.
commonly omitted,
Thus for one third the speaker has a choice between
jiu
no
ichi,
(lit.
of
is
'
'
sain
bun
no
ichi
and
sam
no denominator expressed,
are meant.
it
bu
is
When
ichi.
there
Examples.
Hachi
Shichi
te
divided
bu.
bu,sam bu
o kurc.
give
Eight tenths.
ni
wakehavin
is
understood that tenths
Divide
it
into
and three tenths.
seven
tenths
NUMERALS.
4o
One
half
fourth
is
ham
or
han,
sometimes
are
One
bun.
third
and yotsU
milsii ichi
and one
iclii.
These
forms have been sanctioned by usage, but as
a general rule Japanese and Chinese numerals cannot
be combined in this way.
particular
Examples
35Sono
? He;
how much
kasa iva iktira
that umbrella
one piece
masu.
gojisscn de gozari-
ii-a
ippon
.
ga
cents
fifty
kai
o
three pieces (hon.)
nasareba, ichi yen
.if
one
do
Numerals.
How much
One
is
fifty
will
I
three,
is
sambon
;
of
that umbrella
is
sen but
?
if
you buy
make them one yen
twenty sen.
buy
nijissen
ni
twenty cents to
itashimashu.
will
make
Hlfo
tstitsnini
ni
hiakn
one
package
in
hundred
mai
imasu.
piece each having entered is
haitte
dziitsu
tsuki mayc no
two month before
Sore
wafuta
that
koto
da.
thing
is
Minn
de
altogether
change
dollar
ten
(dollars,
in
objects,)
That
a
is
of
thing
two
months ago.
altogether
?
There are seven.
s<lba
rate of ex-
kiita
ka
have heard
He, hiakn mai
Yes, hundred piece
jiii
flat
each package.
How many
ikntsu ?
Konnichi dora no
KO
other
how many
Nanatsii gozarimasu.
to-day
There are one hundred
shirts, or
?
Have
rate
you
heard
what
the
of exchange for dollars
to-day
is
?
?
ni
hiakn
in
hundred
Yes,
it
is
no
yen
for
100
dollars.
yen de gozarimasu.
are
Kore yori nan' ri hodo ant ?
this from what
quantity is
How many
ri
is
it
from here
?
NUMERALS.
hoka
Shiclii liachi ri
seven eight
eight
loa gozarimascnii.
not more
than seven or
ri ,
not
is
Ni
It is
(or shika)
other
4!
san
Two
gen.
or three
houses,
two three houses
Shi go
Four or
nlchi.
Nan' dokl desu?
or
Nan'
ji
What
five days.
o'clock
is
it?
desu ?
Kare kore yoji de gozarimasu.
that
It is just
Iku
iro
how many
arimasu ka
colours are
?
How many
In
Midzu wo hlto kuchi
Water
one mouth
Give
kurero.
yiu-nin
men
obstacle
to-iro.
10 colour
there
?
all,
there are nine kinds,
me
a mouthful of water.
give
Hitotsu no samatage ga
one
kinds are
?
Sutai de kokono iro gozarimasu.
all
in nine colours there are
10
about four o'clock,
this
artt.
There
is
one obstacle.
there is
As many men,
as
many
minds.
CHAPTER
VI,
THE VERB.
J
36.
.pressing
The
verb in
Japanese has
distinctions of
number
person.
Kastt, for instance,
lendest,'
'he lends,'
no
means
of
ex-
except indirectly, of
mean, 'I lend,' thou
or,
'
may
'we, you, or they lend,'
according
to circumstances.
In the spoken language there are two conjugations of
The following table shows the terminations of the
verbs.
principal parts in each conjugation
:
THE VERB.
43
As the Japanese language does not possess the sounds
tn, ti
and
chi
si, tsu,
and ski are substituted wherever they
This will explain several
are required by the conjugation.
apparent irregularities
in the
above
table.
The conjugation of shitnan would be shimawi, shiinawa,
i, wi, wu and
sJiimau'H, shimawe, but, as is explained in
we
/,
are
n
unknown
syllables in Japanese, being replaced
by
and ye.
To
each of the principal parts of the verb, certain
In this way forms
particles or terminations are annexed.
i
38.
some degree similar to the moods and
tenses of European grammars.
These terminations are
shown in the annexed tables.
are produced in
It will
be observed that in most cases they are merely
to the verb without any change.
This is
tacked on
what
is
of this
called
'
method
agglutination,' and
in
it
owing
to the prevalence
has been rightly called an
Japanese
There are however several cases
agglutinative language.
where something more than mere 'tacking on' has taken
The future, kaso, which contains three elements,
place.
Kaso is for
together, is an example.
the
root
of
base
kas-\-a -}-mu,
-{-future particle.
-f- sign
neg.
Matta, the past tense of matsii, 'to wait,' is another case
closely
welded
where the
original
elements have been so consolidated
together as to be quite indistinguishable on a superficial
Matta is for mach -\-i-\-te -\-ar-\-u, i.e. the
examination.
root
+ sign
of stem-f-sign of participle -f- root of
be'-j-sign of indie,
In
verb 'to
mood.
some cases the terminations
treated of in this chapter
are really identical with particles described in Chapter IX.
Those readers who prefer the more old fashioned style of conjugation
according to moods and tenses are referred to the table given at the
end of this chapter, but they are recommended to master at least the
principle of the formation of the various tenses before proceeding further.
44
39-
THE VERB.
CONJUGATION
Kasu, to lend.
Stem
I.
THE VERB.
40-
CONJUGATION
Taberu, to eat.
Stem
45
II.
THE VERB.
46
i
The following examples show the letter-changes
41.
which take place when the stems of verbs of the first
conjugation ending in chi, ri, ki, gi, i preceded by a vowel,
or bi come before the terminations te, ta, tarcba, tarn,
mi
taraba, taro, tari, and tarcdo.
Mnclii-tc
becomes matte, machita
Ari-tc
Kaki-tc
,,
kaite.
Tsugi-te.
,,
tsuide or tsuifc.
Shimai-te
,,
shimatte.
Omoi-tc
,,
Yomi-te
,,
yondc.
Yobi-te
,,
yonde.
Exception
j
42.
and the
:
inatta, etc.
attc.
,,
omotte.
becomes
Iki-tc (iku 'to go')
itte
not
lite.
IRREGULAR VERBS. Kuril 'to come,' sum 'to do'
polite auxiliary masu are somewhat irregular.
Their conjugation
is
given below.
For the future of kuru, koyd is best. Kiyo, which is also
is not so good.
Kd is sometimes heard in the phrase
used,
itte
ko ka,
'
having gone
shall
I
come.'
to do,' seyo is sometimes
heard, and for the negative future semai, some people say
siunai or shimni.
But these forms are less correct than
Instead ofsho, the future of sum,
'
those given in the tables.
Masu has no
we must
desiderative
shltai,
Mase
(imperative)
Masuru
speakers.
say
is
is
ikito
form.
Instead
gozaimasii
'I
of
ikinm-
wish to
go.'
pronounced mashi by careless
more formal, and less common than
often
masu.
Masu
js
not
now
in
use as a separate word, but only
to form polite tenses.
combined with other verbs
THE VERB.
Kuril, to come.
Stem
47
48
44-
Stem
THE VERB.
Snnt, to do.
THE VERB.
45-
Stem
Masii, to be.
49
THE VERB.
5O
$
THE STEM" OR
46.
1.
stem
As
is
will
INDEFINITE
FORM. KasJii,
have been seen from the above
tabe.
the
tables,
used as a base to which some of the terminations
are added.
2.
The stem
is
used to form
compounds with nouns,
adjectives, or other verbs.
Examples.
A house
'
Kashiya.
to
let,'
from kashl, stem
of kasii, 'to lend,' and ya, 'a
house.'
Kimono.
'
Clothes,' from ki, stem of kirn,
and mono,
clothe,'
'
Migjiriislu,
'
Ugly,' from mi, stem of mint,
see,'
and
'
to
'
to
a thing.'
'
ktirushi, painful,
dis-
tressing.'
'
Arigatai.
It is difficult to
be
am much
'
(I
obliged), from an, stem of ant,
'
to be
'
and
'
katai,
'
hard,
dif-
ficult.'
'To
Bitchikorosii.
korosu,
'To
Shiagcnt.
Sara
ma
kara,
because
kumotte
clouded
furi-st'na
ambni
fall
state
to do,'
The sky
imasu.
is
i
'
finish,'
'
sky
from
beat to death,'
stem of
butsit,
to
and
kill.'
from
shi,
stem of
and agent,
is
bitchi,
'to beat,'
clouded
'
;
sum
to raise.'
it
looks
ike rain .
dcsu.
*
The form which in previous editions of this work was termed the
Root is now called the Stem or Indefinite Form for reasons which have
been very convincingly put by Mr. B. H. Chamberlain in a short paper
read before the Asiatic Society of Japan, to which I am indebted for this
improvement. It is possible, however, that such stems as kuslii are after
all really roots, the / not being a termination but merely a sound added
comply with the
end with a vowel.
in order to
rule that in
Japanese every syllable must
THE VERB.
As soon as my business
snmi-shidai ni.
Yd
business finish order in
I will send
shidai ni okiirimaslw.
made.
order will send
Dcki
made
is
Furi-sona
in
is
finished.
it
as soon as
it is
furi-so-nam], sumi-shidai and deki-shidai
(for
these sentences should be regarded as compounds.
The stem
3.
is
often a noun.
Examples.
O
kamai nasaimasuna.
do not
(hon.) care
O
mo
wakarl
understanding
(hon.)
Please don't mind.
You
will
probably not under-
stand, but
arimasumai ga.
will
not be
but
M<>
o kaycri ni nntta.
has become
already return
Naka-naka
o
kiki-ire
middle-middle listen-take-in
He
He
has already gone away,
utterly
refused to listen to
me.
ga nakatta.
was not
KOHO shina mochi wa yorothis
article
hold
This
article
wears well.
is
ski.
good
Shitnai ni
end
Ml
natta.
to has
ni ikimashita.
see to
I
went
I
have come
to ?ee.
went
Kai ni kimashita.
buy to come
Cha wo nomi nagara.
tea
It is finished.
become
to buy.
Whilst drinking
tea.
drink whilst
Negative tenses are formed by prefixing the stem followed by the particle iva or r,io to the negative forms of
the verbs sum or itasu, 'to do.' These forms are more
emphatic than the corresponding simple tenses of the verb,
THE VERB.
52
and are
in
common
very
Wa
use.
in this position is
com-
monly pronounced ya.
Examples.
Kono
miiiafo
kaknrcta
hidden
lit
harbour
art iva
hi'ct
rock
iva (or ya) shlmasenu.
Darcmo
won't wait.
I
There
orl iaa itashhnascnu-
any one remain
is
nobody
here,
does not
Kaiuai ya shlnai.
care
don't care,
I
don't
Mad a
ki ya
come
shimasiiinai.
The Stem
is
He
can't have
He
will not die.
come
yet.
do
will not
Shini via Itashimasumal.
die
will not do
4.
in
?
do not
wait
yet
harbour
ya) shlnai ka?
do not ?
(or:
is
Machi
Are there no hidden rocks
this
the subject of a rule of Syntax which is
is occasion-
very important in the written language, and
ally exemplified in the
Rule.
When
two
spoken language.
or
more
consecutive
sentence contain verbs in the same
last
verb only takes
mood and
the
clauses of a
mood and tense, the
distinctive
termination of the
those which precede are put in
the stem or indefinite form,
so called because it has no
mood
tense,
or tense of
its
the indefinite form
This rule
is
and
is
all
own.
In the case of Negative Forms,
the participle in zu.
the counterpart for verbs of the rule given
Chap. VII.
for Adjectives in
Examples.
Maine wo makcba, mame
if sow
beans
beans
have, asa no tane
grow hemp
asa
seed
dckint.
ga
hemp becomes.
wo makcba,
if
If
go,
sow
and
h
you sow beans, beans grow,
if
you sow hemp seed)
grows,
THE VERB.
A
Watnkushi no ydna bimbosort of
I
wa
nln
am
zcni no
man
cash
kal, nal
toki ni
Tdkiu no ho yc o idc da
side
ari,
to
say
yappari uchi ni
still
mo
There
to tu
go
are
o idc da
me
like
buys
wa, kaivanai.
do not buy
toki
hltomo
wa
man
poor
when he has money> an j does
when he has nonenot b
time
is
buy not time
people
poor
53
home
tnat he
u
is
are
j
s
who
say
Tokio,
and
people
gO n g
;
to
also said that he
is
;
at
to stay at
in.
home.
also say
Mircdomo, miyczu; kikedothough see can't see though
mo
kikoycnal.
Though they
.
not see
th
they can-
look,
ou gh they
listen,
they
cannot hear.
hear cannot hear
The
student should not attempt to imitate this conwhich is not very common in ordinary conversation.
Instead of hayc, kai, it is better to say hayeru
struction,
ga,
kaii
ga.
For
ari,
areba
is
better,
and
for miyezu,
miyenai.
THE PAST
47.
The
termination
PARTICIPLE.
te
of the past participle
an obsolete verb tsuru
stem of
Kashite, tabetc.
'
to
is
finish.'
really the
This ac-
being occasionally like other stems used
as you are
as a noun, as in the phrase shitte no tori
aware.'
It also follows that such phrases as matte one,
he is waiting,' are really examples of the rule of
counts for
its
'
1
syntax given in the preceding section, matte being the
Indefinite
Form.
The term Past Participle is not free from objection, as
is by no means the
only use of this form. It must
this
sometimes be rendered by the present participle, and it
lias no reference to time, but describes the
sometimes
manner
of the action of the verb which follows.
THE VERB.
54
Examples.
Di.ko ye
kila?
ittc
Where has he been
to?
where having gone has come
Motfc
kite
age-
having taken having come
I
will bring
I
got
for you.
it
I
will cffer
Kami wo
moratta.
kitte
Dare ka Yokohama made
as far as
somebody
wo yondc
having read
that post-card
naii to
it fa
what
said
nl
wa
nottc miro
riding see
hito
;
man
sottc
tmro.
associating see
mo
What did he say
read that p o s t-card ?
Try a horse by
try
A
suwaitc mo, ncdan
standing
wa
to
somebody
me.
to
go
for
when
he
man by
a
riding
assoc i a fmg
him
w
j
t
;
h
him.
ga attc no tagiu.
Yoji
business being journey
Tattc
want
?
horse
wa
I
Yokohama
wish to receive
I
Sono hagaki
ni
hair cut.
moraltai.
ittc
having gone
1
my
having cut received
hair
sitting
price
journey on business.
It
as
is
cheap
sitting
as
stan ding.
onaji koto.
same thing
O
furo
bath
ni
mo
ittc
May
I
go to the bath
?
having gone
yoroshiu gozarimasii ka?
good
Haitte
is
?
mo
having entered
daiji
great thing
It
does
not
you come ( or go
matter,
j
even
in-
not,
is
not
Ittc
shimatta.
He
has gone away.
He
has eaten
having gone has finished
Kashi
cakes
shimatta.
eating has finished
u'o tabctc
all
the
cakes.
if
THE VERB.
Amari
tabctc iva
biuki
much
too
55
You
iii
ill
eat too
will
become
much
_
if
ill
you
naru.
become
The
last example shows that the Past Participle with
added may. be used as equivalent to the Conditional
Form in cba. Te iva is in the common Tokio dialect
iva
Te
pronounced cha.
iva has not
always the force of the
Conditional.
Example.
He
Nete
wa imascnu.
having lain down remains not
Note the
1
difference
The
which
not gone to bed.
meaning between
in
and kashita kara,
after lending,'
THE PAST TENSE.
48.
is
'
kashite kara,
because he
lent.'
Kashita, tabeta.
ta of the past tense is a shortened
contracted for
form of taru,
being the termination of the past participle, and
the verb to be.'
In the written language taru has a perfect significaitself
is
te-arti,
te
am
tion, the
slii
or hi
simple past tense being indicated by the particle
added to the stem.
These latter forms are
obsolete in
to
spoken language, where ta is oftener a
than a perfect, although the latter use is
the
simple past
not unknown.
went
'
Yokohama ye
'
Yokohama,' or
itta
may mean,
either
he has gone to Yokohama.'
'
he
If
desired to
bring out the perfect signification distinctly, the past participle with oru or iru is employed,
as Yokohama ye itte oru, itte iru or itteru,
he has
it
is
'
gone to Yokohama,'
lit.
'
having gone to Yokohama he
remains.'
Like the other tenses of the Indicative Mood, the Past
Tense may stand
Verb, as a no
Into
to other
wa
words
kita,
in the relation (i), of a
'he came or has come,'
(2),
THE VERD.
of an Adjective,"
man who
'
there
is
As
He came
kita.
to-day
came
What
shimashita ?
how
The
'the
a Verb.
Kid
Do
i.e.
ni sui nai
of the Past Tense,
Examples
i.
came man'
as kita Into, 'the
has come,' or (3), of a Noun, as kita
no mistake about his having come.'
to-day.
has happened to him
?
has done
past tense
the present
sometimes used where
is
preferred, as
is
wakarimashUa
As an Adjective.
Kono aida kashita kanc.
this interval lent
money
in
English
'I understand.'
2.
The
days
Kcsa
tabcmashlta nashi.
ate
morning
pear
money
I
some
lent
ago.
The
pears
I
ate this morning.
this
Kioncn nofuyu uafakushino
last
year
my
winter
tokoro ni kita
The man who came
to
my
place in the winter of last year.
Into.
came man
place
Kanc
money
kuni
country
'co
tamcta
de
iiye
collected
upon
He
ni kaycrn.
returns
going back
he has
is
to
his
amassed
after
country
some money.
The
past tense, as an adjective,
by the particle no.
is
followed
frequently
Examples.
Nita
no yori
boiled
than
wa
yakcta no
I
prefer roast to boiled,
roast
yoroshiu gozarimasii.
is
good
Shinda no ja nai ka
dead
is not ?
Iina
now
iv ami
is
*
bad
Cf.
jibitn
maitla
time
came
ka
Is
?
no
ga
?
?
28 Relative Pronoun.
Am
this
not a dead one
it
I
wrong
time
?
to
?
have come
at
THE VERB.
Shhnbun
no
kimashita so
come
thing
a
the
come
have
they
newsp aper.
desii.
Noun.
Itta
I wish I had gone (' I am glad I
went' would be itta no wayokatta).
ga yokatta.
was good
.
the having gone
Maketa
ni
There
chigai
mistake
the being beaten
wa
seems
It
about
it is
As
3.
de
koto
newspaper
57
is
no mistake about his
having been beaten>
nal.
not
is
When
wo mireba.
when saw.
Tori-otoshlta
take dropped
I
looked
what he
at
had dropped.
What sort of a
who picked it up
Hiroi-totte
knreta
pick up having taken gave
wa do in
Into de atta ?
how called man
was
was
person
for
me
it
?
Takke, a contraction for tari-kern of the written lanis sometimes employed as a sort of past termination.
It is however used only as a verb, and not as an
guage,
and generally indicates that the speak-
adjective or noun,
er
doubt or trying to remember.
in
is
Examples.
Ano
otoko
that
man
wa
nan''
What was
to
man's name
that
?
what
iiioshiinashitakke
?
called
A
sayd deshitakke
it was
thus
!
ah
!
Cfiotto
a
Ah
!
nan' to ka iimashi1
!
what
called
moshi o Kane don ka ?
little
takke
;
that
I
say
name
!
is ?
is
how
what
shall
it
was
is
j
say
this
!
your
o Kane
?
?
suppose
Don shows
49.
that
!
it is
who
a servant
is
addressed.
THE CONDITIONAL AND THE HYPOTHETICAL FORMS
OF THE PAST TENSE.
Tareba, taraba are for
commonly
still
te
Kashitcireba,
areba,
te
tabetareba.
araba.
further contracted into tara.
Tareba
is
THE VERB.
50
There was originally a
between tareba and taraba, the
distinction
former relating to an event which has actually happened or is probable, the use of the latter implying that the event has not happened at all, or is put as a mere supposition. But this distinction is now
lost
and both forms are used indiscriminately, there being a tendency
for taraba to fall out
'
if
lent,'
he shall have
'when he had
lent,'
in
of use.
may mean
Kashitareba
not only if he lent,' but
since he has lent,'
lent,'
'
'
'
lent,'
when he
shall
have
'if
'
he* had
when he
lent.'
The compound tense kashlta nara is very generally used
much the same sense as kashltareba.
Nara is here for
iiareba, the Conditional Present of narn, 'to be.'
Examples
of tareba, taraba, tara
Sore ga
wakattarcba,
when have understood
that
ato
and
ta nara.
when) we have under-
If (or
stood that) the rest
is
easy
iva yasni.
rest
is
easy
Tfikiu
ikimashi tareba
ye
when
I
have gone
As soon as I have gone
Tok o> j will order some-
to
;
chfimon shhnashu.
will do
order
S~>
mushimashitareba,
when
so
I
mlna
said
all
When
I
said so, they all flew
into a pass i on .
okorlmashlta.
flew into a passion
Benten wo
tootara
kaji
when passed
ga
fire
When
I
passed Benten a
fire
broke out
dekimashita.
was made
Ittaraba,
if
had gone
wa
na koto
knv~>
this kind of thing
(h'kinai
hadzu
not become
necessity
If
this
he had gone, nothing of
kind could have ha p pened
.
dc
arhnashita.
was
* It
may be well to repeat here a remark which has been already
made, viz., that the Japanese Verb has no person, and that where the
pronoun he is introduced in the English version, any other pronoun
would do as well.
'
'
THE VERB.
Kitaraba
da.
taihen
come great change
if should
sum
how do
Shinimashltarcba do
died
if
is
?
ga shinimashitara do
Oya
how
died
if
parents
skimashltaro ?
59
would be a
It
terrible thing if
he came.
What would you
If his parents
do, if
had
would he have done
he died
died,
?
what
?
would have done
Isshoni
kitcircba yok'atta.
if had
together
dare ka
!
oh
to
who
!
come good was
omottara,
while I thought
It would have been well
had come along with us.
Oh!
I
wondered who
it
if
he
was.
Mr. Fujita?
kun ka.
Mr. ?
Fiijita
1 wan 11
to
not say
that
moshitara,
said
when he
kanarazu
iumai
to
certainly
will not say
that
thought he
he had
I
when
would
would not
once
tell,
said
he
not.
sonjimashita.
thought
Kowashita nara, naze kowabroke
sh'ita
to
why
if
watakushi nl
me
broke
If
you broke
me know
that
it,
why
you broke
not
let
it ?
koto-
to explana-
wari wo iwanai ka?
not say
tion
?
THE PROBABLE
50.
PAST, OR PERFECT FUTURE.
Ka-
shitaro, tabetaro.
The
te
termination taro of this tense
aro, aro being the future of
It
is
retically
little
it
am
'
is
a contraction for
to be.'
used as a noun or adjective, although theo-
might be so employed.
Examples.
Mo
shlinai
already finish
taro.
become
ni
narimasMwill have
It
is
finished
probably
by
this
will
(or
time
.
be)
THE VERB.
6o
DTi
What
wake dc gozari-
in
how
called reason
will
have
reason
have
could
been
the
?
mashitarij ?
been
Kimashitaru ka?
Do you
Dctaru.
He
Sazo go
You must
dc gozari-
taikiitsii
ennui
surely
will
think he has
have
come
?
has probably gone out.
the time
surely have
long
found
.
mashitaro.
been
THE ALTERNATIVE FORM.
51.
The
te
termination tari of this
Kasliitari, tabctari.
form
is
a contraction for
an.
A
Verb
form
in this
is
one or more other verbs
nearly always accompanied
same form.
by
in the
Examples.
nl kokorodzukai kake-
Oya
hung
anxiety
oya ivo nakasctari no fitunmake weep
parents
tari,
kd
filial
ti'O
conduct
Kono amc ga
rain
this
sitni
tenki u-a
ye
now
n
I
don't
it
ni
iranai.
and
i
not enter
wrapping up sleeve
irctarishUc.
putting in doing
Jitsu nl ncgattari kanattari
begging
granting
like
is
now
to
making
this
weather,
alternately
eav ing
Wrapping
towel and
his
truly
con-
anxiety
them weep.
when
ki
unfilial
gi v ; ng
and
pare nts,
falling stopping
ni tsittsiindari tamoto
towel
his
reformed his
;
futtari yandari
mind
do weather
Tcnugui
arntamcta.
reformed
He
duct
raining
off.
some
up
putt ing
in
his
others
into
sleeve<
Indeed
sooner
it
asked
is
for
^
a
case
of
no
than granted
.
dc gozarimasu.
is
Anata wa hi to U'o koroslntayou
people
killing
rl
zoku
U'o
robbery
nrimascnu
is not
hatarakn kokoro a-a
work
to.
if
heart
If
you have
commit murder
no
or
wish
robbery
to
.
THE VERB.
Midzu wo knndari
nani ka
drawing something
water
shltc
6l
Please
and
the
draw water
for
me,
i ike>
o kure.
doing
give
The
termination tari originally had no alternative meaning, and in some of the above phrases the alternative
force is not very evident.
j
52.
THE CONCESSIVE
This form
ta to iyedo,
commonly
added to
is
lit.
still,
all
not
PAST.
Kashltaredo, tabetaredo.
much
used, being replaced by kasJilthough one say that (he) lent,' or more
by kashita keredo. Mo 'even' is often
'
these forms.
the correct trans-
is
'Though'
lation of the concessive terminations but
it is
usually
more
convenient to render them in English by placing 'but', at
the beginning of the subsequent clause.
Example.
Yohodo
much
inayc
before
ni
iao
Itanc
money
I
time
kashita kercdo, niada kaycshilent
returned
although yet
lent
him
ago>
re t urnecj
it
but
money
a
he
has
long
not
vet
mascnii.
not
Kashlte
mo
meaning, but
is
it
is
also
much used with
nearly the
of no special tense, and
same
may
be either
Kashitai,
tabetai.
present, past or future.
i
53.
DESIDERATIVE
ADJECTIVE.
See Chap. VII.
54.
THE POLITE FORM. Kashimasu,
conjugation of this form
see Chap. XII.
55.
THE- NEGATIVE
use as separate words.
is
given in
45.
tabemasu.
For
its
The
use,
BASE.
Kasa, tabe are not in
This form has no meaning by itself.
THE VERB.
62
THE NEGATIVE PRESENT
56.
INDICATIVE.
Kasanu,
tcibcnii.
The
u of
final
form
this
very distinct pronunciation
is
inaudible,
aimed
is
at.
except when
The Japanese
themselves often omit
it in
writing the spoken language.
Instead of this form, the Tokio dialect generally prefers
the Negative Adjective kasanai, tabenai.
(See Chap. VII.)
Like the other tenses of the Indicative Mood, the Negamay be either a verb, an adjective or a noun.
tive Present
(See remarks on the Past Tense.)
Examples.
1.
As a Verb.
Kane ga
money
.
dckinti
is
not
made
to,
ho-
if
all
bu kara kakctori ga kuru d'ard.
.
..
...
r
sides from
dun
come will
If
kiri
arckkiri)
(pron.
is
not
procured,
coming from
_ii
._ r<
all niiarl
iludiLCis.
Shiran it.
Are
money
there will be duns
I
don't know.
I
have never seen him since,
that cut off
aimascnii.
not meet
(The
last
example shews that this form
sometimes used where we have a
is
past tense.)
Sora
that
!
!
ivaraioanu
not laugh
to
tc,
waratta
said
laughed (pred.)
de
mushi-
having
iva nai
is
There!
after
i
have you not laughed
iav j ng sa ;d you
wou id
not
?
ka?
not
?
(This example illustrates the principle that in Japanese there are no special
forms for indirect narration. If a man says u'uniisnn"i 'I won't laugh' the same
word warau-anti is used in repeating v.-hat he said, though in English we change 'will'
into 'would.' For warawami as a future see the section on the Future Form).
2.
As an
Adjective.
Shiranu.
koto
not-know
thing
wa gozarima-
He
certainly knows.
is
scnu.
not
Shiranii
koto
am
mono
not-know thing existing thing
ka ? (vulgarly moiika).
is?
Don't
tell
me you
don't know.
THE VERB.
DekitiH
not-can-do
wa
toki
shikata
do-manner
time
If
can't be done, there
it
help for
is
no
it.
nai.
ga
is
not
A man whom
Shiran ti hi to.
(also,
ivakaranu.
Ycigo
English words not-understand
a
man who
A man who
s tand
I
know,
don't
does not know.)
does
under-
not
English.
Into.
man
mo
Ichl
ncn
one
year
Before even a year had passed.
tatanii
even not-stand
nchi iii.
within
As
3.
a
Noun.
I don't know (a very humble
form of expression used by people
of the lower classes to their
Shirimasenii dc gozaimasu.
not-know
is
superiors).
Diimo ski ya shi nai kara
do not because
any how do
dc
nigenii
mo
the not-running-away even
O
ki
(hon.)
I
won't
ii.
good.
wo
iranii
ni
mind
is
You needn't run away,
do anything to you.
Correct
not-enter
(in
what
displeases
you
me).
o naoshl nasare.
mend
do
A number
of
dc aro, de atta,
Compound Tenses
etc., to the
are formed by adding
Negative Form (or the Neg.
Adj.) taken as a noun.
Examples.
SkiranH
not-knowing
Kamawanu
d'aro.
will be
d'attaro.
not-caring probably
57.
He
probably does not know.
He
probably did not care.
was
THE NEGATIVE
PAST. Kasananda, tabenanda. This
usually replaced in the Tokio dialect by kasanakatta,
tnbenakatta, the predicate form of the negative adjectives
form
is
THE VERB.
64
(kasanaku tabcnaku] combined with the past tense of ant,
to be,' the u final being elided before the a of am.
'
Kasanii (or kasanai] de atta
also be used to express
may
same meaning.
the
Examples.
Ikimasenanda.
I
Sonnani yasiiku wa urananda
so
did-not-sell
cheap
did not go.
I
did not sell
I
was so taken up by the con-
so cheap as that,
it
(or uranakatta.}.
Hanashi
nl
ukarete
talk
on
floated
ki ga
mind
versat i on tna t
did not notice
I
it.
tsitkananda.
not-stick
A
Japanese often uses the negative of the present tense
where the past seems to us more
or the negative adjective
suitable.
O
Thus,
ka
ide nasatta
for
'
I
in
answer
Did you go
to the question,
?
? the reply will very likely be, Ikimasenu,
did not go.'
This
is particularly true in the case of indirect clauses
or where the Negative Past, if used, would be an adjective
or a noun.
Examples.
Chnmon
order
iu
shita ka scnu ka to
did
?
do not ?
koto
wo
called thing
ha:iashlte
talking
otta.
They were
tion of
discussing the ques-
whether
it
had been order-
e d or not. (Note that the Japanese
prefers the Active to the Passive
construction).
remained
Ki'> made itoma
to-day until leave
nai
mono.
wo
negatednot-
Those who have not resigned
up
till
to . day<
request person
From
the Negative Past are formed a Negative Past Alkasanandarl, tabcnnndari, a Negative Past
ternative,
Conditional,
kasanandareba,
tabcnandarcba,
a
Negative
THE VERB.
65
Past Hypothetical, kasanandaraba, tabenandaraba, a NegaPast Concessive, kasanandarcdo, tabenandaredo, and
tive
a
Probable
Negative
tabenandaro.
kasanandaro,
Past,
These forms have not been included in the scheme of conjugation, as most of them are not very common, and their
formation
is
Like other negative forms they
very simple.
are frequently .replaced by compound tenses formed with
the help of the Negative Adjective.
THE NEGATIVE
58.
CONDITIONAL.
tabc-
Kasancba,
neba.
These
are
negative forms
the
corresponding to the
positive forms kaseba, tabereba.
Example.
made ts&kuraneba,
to-morrow until if not make
Mionichi
If he does not
morrow
hoka de atsitrayern.
elsewhere order
where
j
shall
make
it
order
it
by
to-
some .
else
This part of the verb followed by the negative of nam,
'
'
English auxiliary verb
to become,' gives the force of the
'
must,
as in the following example
Mawarancba
if
naranu.
not go round does not
Te wo arawancba
if not wash
hand
The naranu
is
I
must go round,
I
must wash
become
naranu..
sometimes allowed
the following example
my
hands,
to be understood, as in
:
Ikancba,
I
The Negative
:
must go.
Adjective followed by
te
wa
is
same way, and is commoner. See Chap. VII.
The final ba of the Negative Conditional is
used
in the
often pro-
nounced ya.
For
'
if
he 'does not lend
'
one can also say kasanakereba,
kasanii kereba, kasanii toki wa, kasanai toki wa, kasanii
THH VERB.
66
mini, kasanu
kiisamii
mini,
might be drawn
kisanai
to,
to,
kasanaku
tc
though some slight distinctions
the meaning and application of these
dc
or kas'imii
ion
w.i,
in
phrases.
j
THE NEGATIVE HYPOTHETICAL.
59.
Kasazuba, tabe-
zuba.
Kasazuba, tabczuba are the negatives corresponding to
They have sometimes an m inserted for
kasaba, tabeba.
euphony before the termination
In practice they are
ba.
confounded with the conditional forms.
Examples.
Konnichi tune ga
Tsukiji
furazitba,
if not fall
rain
to-day
tomo
o
ye
I
want to go with you to
Tsu kiji, if it does not rain
tod
accompanying
itashitil
gozaitnasu.
am
wish-to-do
Shiiski)
a
little
k'msii
money
wo
tsukattasanot spend
if
It will
Httle
be necessary to spend a
money
.
narimasSmai.
zjtba
will not
60.
become
THE NEGATIVE CONCESSIVE.
Kasanedo, tabenedo.
Example.
Hakodate ye
yohodo
samui
cold
very
itte
mint' Jo,
going
see not
ySsu
seem
dc
Though
I
have not gone
Hakodate and seen
am
i
n forme d that
it
for myself,
is
to
I
very cold
there.
gozmmasu.
is
is not much used, being ordinarily replaced
the
by
Negative Present or Negative Adjective followed by
keredo.
For kasancdo, one nearly always hears kasanu.
keredo or kasanai keredo.
This form
S
61.
THE NEGATIVE
tabczn.
PARTICIPLES.
Kasade, kasazu,
THE VERB.
De
as a negative termination
The Negative
Stem
a
it is
has,
Participle
Stem
the syntax of the
As
is
commoner
in the
western
Tokio language.
dialects than in the
or
the past participle,
like
Form.
Indefinite
usually a noun.
Examples.
Ncgai wo
togczu
not obtaining
wish
M&tna
horse
ni
He
ni shinda.
died without obtaining his
wish.
died
He went away
ni kaiba wo tsukezu
fodder giving not
without giving
the horse his food.
shimatta.
itte
having gone finished
Hambnn
half
He went
kikazu ni demashlta.
not hearing went out
Kare
kore
iwazu
that
this
not saying
out without
hearing
half.
make
Don't
ni
bring
it
objections,
but
here.
koi.
fotte
having taken come
A person one has never seen or
heard of.
shirazu
not knowing
Mizii,
not seeing
no mono.
person
Muku
wo
mizu
He
suru
opposite not seeing
Into de wa nai.
man
is not
Ikazu
without going
is
not a
man who
does
reckless things.
He
ni sfiiniaitnahe finished
never went after
all.
skita.
In the following sentence this form has an adverbial force.
Ai-kaii'arazu tassha de gozaiis
unchangingly robust
He
is in
his usual robust health,
mas.
In the following examples
Shfiyfi
sauce
wa
to
yoroshiu
not put in
if
good
gozaimasii.
is
it is
irezu
a verb.
You need
(soy)
not put in any sauce
THE VERB.
6S
Sauna koto wo
such
wo
kaiic
Don't talk
to,
like
but give
that,
him the
yare.
give
money
Kasanu
iwazn
not saying
thing
much used
kasanai dc are
dc,
as substitutes for
kasazu.
As stated above (5 47), the Neg. Participle
have the force of the Indefinite Form.
in
zu
may
Example.
wa gokn
Hajime
shimbiu
very admirable
oi
oi
zScho
beginning
-
d'atta
ga
was
gradually increasing
koto wa sukoshi
order
a little
thing
:
......
titsukcrti
s/iitc,
doing
mo
.
sono
kikazu,
uyc
hear that over and
even not
lisa
wo
tsuite
oira
At
first
serv ant,
he was
but
an excellent
he
gradually
and WQU , d not
stuck
,
my
slightest attention to
and
in
tr y in S
addition he
to deceive
constantly
me
by telling
lies.
(Kikazu here takes
u<o
its
tense from da at
the end of the sentence and
deceive
the Neg. Present Indicative.)
is.
to be translated as
HYPOTHETICAL FORM.
62.
This form
orders,
is
above falsehood telling me
fizamnku koto tabi tabi da.
thing frequently
got
the
is
therefore
were kikanH,
if it
Kasaba, tateba.
It ought to
gradually falling out of use.
a
or
bare
but
in
imply
hypothesis
supposition,
speaking
it is mostly confounded with the Conditional Form in ba.
is
There are however some locutions where
it
is
still
pre-
ferred to the Conditional.
Example.
Ana
Into
that
man
jiito
first
wa
iiraba
if one
say
shakai no tniko-mochi
class society
buffoon
He
is,
so to speak, an upper
class soc i ety buffoon.
de gozaimasu.
Other examples of the Hypothetical Form.
Ichido
If it were once, there would be
narnba, medziirasliiku
one time if it were
curious nothin
g extraordinary about it.
mo
even
nai.
is
not.
THE VERB.
motaba,
Teppu
gun
if
uchi-korosu
had
If
69
had a gun,
I
I
would shoot
at
home, bring
him.
hit kill
dcsu.
710
is
O
naraba kono tegami wo
rusit
absent
letter
this
if is
If
he
b ack t hi s
is
not
letter.
*
motte
kaycre.
come back.
taking
The
termination ba of this form
is
identical with
the
wa
described in Chapter IX, but it is doubtful
particle
whether kasaba may not stand for kasan (the old future)
wa or perhaps kasan ni wa. It will be remembered that
ba
is
wa
63.
See
with the nigori.
.
4.
THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE.
Kasanai, tabenai.
It
is conjugated as an Adjective.
various combinations as a substitute
This form
used
in
THE FUTURE.
(originally
the
Kaso, tabeyo.
The formation of the Future presents some
The written language forms the future of all
adding n
much
for
See Chap. VII.
negative forms of the verb.
64.
is
WM*)
difficulty.
verbs by
to the negative base, thus,
In the spoken language this n becomes n, which in the first conjugation is contracted with
kasan, taben, dekin.
In
the preceding a into 6, thus giving the form kaso.
same way tab en and dekin ought to become tabyo
the
(e
being considered equal to
some
i-\-a),
dekiu, and these forms
Tokio language,
a
mistaken
has
the
forms
tabeyo, dekiyo.
adopted
by
analogy,
The following practical rule for forming the future may
are actually in use in
dialects, but the
be found useful.
Rule.
For the
Indicative into
o.
conjugation change u of the Present
For the second conjugation add yd to
first
the stem.
* It
may be conjectured that mu contains the same root as mini,
the original meaning of kasa-mu or kasan was " lend-seem."
'
to see,' and that
THE VERB.
70
It
convenient to
is
kaso the Future and kasu the
call
Present, but in practice the distinction between these forms
is less often one of time than that kaso expresses an
opinion or a probability (as 'will' sometimes does in
Kaso may be translated he
English) and kasu a fact.
'I
think
he
lends,' or 'he probably will lend';
probably lends,'
is
kasu
a positive assertion, and may be rendered accord'
circumstances
ing to
Japanese says mioniclii
that he
is
he lends,' or
'
iiiairiniasho,
it
'
he will lend.'
If a
must not be thought
promising faithfully to come to-morrow.
He
has
I shall most
If he
only said
probably come to-morrow.'
intends to give a definite promise, he will say, mioniclii
mairimasti.
'
These remarks
also apply to the Negative Future and
Present, kasnmai, kasanil.
Examples
1.
As a Noun.
of the Future.
This tense
miytl
ja nai
having gone shall see is not
is
not
much used
as a noun.
Itte
Shall
we
not go and see
it ?
ka?
f
As an Adjective, kaso does not often occur, the Present
Thus for the ship which
Indicative being used instead.
2.
'
day after to-morrow we say asattc chaku sum
There are however certain phrases where
(not sho)fune.
the future is used before nouns.
'
will arrive the
koto naraba.
NnrtJ
become thing if it
koto ga nai.
Shiyu
will
will
do thing
3.
know
As
necessity
it
can be done.
There
not
hadzu wa
Shiro
will
is
If
is
is
nothing which can be
done.
nai.
is
He
can't possibly know.
not
a Verb.
Naii'if
ar~> ?
what
will be
What
can
it
be
?
THE VERB.
Go
mo
de
Jiajinteyo
mo
Koyv
come even
will
hard
we
Shall
?
begin a
He may come
sliirfiiii.
can't
hinku wa
conduct
Sono
That
will
ka
know
tadashi-
His conduct
for
may
game
of go ?
aught
I
know.
very likely be
correct but
get-
be but
Ynbin
nin
haitatsu.
wo
He made
man
distribution
post
utu
to strike the postman.
to slrita.
did
strike (fut.)
Konrei
no sakadzuki
wo
wine cup
wedding
shu
do
Just when they were about to
exchange the marriage wine-cup.
in
tokoro.
called place
to
Nagasaki
honya aru ka
book shop
ni
?
Are
there
Nagasaki
any bookshops
Arimashd.
I
believe there are.
Gozarimasiimai.
I
am
Hatoba
jetty
nl kciyoi-birne
ferry boat
ga an>
in
?
afraid not.
Do you
think
there are
ferry boats at the jetty
any
?
ka?
Arhnasu
to
Miunichi
To
mo.
sotio
to-morrow
muma wo
horse
be sure there are.
shall probably buy that horse
to-morrow.
I
kaimashd.
will
buy
Itsu
when
shuppan shimasho ka
sailing will do
?
Mionichi jiu ni ji ni shuppan
to-morrow
65.
She
is
she likely to
sails at
sail
?
twelve o'clock
to-
morrow.
THE PRESENT
The Form which
When
INDICATIVE.
now used
Kasii, taberu.
as a Present Indicative had formerly
Second Conjugation the force of an Adjective
or Noun only, a different form being in use for the Indicative Mood.
Taberu (or tableau, as it was then pronounced, and still is pronounced in
the central and western provinces) could only be used before a noun, as
taburu hito, 'the man who eats,' or as a noun itself in the sense of
is
in the case of verbs of the
THE VERB.
72
mean
he eats,' to express which there was a
In the modern Spoken language tabu has fallen
out of use and taburu (altered to inherit in Tokio) alone is employed for
'
It could not
eating.'
distinct form viz. tabu.
'
Mood as well as in its other capacities as an Adjective or
suspect that this change had its origin in the habit which the
Japanese are prone to of leaving their sentences unfinished.
They
this man's
perhaps began a sentence by saying kono h'.to ga iabcru ica
the Indicative
Noun.
I
'
'
intending to add words indicating that his eating is a fact, but
leaving them ultimately unsaid. This becoming a general practice, kono
hi to <f<i fabiru wa or kono Into ga tabcrn came to mean
this man eats.'
eating
'
This explanation
confirmed by the fact that even in the modern
find such sentences as kono hito ga tabcru u-a (or U'a e, e
we
colloquial
is
being a slightly emphatic particle) where the meaning is simply this
man eats.' It is difficult to see what business the iva has here, if something has not been omitted.
In the First Conjugation, the Present Indicative and its Adjective
Form have always been identical, so that no change is apparent, but in
the Irregular Verbs am and narti, the Indicatives of which were
originally art and nari, and in Adjectives, a similar alteration has taken
'
place.
An
interesting consequence of this
change
that ga,
is
which
in the
was a possessive particle only, has in the modern
If tabcru in the
colloquial become the sign of the nominative case.
sentence kono Into ga tabcru no longer means 'eating' but 'eats,' it
follows of necessity that ga must also change its signification and that
kono Into ga will mean not this man's,' but this man.'
older
language
'
Examples
i.
As
Damatte
silent
Iku
of the Present Indicative,
Noun.
a
orn
ga
remaining
ni
chigai
mistake
going
'
is
You
i.
good
There
nai.
is
not
ga
hold
your
is
no mistake about
his
It
is
better
not to go than to
gO
yoroshi.
side
is
good
Sliinjini
to
via hi to
no
man
jiyu
liberty
stint ni.
doing
shinjinai
not believing
believing
SO
better
going.
ikanai
Iku yori ira
not going
going than
hit
had
tongue
to
A man
is
at liberty to believe or
not to believe.
dfsii.
is
In doing so.
THE VERB.
Sore
wo mint
that
73
In looking at
ni.
it.
seeing
Remember
Nani
what do
that ni after the stem
ni
slii
to
wo
Kasa
What
kita ?
'
in order to
'
as
have you come to do
?
have come
ni
karl
have come
I
borrow
umbrella
means
to
borrow
an
umbrella.
mairimashlta.
have come
As an
2.
Adjective.
Sankci
ga
The
snru
hi to
do
man
come-worship
people
ship are
who come
to wor-
many.
r>/.
are
many
Tabcrn mono ga nai.
eat
thing
is
hi ni
wa,
on
So sum
do
so
day
ga haranot
liabilities
warenai toki wa tsubureru no
can pay time
smash up
wa mochiron no koto desu.
of course
thing is
Miunichi
ni shut-
yo-ake
to-morrow day break at
tatsii
snru
do
ing
shitaku
preparation
start-
chanto
ytmi
manner
have got nothing to
On
do
hiki-oi
Moioyori
of course
I
eat.
not
the day you do that.
If
you
that.
It is
man
a matter of course
can
when
a
>
pay his debts that he
should smash up.
t
must make everything
ready so as to start at daybreak tomorrow.
You
quite
in perfectly
wo shinaku cha
if not make
ikcnai.
does not do
3.
As
a Verb.
Dare ka
somebody
Ka ga
soto
outside
taisu
de matsu.
waits
oru.
musquito many abide
Konnichi nara
to-day
ma
ni an.
space meets
(for
nareba),
Somebody
is
waiting outside.
There are a great many musquitoes.
If today,
it is
in time.
THE VERB.
74
Yu
areba,
go.
business
if is
wo
te
hands
tataku.
strike
If I
I
do,
have anything
will clap
for
you
to
my hands.
that the present
is
(Observe
used here, not
the future, there being no doubt.)
rl
Jin
ni
if it
mo
dc
kiizvazu
nara,
were not eating
iku ga, hlaku rl dcsu
ten
If
it
were ten
rl,
I
could (or
would) go even without eating,
but as j t ; s 1OO r ;_
"
kara
because
Konnlchi
-
takn ye agarn
o
to-day (hon.) house to go up
nodes* ga, ashi ga itamimashlis
tc,
would go to your house to\ have a bad leg
am afraid sha n not be able
I
day> but as
j.
(I
being pain-
leg
.
(ikarcmasumai).
not be able to go)
ful (shall
THE NEGATIVE
66.
IMPERATIVE.
Kasuna, tabcnina.
Examples.
Ikuna
Shuchi suruna
Sore
wo
!
tabcruna
in the
Kasiimai, fabcmai.
termination mai of this tense
Present Indicative
!
Don't eat that.
!
THE NEGATIVE FUTURE.
67.
The
Don't go !
Don't consent
!
in the First,
and
is
attached
to the
to
the
Negative Base
Second conjugation.
The Negative
'to be,'
is
Adjective followed by aro, future of
sometimes used
for this
form
am,
as, sliirauak'ard,
'he probably does not know,' for sliiranai. Sliiranli daro,
shiranai daro have also the same meaning.
For the true meaning of the Future see
Examples
Mir,nichi
made
tomorrow
till
timai,
will not
5.
64.
of Negative Future.
iiaorima-
He
recover
morrow.
won't
be
better
by
to-
THE VERB.
Hi tori
dc
Alone he
dfkitnai.
Animal.
I
Mcshi
He
tabcmai.
ico
will not eat
Ashitanimo naonimai mono
tomorrow
not recover thing
dc
mo
don't think there are any.
It
not likely to eat rice.
is
is
he
possible
even tomorrow
may
recover
.
nai.
even
is not
THE IMPERATIVE MOOD.
68.
The
except
be able.
will not
will not be able
alone
rice
75
Conditional Base
in the First
Kase, tabero.
not in use as a separate word,
Conjugation, where it coincides with the
is
In the Second Conjugation ro, or in the
Imperative.
western dialect yo, is added to the root in order to form
the Imperative.
Instead
of the bare Imperative,
style of address,
which
is
a very rough
some of the
generally preferable to use
it is
minor honorifics, even when addressing servants.
of to ivo shimero,
it
shimete o kure or to
is
better to say to
wo shime na
wo
Instead
shimete, to
wo
shimc nasarc}.
(for
Examples.
Achi
ike!
there
go
Get away
To wo shimero
Shut the door
!
!
shut
door
Kono hako wo akcro
this
!
box
Empty
!
Go
Waki ye yore !
side
this box.
Open
this box.
open
to
one side
!
approach
Shlta ni
iro !
down
remain
Ten
no
da
bachi
heaven
punishment is
akiratncro.
make up your mind
Squat down (as was formerly
done by Japanese when a man of
rank was passing).
to
Make up your mind that
punishment from heaven.
it is
a
THE VERB.
76
Nani
what
warm
ni shiro,
make bad
koto
Anyhow
it is
a bad business.
thing
da.
it is
Bear up
Shikkari shiro.
do
firmly
steady
Osok^arc hayak'are kuin ni
be it late be it early arrest
later.
He
!
(to
a sick
person)
!
will
be arrested sooner or
narimashd.
will
S
become
69.
THE CONDITIONAL FORM.
Kascbn, tabcrcba.
Properly speaking there is the same distinction between
this form and the Hypothetical Form kascba, tabcba, that
there is between the forms in tareba and taraba, i.e., the
former denotes a condition either realized, or looked upon
as likely to be so, while the forms in aba represent a mere
But
hypothesis.
this distinction is almost wholly neglected
and the forms
in practice,
in
eba and aba are used indis-
the hypothetical forms, however, seem to
criminately.
be gradually falling out of use and are not much employed
except in particular phrases. A distinction between these
All
forms
is
always observed by correct writers.
Nareba, the conditional of naru
to be
'
',
is
nearly always
contracted into nara.
Examples
Asiiko
there
to
if
nashi.
trouble thing
is
Warui
koto
bad
thing
mitkui
ga
kuro
anxiety
life
If
I
Forms.
go there,
annoyance
all
I
my
shall
have no
life.
not
snrcba,
if
do
warni
bad
If
you do
evil,
there
is
an
evil
reward.
aru.
is
Miiscba
if tell
one
go
komaru koto
reward
isstw
ikcba,
J*
of Conditional
go
kaycttc
on the contrary (hon.)
U'O
kakcyu
hang
to
omotta.
thought
thought that if I were to tell
you, I should on the contrary
I
cause you anxiety.
THE VERB.
Arcba
Dorobu
to
1
to
something
no
While
ka
?
justified
ni.
(not a confident hope)
Hoping
there might be some.
have
been
him a
thief,
would
he
in
calling
or the like.
good while
is
say
thinking
naii
?
yoi
iyeba
good
ka
thief
if
is
omottc.
to
il
there are
if
77
THE CONCESSIVE FORM.
70.
This Form
Kasedo, tabedo.
mostly superseded by the Present Indicative
is
followed by keredo or, more rarely, by to iyedo.
Both these
be
used
with
tense
of
the
Indicative
expressions may
any
Mood, thus producing a
series of Concessive Tenses.
Keredo
also be added to adjectives.
may
Form
of keru,
which
is
Mo,
'
even,'
is
means
They
the Concessive
probably the perfect tense of kuni
'to come,' and iyedo, the Concessive
so that to iyedo
is
'
literally
Form
of in, 'to say,,
though one say that.'
all the Concessive Forms.
frequently added to
Examples.
narcdo
Tenki
weather though it
Kiisnri
samui.
is cold
is
nomcdo nathough drink not
vio
medicine
oranai.
recovers
Tonin
sayo
thus
sore
that
kcredomo,
although
little
will
not
though he do
arimashd
will
be
wa
have
hardly believe
said so,
but
I
very
can
it.
domo
somehow
cannot believe
TadzuncmasUita
keredomo,
although
I
inquired, but there
was none.
gozaimascnu.
is not
Kite
having come
though
medi .
shinjiraremascnu.
inquired
iycdomo.
even
recover,
(or does) take
The man himself may
likely
even
said
a
He
fine, it is cold.
cine.
person in question
mushlta
de mo
chito
Though
tru
remains
to
Although he has come.
THE VERB.
78
In p eaking Japanese, the student should not use the
Conct.^ive Form standing by itself or the Form with to
They occur
iycdo.
so seldom that Mr. Satow's
Kwaiwa
Hen,
believe, does not contain a single example of them.
The Indicative Mood (or Attributive form of Adjectives)
I
followed by kercdo or kcrcdomo
the past participle followed by
is
he
better, or
mo
(kashitcmo},
may
use
or
the
adverbial form of the adjective followed by temo (osoku temo).
DERIVATIVE VERBS.
TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS.
71.
.
In English, there are seldom distinct words or forms for
the transitive and intransitive applications of the same
Thus the words ride, sink, break, bend and
verbal root.
many
others are either transitive or intransitive according
In such cases, the Japanese language
to circumstances.
has usually two distinct verbs containing the same
No
verbs,
rule can be given for
but
some
of the
are exemplified below
more common modes of doing so
:
Transitive.
Intransitive.
Tatsu
(ist.
Conj.),
Susninit
(ist.
(Conj.),
(ist.
Susumcru (2nd.
Conj.), to
encourage.
Conj.),
Yameru
to
cease.
(2nd. Conj.), to
cease.
(ist
Conj.),
to
Ireru
-
to
to
set up.
to advance.
Iru
enter
Tatcru (2nd. Conj.),
to
stand.
Yamu
root.
forming transitive or intransitive
Sagaru (ist
come down.
put
Conj.),
let
Conj.),
to
(2nd. Conj.),
to
(2nd.
in.
Sagcru
down.
THE VERB.
Wakn
(ist.
Conj.), to
(ist
Conj.),
Wakasu
make boil.
boil.
Chiru
Conj \ to
(ist.
Conj.), to
(ist.
Conj.),
scatter.
Ncrn
(and.
Nckasu
Conj.), to
to
put to sleep.
sleep.
Orosu
Oriru (and; Conj.), to
(ist.
to
Conj.),
lower.
descend.
Dern
(and.
Conj.),
Dasu
to
Conj.), to put
(ist.
out.
out.
go
(ist
Chirnsu
to
scatter.
The
79
Intransitive Verbs illustrated in
the following ex-
force,
They have usually a potential
but must not be confounded with the passive forms
of the
same
amples form a separate
class.
verbs.
Kirn
Kireru (and. Conj.), to
(ist. Conj.), to cut.
be discontinuous.
Urn
Ureru (and. Conj.), to
be saleable, to
(ist.
Conj.), to
sell,
sell.
Mini (and
Miyeru (and. Conj.),
to be visible, to be able
Conj.), to see.
to see.
Kiku
Kikoyeru (and. Conj.),
to be audible, to be able
(ist.
Conj.),
to
hear,
to hear.
Ikn
Ikeru (and. Conj.), to
be able to go.
The French
se couper,
curately to kireru, ureru.
these verbs
transitive
may
verbs.
se
(ist Conj.), to go.
vendre correspond pretty acikeru shows that
The example
be formed from intransitive as well as from
Ikeru
is
familiar to us in the negative
adjective form ikenai, it is no go ', it won't do '.
Note that while the termination eni may belong either to
'
'
the transitive or to the intransitive form, verbs ending in su
THE VERB.
8o
are transitive only.
come on
Dasu in combination is
nmc ga furi-dasJilta, it has
Exception.
'
sometimes
intransitive,
to rain
as,
tobi-dashlta,
',
'
he rushed out
In the examples given below,
verbs containing the same root.
Kcirn
Conj.),
(xst.
to
we have
'.
pairs of transitive
Kasit (ist. Conj.), to lend,
borrow.
Adzukaru
(ist. Conj.),
to take charge of.
Kiru (and.
Adsukeru (2nd. Conj.)
give
Conj.),
to
Conj.),
to
wear.
in
to
charge.
Kiscru
(and.
Conj.),
to
(2nd.
Conj.),
to
clothe.
(2nd.
Misci'u
show.
see.
of Transitive
Examples
YU
ga waita ka ?
hot water
He,
ima
yes
now
boiled
Is the hot
water ready
?
?
ndkasfuMOsi de
make
and Intransitive Verbs.
Yes,
I
am just
getting
it
to boil.
boil
gozatmasu.
it is
Hara ga
tail a.
belly
arose
He
Umi-taic no tamago.
lay set up
egg
A
Tatfiiai.
I
got angry.
new-laid egg.
cannot stand.
I
do not
set up.
cannot stand
Buchfin
I;
T
O
(see Ch. XII.)
kara,
to
bed
after
to
is
hiina
particularly time
hodo
amount
you have put young masyou can go
too.
yoroshi.
bed even
Betsudan
When
ter to bed,
omaye mo iictc
too having
you
mo
gone
nckashUc
having put
no koto
thing
good
ga
torcru
can take
mo arimasumai.
will not be
There probably won't be anywhich will occupy any
thing
great time.
THE VERB.
Sekcn yc
world to
8l
Before
shircnai
known
not become
it
becomes known
to
tne wor id.
nchi ni.
within
Kokoja hanascnai
We
yo.
can't talk here,
cannot talk (emph.
here
part.)
mo
Hitori
man
one
wa
yatsufellow
ni
much
How
kawari
change
o
(hon.)
fellow
single
very
much changed you
enoug h to be unrecognizable
if one met you all of a sudden,
are
Dashintikc ni
!
done
j
abruptly
attara,
if
not a
not
Taisi)
nasatta nc
is
worth taking to .
nai.
is
very
There
hanaseru
can talk
even
gnrai
ml-chigayern
met see can mistake amount
da.
it is
CAUSATIVE VERBS.
72.
Causative verbs are formed by adding seru to the Negative
Base of verbs of the first conjugation, as tsukuru to make ',
(
tsukuraseru
'
to cause to make.'
In verbs of the second con-
jugation saseru is added to the stem, as tabcru
tabesaseru 'to cause to eat.'
The
causatives of the irregular verbs Imru and
kosaseru and saseru.
All causative verbs
'
to eat,'
sum
are
belong to the second conjugation.
Instead of the causative verbs, such phrases as iku yd ni
sum,
'
go-manner-make'
i.e.
'
to
make him
to go,' are
much
used.
The
in
transitive verbs in su (ist. conj.)
seru
saying
are
for
kikasete.
constantly
example
at
confounded,
and the causatives
the
same
one time kikashUe and
person
at another
THE VERB.
of Causative Verbs.
Examples
Taihen
(honorific)
matase
made
I
have kept
awful time.
o
ni
dreadfully
you
waiting an
mushita.
to wait (respectful)
Muma
ni manic
beans
horse
wo kuwaseta
made eat
Did
beans
you give
horse
the
his
?
ka?
Mo
ichido
Please
kikasete
let
me
hear once more.
more once having made hear
kiidasare.
give
Kono
this
ko ni kega wo sasete
child
wound
cause
It
won't do to cause any hurt to
this child.
sumanai.
not finish
ni
Jiu
shichi
hachi
seven
eight
ten
shuchi
cause
I
have an idea that
it
is
seven
or eight chances out of ten that
kokoro de
itasaseru
agreement
wa
shall
make him
I
consent.
heart
gozarimasv.
is
Fusoku
insufficient
nara,
motto
if is
more
If
it is
not enough,
I
will give
you more.
toraseytl.
will
make
Hont~>
take
no
okka
mother
reality
He was
sail ni
kind enough to cause
her to meet her real mother.
kudasatta.
awascte
having made meet he gave
Musume
A.
daughter
ni
to
raku KO
torasete
having made take
to
shi'>
will
make
nai.
B.
is
wo
mttko
husband
in
called
ease
wake de wa
reason
\Vatakushi
not
shite
having done
I
mo
even
torasenai.
do not make take
wa
do
how
A. My reason for giving my
daughter a husband is not that I
B. I
intend to enjoy my ease.
will not allow her to take (a hus-
band) on any account.
THE VERB.
73. PASSIVE
83
OR POTENTIAL VERBS.
Passive or Poten-
Verbs are formed by adding areru to the present indicative form of the active verbs, the final u of which is
tial
Thus:
elided.
Mirarcru, to be seen,
is
Korosarcru, to be killed,
formed from mint, to
,,
Tadzuncrarcni, to be sought,
The
see.
,,
korosu, to
,,
tadzuncru, to seek.
kill.
passive forms of the irregular verbs suru, kuru are
serareru, korarem.
The Passive
verbs have also a Potential meaning.
case of Intransitive verbs, this
is
In the
their ordinary signification?
although in such sentences as teislii ni shindremashlta
she was died by her husband,' i.e. she was separated by
'
'
death from her husband,'
sive of
The Passive Voice
in
we have something
like the pas-
an intransitive verb.
is
much
used in Japanese than
less
English.
All passive verbs are of the and. conjugation.
a passive verb,
is
'
By,' after
rendered in Japanese by ni.
Examples.
yimmin
ni
people
kimwareru.
is hated
He
is
hated by his subjects,
Sends
ni tasukeraremashita.
boatman
was saved
He was
Miraremashlta ka
Could you see
?
Ikarcru dc aro ka ?
saved by a boatman,
?
Will he be able to go
?
cannot come.
Mairaremasenu.
I
iwaremashita.
scolding he was said
He
got a scolding,
On
witnessing Tanji's murder.
Kogoto
Tanji no
korosarcru
being killed
mite.
having seen
no wo
THE VERB.
Hachijiu yen
to
taikin
in
called
eighty
u-o
torareta.
THE VERB.
85
In the terminations of Transitive, Intransitive, Causative
and Passive Verbs,
am
'to do,'
is
it
and eru
'
may
The
'to get.'
termination
nothing more than aru 'to be
is
the literal
to get,'
seen,' being
form
em
and
'to be'
areru of Passive Verbs
sum
easy to distinguish the verbs
'
meaning of mirareru,
It is
get-be-see.'
easy to see
why
'
to
'
be
same
the
also have a potential signification.
OTHER DERIVATIVE VERBS.
74.
Verbs are formed from nouns by adding various terminations as
:
Yadoru, to lodge,
Tsukaniu, to grasp,
Tsuncigu, to
tie,
from yado, a lodging.
from tsuka, a hilt.
from tsuna, a rope.
from uta, song, poetry.
Utau, to sing,
Chinese and other uninflected words (which
are really nouns) do duty as verbs with the help of the
75.
Many
In most cases of this kind
Japanese verb sum 'to do.'
sum remains a distinct word, as shimpai sum to be
'
anxious,' hai
sum
'
to abolish,' rioko
But with some words
sum
this
in
sum
'
to travel,' etc.
position suffers a con-
siderable change.
The 5 takes the nigori, and becomes j,
while the conjugation is assimilated to that of verbs of the
second conjugation whose stem ends in i.
Thus kin, a
Chinese word which means 'prohibition,' forms with suru
a verb kinjirtt which is not conjugated like suru but like
dekiru.
76. Derivative verbs are
adding
mu
to
the stem.
The corresponding
stem.
formed from adjectives by
These verbs are
transitive
verbs
add
intransitive,
mem
to
the
THE VERB.
86
Examples.
become
to
Takamti,
high,
make
high,
from
spread abroad,
from
takamcru, to
takai, high.
to
HiromK,
hirui,
become wide, hlromcru,
to
wide.
Fujin
no
woman
takamcyo
make high
ico
cliii
position
io
I
think of raising the position
of %vomen .
onion.
think
The schemes of conjugation given on pp. 44 to 49
77.
are intended to show the formation of the simple moods
and tenses of the verb, but there are many compound
These are
pressions in use as their equivalents.
ex-
so
impossible to give them all, but the
which
tables,
comprise a selection of the more
following
The Auxiliary Verbs used in
useful.
be
common, may
numerous that
it
is
these combinations are treated of in Chapter VIII.
must not be supposed that the forms arranged under
same heading are used altogether indiscriminately.
There are distinctions between them, some of which are
It
the
pointed out in
practice.
these
pages and others
will be learnt
by
THE VERB.
CONJUGATION
Kasit,
I.
to lend.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
88
THE VERB.
CONDITIONAL MOOD.
THE VERB.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
8g
go
79-
THE VERB.
CONJUGATION
Taberu,
II.
to eat.
INDICATIVE MOOD.
THE VERB.
CONDITIONAL MOOD.
92
THE VERB.
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
CHAPTER
VII.
THE ADJECTIVE.
80.
The
Adjective
is
conjugated as follows:
HIROI WIDE
Wide
Hiro
Stem
Predicate, Adverb
or
Indefinite
Form
Hiroku orhiro...
Wide; widely
being wide
wide
hiroku
te
hiroku
te
wa
if
hiroku
te
mo
even though wide
hiroku ba
or
hirokumba
if it
hiroku nai
is
should be wide
not wide
hirok'atta
was wide
hirok'aro
will be
wide
and
Attributive
Hiroi
Wide
Conditional
Hirokereba
noun); is wide
If it be wide
Concessive
Hirokeredo
Though
Verbal
Form
(before
it is
a
or be
wide
Abstract
A
Noun
comparison of
show
Width
Hirosa
this conjugation
that they are essentially
with the conjugation of verbs will
The stem of the verb cor-
identical.
responds to the stem of the adjective, and the Indefinite Form to the
Adverbial Form. The Negative Base is not in use in the case of the
Adjective, for
Negative Forms or
for
the Future, but the Hypothe-
Form is hiroku ba where the Adverbial Form stands for the Neg.
Base. The Present Indicative of the Verb corresponds to the Verbal
Form of the Adjective, and the Conditional and Concessive Forms
tical
.
contain a Conditional Base viz. hirokere.
THE ADJECTIVE.
94
THE STEM.
81.
The Stem
used
is
Thus from naga
Hiro.
in
forming compounds.
the stem of nagai,
'
long,'
and
saki,
'
a
Nagasaki (the literal signification of which
is
long cape ') from yo the stem of yoi, good, and sngiru,
to exceed,' we have the compound yosugiru, 'to be too
cape,' is derived
1
f
'
;
'
'
good
'
usuguroi
;
of nsui,
'
thin,'
'
black.'
With a shamefaced expression
Hadzukashi-so na
kawo de.
shameful appearance face with
ni
Tegani-so
hand
in
The stem
He is looking at
a curious thing.
ortt.
is
occasionally stands
makkuro
an offhand
talks in
.
ni natta,
(
it
as
if it
were
by itself as a noun, as in
has become quite black.'
it
THE PREDICATE, ADVERB OR
82.
Hiroku
INDEFINITE FORM.
or hiro.
By adding ku
used where
to the
stem we get the predicate, or form
comes between the adjective
the verb 'to be
and the noun.
The
Though he
manner
keredo.
Hfcdzurashi-so ni mite
curious
looking
the phrase
o f countenance.
say although
light
formed from usu stem
is
dark-coloured,'
and knroi,
'
The same form
contracted form
hiro
is
is
also used as an adverb.*
obtained by dropping the
k of hiroku and joining into one syllable the last vowel
In this way,
of the stem and the u of the termination.
hiroku becomes
first hiroii
and then hiro
;
hayaku becomes
dense,' loses first
successively hayail and hayo shigeku,
its k and becomes shigeii, which is then contracted into
'
;
shigyo; furukit becomes furil. Adjectives whose adverbial
form ends in iku lose the k but suffer no further change.
Thus yakamashiku,
shiu.
*
As
in
German.
'
noisy,'
is
contracted
into yakamci-
THE ADJECTIVE.
95
a predicate, the contracted form is better, but when
used as an adverb, the uncontracted form is more usual,
As
Tokio
especially in the
dialect.
Examples.
As a
i.
Predicate.
O
hayu.
(hon.)
early
O
hayu gozarimasii.
(hon.)
early
Good morning.
Good morning (more
Mada
hayu gozariniascnu ka?
yet
early
Kono
is
tniima via
not
Isn't
it
early yet
?
?
This horse
goku fakO
horse
this
polite).
are
is
very dear.
very dear
gozarimasii.
is
As an Adverb.
2.
Hayaku
or hayo!
Hayaku
o
quickly
Yoku
Quick
ide
nasare
come
do
Come
I
dekita.
It is
He
Shiroku nurlmasMta.
3.
!
Come
quickly.
early.
well made.
painted
it
white.
As a Noun.
Osoku made hataraita.
late
until
worked
He worked
Oku
Letting people in general know.
no
numerous
Into
ni
man
till
late.
shirasete.
making known
4.
As
Ride.
Indefinite
Form.
Whenever
in
English two or more adjectives are
joined by the conjunction and,' all but the last take in
Japanese the adverbial or indefinite form.
Compare the
'
rule
on
given for the use of the Indefinite
p. 52.
Form
of verbs
THE ADJECTIVE.
96
Examples.
Kumo
kitroku,
clouds
black
Kami
no
head
ga
amc
The
hidoi.
rain violent
rain
kc ga ktirokit, me
hair
black eyes
(lu'oi
onna.
blue
woman
A woman
A
Oya mo nakn
He
not
mo
nal
mono
pretty
little
child.
is
iu
to
called
da,
person
is
Dete klta
no iva sono
that
having come out
no niubu to niiyctc,
soma
woodcutter's wife
seeming
..._
,. ,.
,.
tcshigoro wa mini shichi hachi
,
twenty seven eight
age
shirokit,
liana suji
complexion white
nose line
iro
de,
with black hair and
a person who has neither
parents nor brothers or sisters.
kiudai
brothers or
even not
sisters
violent.
^j ue eveSi
UtsnknsJiiku chisai kodomo.
little
child
pretty
parents
clouds are black and the
is
ni
yamaga
tori,
The person who came forth
was apparently the woodcutter's
wife.
She was twenty seven or
twenty eight years of age, with
complexion and a straight
.
fair
nose
'
and was a
st >' le
of
woman
not often found in mountain huts.
wa
was thorough mountain huts
mare na onna de gozaimasu.
woman
rare
The
last
is
sentence shows that in this construction the
adverbial forms of adjectives (shiroku) and the stems of
In
verbs (tori) are given the same syntactical value.
ordinary conversation
some other construction
is
generally
preferred.
Adverb with
83.
Te
in this
of atte,
te.
combination
Hiroku
may
te.
be taken as the equivalent
'
being.'
Examples.
Knraku,
dark
te
miyemascnu
being cannot see
It is
so dark
I
cannot
see.
THE ADJECTIVE.
Samiiku
tamarimasenn.
not endure
te
cold
tsui
te
Isogashiku
busy
Atsuku
good
come
to see yoiu
Its
being white
an advant-
is
age.
te hiroi.
thick and wide.
It is
Adverb with
84.
have some how or
yoroshi.
is
cannot endure
I
have been so busy that I
another not
I
go
busata
wo itashimashita.
did
not giving news
te
so cold
It is
it.
casually (hon.)
Shiroku
being white
97
Hiroku
wa.
te
te
wa, commonly
contracted into hirokucha.
This form
common
a sort of Conditional
is
Mood.
use, especially with the Adverbial
It is in
Form
very
of the
Negative Adjective.
Examples.
Hatsuka
20th
yori
osoku
than
late
te
wa
shall be
I
;
s
i
ater
t
inconvenienced
if it
h an the twentieth.
komaru.
am inconvenienced
Usukiicha
ikcnai.
NakHcha
if
nl
Sugic
at
once
to
be too
Some must be bought
at once,
for
it
thin.
naranu.
does not become
not
won't do
It
does not do
thin
I
knwanakucha
must have
it.
not buying
naritnasenu.
does not do
Adverb with
84.
This
is
te
a Concessive
Hiroku
mo.
Form.
te
mo.
belongs to no particular
It
tense.
Donnani
how much
kitanaku
te
mo
I
don't care
how
dirty
it
is.
dirty
kamawanai.
don't care
Abnnaku
te
mo
dangerous being even
mono ka ?
person
?
Kamau
care
Who
gerous
?
cares even
if
it
is
dan-
THE ADJECTIVE.
98
Usuku
mo
te
daijubu
dcsu.
safe
is
thin
Adverb with
85.
Ba
Form
ba.
It is
though
quite safe,
is
Hiroktiba or hirokumba.
with the Adverb corresponds to the
of the Verb, and like
it
thin.
it is
not
much
Hypothetical
used.
86.
The Negative of Adjectives is formed with the
help of the Negative Adjectives nai is not,' and the past
and future by adding the past and future of aru to be,' to
'
'
the Adverbial form.
Examples.
Omoshirok' atta.
It
was amusing.
Mo
It
must be
osok
already
1
art.
Akaku nai no
red
87.
late,
late will be
via iranai.
not
don't
want
I
don't
not red.
want
any
THE ATTRIBUTIVE FORM. Hiroi.
may be obtained by adding i to
This form
that
the root.
really, however, a contraction for an older form in
being omitted.
ki,
are
It is
the k
:;:
This form
is
used when the adjective immediately pre-
cedes the noun.
Examples
of Attributive
Form.
Warni onna.
A good man.
A bad woman.
Atsni kaml.
Thick paper.
Yoi
hito,
A
Awoi kawo.
Sainiti koto
pale face.
How
!
cold
it
is
!
(lit.
the cold
shall
cross in
thing!).
Fnkai toki wa func dc wataru.
If it
boat
cross
deep time
a boa t
*
The
older form
is
deep,
I
not quite obsolete. It is retained for example in
the bat of No-bird-town,' and in
the proverb tori naki sato no kumori,
the termination bcki.
is
'
THE ADJECTIVE.
The
particle
No
tive.
has
no
gg
often attached to this form of the adjecvery much the force of the
is
in this position
English indefinite pronoun
traction for
mono
rate suit the
meaning.
'
l
thing.'
one.'
It is
possibly here a con-
This derivation would
at
any
Examples.
wa
Yoroshi no
nai ka
Have you no good ones ?
?
There are only white ones.
Shiroi no bakari aru.
Kuroi no
black
How many
wa ikutsii arimasu ?
how many
there
Akai no hitotsu mo gozarima-
ones
black
are
?
have not a single red one.
I
red
SC1IU.
Kore wa
no
hiakiishij
wand
wa
no dc
This
is
May
I
not the farmer's fault,
bad
farmer
nai.
mo
Yorl-dotte
ii
have pick and choice
?
choose having taken even good
no desu ka ?
?
is
No
lated
ni following this
'
form of the adjective
while,' as in the examples
Sono
that
mama
ii no
good
de
state
ye dashita
soto
outside
be trans-
While they were well enough
why did you put
them out of doors ?
naze
why
as they werC)
?
put-out
Samui no
Why
ni naze atatakai ki-
cold
mono
ni,
may
:
warm
why
don't
you wear warm
clothes in this cold weather
?
nai ka ?
clothes wear not
ki
This form of the adjective
as in the following examples
Sui
mo amai mo
shiri-nni-
sour
sweet
know passed
ta
hito desu.
through
man
is
may
stand by
itself
as a noun,
:
He
fectly
is
a
man who knows
what
is
what<
per-
THE ADJECTIVE.
IOO
Naga!
mijikai
short
long
-
kanc
t
co
mo
iwazti
Take
ni
not-saying
receipt of the
1
money
out making any fuss about
withit .
itki-torc.
receive
money
kavcri nusatta hii ga yoroslri
return did side
good
think you had better go away.
I
dcshfi.
will be
THE VERBAL FORM.
88.
Hiroi.
The same form is used for the adjective combined with
the substantive verb as for the attributive form.
The older
and book language has a special form
produced by adding shi to the stem.*
Examples
It
is
too
difficult,
is difficult
Kaica ga
is
river
is
asai kara daijubu da.
It
shallow
safe
river
Tcnki
wa yoroshi.
Mugi wo
wheat
komc no
inaitc,
rice
mo naku ; mamc
become
quite safe
shallow.
The weather
having sown
dckita koto
matte,
Form.
of the Verbal
Amarl mntsukashi.
too
for this, viz. hiroshi,
tea
beans
asa no hay eta koto mo
hemp grown thing also
If
is
because
the
good.
we sow wheat, we
never
have a crop of rice) and if we
sow beans we never have a crop
of hemp.
nai.
is
not
Warui
Osoi
wa
iwanai.
I
to ikcnai.
89.
Kercba
*
to
It
don't say that
wont do
THE CONDITIONAL FORM.
is
it
is
bad.
to be late.
Hirokereba.
often pronounced kereya or keria.
In some phrases the old form
is
still
in
use, as shobit n?shl 'there
no victory-defeat,' 'neither side has won;' kidzukai nashi, there is
no cause for alarm yoshi, yoshi, lit. 'is good, is good,' all right never
'
is
'
mind
'
!
'
THE ADJECTIVE.
IOI
Examples.
Miunichi
tenki
ga yoroshl-
tomorrow weather
if
will
I
weather
come to-morrow,
is
if
the
good.
kcrcba, mairimasu.
come
good
HUon
de ii-nikukereba wata-
If
,
alone
if
say
difficult
I
;
go issho ni ikiinashtl.
along with will go
kiishi zva
you
ng
W
j
t j1
find a difficulty in tell-
all
it
,.
by yourse if
f
I
w ui
go
OIU
As the mud of the road was
Michi no nukari ga
mud
road
something awful.
hanahadashikereba.
since extreme
Mionichl
ga
tsngo
bad
if
asatte
rukereba,
day
after
If
via-
tomorrow convenience
I
tomorrow
is
not convenient,
win come the day
after ;
kl-
tomorrow
will
mashu.
come
Other Conditional expressions are hiroi toki wa, hiroku
nara and hiroku te
(or hiro] gozarirnasureba, hiroi to, hiroi
These have nearly the same meaning as hirokereba
wtf.
and are more common.
go.
THE CONCESSIVE FORM. Hirokeredo.
te mo are generally preferred
Hiroi kercdo or hiroku
to
hirokeredo.
Example.
Warukeredo, (better wand kcredo or waruku, te mo) shikata
ga
Though
bad,
it
can't be helped.
nal.
91.
See
THE ABSTRACT NOUN.
Hirosa,
12.
DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES.
92.
A number
nouns by adding
to
the
English
of Derivative Adjectives are formed from
which corresponds
Examples. Kodomorasht,
rashi, a termination
'
ish
'
or
'
ly.'
'childish,' bakarashl, 'foolish.'
THE ADJECTIVE.
IO2
DESIDERATIVE ADJECTIVES.
93.
Adjectives
may
be formed from verbs by adding to the
ta i which means desirous or
desir-
stem the termination
employ such verbs as
Moraitai
'
'
receive like thing
present
I
should
want
to go.
Kaital or kaitu gozaimasu.
I
want
to buy.
.,
to
a
have been wanting to talk
I
wish to do
talk
like to get
of.
I
hanashi rro (or ga) shttai
should
want.'
Ikitai.
O
ou>
omottc itnasii.
thinking remain
to
The
fore
j
'
or
'
we
obtained are used where
wish
Examples.
A thing
mono.
'
'
The forms thus
able.'
Desiderative Adjective may take either ga or
as shown in the last example.
it,
wo
be-
NEGATIVE ADJECTIVES.
94.
An
important class of adjectives is that which is formed
from verbs by adding to the negative base the negative
adjective nni,
.
They
(
not.
'
are formed from
all
verbs, with a very few excep-
and are
tions,
constantly used
forms of the verb proper.
The
to
replace
the
Predicate and Adverb of these adjectives
Noun is not in use.
contracted, and the Abstract
Examples.
Wakaranai.
it is
I
don't understand,
I
don't guarantee
unintelligible
rkcnu-anai.
A man
Shiranai hi to.
Yakanaku.
not roasting
te
mo yorosht.
even
is
good
I
it.
don't know.
You need
not roast
it.
negative
is
seldom
THE ADJECTIVE.
Kaze ga nai kara,
ho wo
wind
not because sail
kakctcmo kakenaku
te
mo
onaji
same
not set
set
It
all
is
I0 3
the
same whether you
is no
hoist sail or not, as there
wind.
koto da.
thing
is
Shiranakcwba, sensaku shima-
he does not know,
If
make
inquiry
will
I
inquiries.
shr>.
Sonna
koto ivo iwanaif not
that sort of t'hing
kcrcba
say
would have been better
It
had said nothing of the
if
he
sort.
it
no ni.
good while
Mono wo mo iwanai
He
de
without saying
thing
ran off without saying
a
word.
mgcdashita.
ran off
I kanakii
tc
wa
if
not-go
narimasenb.
does not be-
I
must go.
come
In the idiom exemplified in the last sentence, the .word
narimasenu
is
often omitted,
and
te
wa
contracted into
dm.
Examples.
I
must buy.
Te wo arawanakiicha.
I
must wash
Konakucha naranu.
He must come.
Kawanakucha.
'
'
should,
'
'
may,
hands.
This termination, which means
Bcki.
.95.
my
'
must
'
or
'
'
ought,
'
'
will,
is
indispensable in
all
forms of the written language, but, by a curious caprice, it
has been almost entirely banished from the colloquial.
The uncontracted forms
beki (attributive), beku (adverb) and
beshi (adj. with substantive verb) are considered bookish
and affected, while the contracted form bei is also con-
demned
as characterizing the rustic dialect of the east of
Japan. Byd, the contracted adverbial form, is seldom or
never used except on the stage. In a few combinations,
THE ADJECTIVE.
104
however, beki, beku remain in use, as ko subeki hadzu da,
thus ought to do necessity is,' i.e. this is how it ought
if
to be done, narubcku, as far as possible,' narubeku wa,
'
'
lit
'
With verbs
possible.'
'
'
of the First Conjugation beki
accom-
panies the Present Indicative, with verbs of the Second
Conjugation, the stem, but in the latter case there is some
confusion and the practice of the written language
is
some-
times followed.
On
the whole, the student
be recommended not to
may
trouble himself about beki.
96.
OTHER DERIVATIVE ADJECTIVES.
Katai 'hard,' yasui 'easy,' nikui 'difficult,' 'hateful,'
also added to the stems of verbs to form derivative
are
adjectives.
Examples.
It
Ari-gatai.
is
difficult to be.
(a
phrase
used to mean Thanks.')
'
li-nikui.
Difficult to say.
Mi-nikui.
Hateful to look at
Kowarc -yasui.
Easy
;
ugly.
to break, fragile.
Other examples of derivative adjectives formed from verbs
osobusy, from isogit, to be in a hurry
are isogashi,
'
'
roshi, dreadful,
97.
'
'
;
'
from osoreru,
'
'
to fear.
Uninflected words used as Adjectives.
There are a number of nouns which do duty as adjecand are often considered as such. Like other nouns,
tives,
they are properly speaking uninflected, but with the aid
of certain particles, a conjugation may be made out for
them corresponding
proper, as follows
:
to
the conjugation
of the
adjective
THE ADJECTIVE.
105
Akiraka, Bright.
Stem
Akiraka
...............
Akiraka de
bright.
............
Akiraka ni
brightly.
Attributive
Verbal
bright.
.........
Predicate
Adverb
...
Akiraka no,
bright (before a noun).
is bright.
Akiraka da
Akiraka nareba if bright.
Akiraka naredo though bright.
Akiraka na koto brightness.
........
Form
......
Conditional
......
Concessive"
......
Abstract noun
...
Examples.
Rlppa na mono ja nai ka ?
Makoio
Is
ni o rippa de gozai-
it
It
not grand
is
?
really splendid.
truly
Hi
The sun
tva akiraka ni tcru.
sun
brightly
Kinodoku
sorr y
na
shines brightly.
shines
wa Mori
no
The one who
is
is
to be pitied
Mr. Mori.
San da.
Bimbo
ni
natte iru
become
poor
Now
kara
because
kenyakn
shinakiicha
nari-
economy
if-not-do
does
l
that
I
have become poor,
must pract ; se economy.
mc.senu.
not become
Are wa
he
ganko
He
na
obstinate prejudiced
desu.
yatsu
is
one of the old school
an old fossiL
fellow
To
this class of
'
words belong rippa
'
'
'
'
'
grand,'
'
splendid
rich
bimbo, poor ;' kanemochi,
kirei,
clean,'
and a multitude of words of Chinese derivation.
;
:
'
pretty,'
Some adjectives proper use the termination na added to
the root as well as the regular attributive form. Thus we
may say either chisai or chisana, small ;' okl or okina,
'
THE ADJECTIVE.
IO6
'
'
okashi or okashina, ridiculous.'
English adjectives
must often be translated in Japanese by other parts of
speech.
Single' for example is hltoye no, a noun with the
big
'
;
'
possessive particle no 'Japanese' is Nippon no, lit. 'of Japan;'
fat' is fiitotta, the past tense of a verb futoni
to get
is
fat ;'
an
adverb
hakkiri
followed
shita,
explicit
by the
;
'
'
'
'
past tense of
sum
'
to do.'
DEGREES OF COMPARISON.
98.
tive
has no degrees of comparison.
son
is
The Japanese adjecThe idea of compari-
'the weather
expressed in the following manner:
than
is
in
today
yesterday
Japanese, sakujitsu yori
'
is
finer
wa
ga yoroshi. This
is good.'
the
weather
yesterday today
konnichi
tenki
is
literally,
'than
Examples.
anata
Watakushi yori
than
I
You
o
are younger than
I.
you
waku gozaimasu.
young are
In sentences like this, the former part
the
meaning
jnasii,
clear without
is
it,
'you are the younger,' or
gozarimasu,
lit.
'
your side
is
nawo yoroshiu goza-
Sore lea
that
still
often omitted
is
if
wako gozarianata no ho ga o wako
as anata iva o
young.'
That
is
still
better,
is
good
rimasii.
Mijikai
hodo
short
amount
Ane
hodo okiku
elder sister
Omol
thought
wa, yoroshi.
is good
no
wa
hoka
outside of
nai.
is
big
not
katai.
is
The
She
shorter the better,
is
not so
tall
as her elder
sister.
It is
harder than
I
thought,
hard
Instead of a Superlative Degree qualifying adverbs are
used or the meaning is indicated by the context.
THE ADJECTIVE.
IO7
Examples.
Kore
wa
No.
this
Naka ni
among
Mitsu no
three
ichiban
No.
i
ichiban takai.
kore
i
wa
this
uchi
among
kirci
pretty'
is
This
is
the highest,
This
is
the highest,
high
takai.
is
high
ni
sore
wa
that
do gozaimasu.
is
That
three.
is
the
prettiest
of
the
CHAPTER
VIII.
AUXILIARY WORDS.
'to be,' ist. conjugation.
With the present
99.
indicative followed by the particle de and the verb am, 'to
Am,
be,' are
formed a number of compound tenses which are
in very
common
struction a
is
The
use.
present indicative
noun and de the sign of the
is in
this con-
DC
predicate.
am
usually contracted into da, de aro into d'aro, etc.
Examples.
When
iku d'aru ?
will be
Itsii
is
he likely to go
?
when go
Kore baknri de
alone
this
This alone won't be enough,
taranu.
not suffice
d'aro.
will be
Konu
d'atta.
not come was
He
Yoroshiu arimascnu d'atta.
was
is not
good
It
The
last
did not come,
was not good,
sentences show that the negative in this con-
struction goes with the principal verb.
A
similar construction
is in
use with adjectives.
Examples.
Katai
da.
Atarashl dc ariniascnu.
The
particle
It is
hard.
It is
not new.
no often comes between the verb or adjective
and da, d'aro, d'atta
etc.
AUXILIARY WORDS.
Konai no
Examples.
He is
d'aro.
probably not coming.
Itsu iku no d'aro ?
When
Mo
He
chaku shitnashlta no
already arrival
did
log
is
he going
?
has probably arrived by this
time.
<Taro.
will be
When
the'
verb aru preceded by de, the sign of the preby the polite termination masu, a still
dicate, is followed
further contraction takes place, which
in familiar conversation.
De arimasu
is
is
constantly used
contracted into
demasu, and then into desu, de arimasho into demasho and
then into desho, de arimashita into deshita etc.
The
shorter and
it
polite
becomes.
less respectful
more contracted the phrase, the less
is very much more familiar and
Desii
than de gozarimasii.
Examples.
So
desu.
Do
desu.
It is so.
ka
How
?
is it ?
Gozani and gozarimasu
(in the Tokio dialect commonly
the
polite substitutes for aru, may
pronounced gozaimasii),
Gozaru is not often heard in
be used in the same way.
ordinary conversation.
Another
series of
compound
tenses
formed by the past
is
participle followed by aru.
Example.
Kite gozaimasu.
The
verbs aru, arimasu, gozarimasu,
to the stem, as
may
also be joined
:
Dochira ye o ide de
where
go
gozarimasu ka ?
is
They have come.
Where
are
you going
?
AUXILIARY WORDS.
IIO
100. Grit, ini, 'to remain,'
?
With
'
to dwell.'
the various tenses of the verbs oru (ist. conj.) and
iru (and. conj.) and the past participles of verbs are formed
a series of tenses which in some verbs correspond to the
'
and the pretenses formed by the verb 'to be
sent participle of English verbs in others to the tenses
compound
;
formed by the verb
'
have
to
'
and the past
participle.
In other words this combination has sometimes a Perfect,
sometimes a Continuative Force.
For instance,
oru means not
kite
means
liataraite oru
'
he
is
coming,' but
has the same meaning as oru.
tion with the verb, thus
'
lit.
having
'
he
'
'
working
but
he has come.'
Iru
is
usually forms a contrac-
It
shitteru, for shitte iru,
learnt, I remain.'
The
last section is slightly different in
'
'
;'
is
know
'
gozarimasu of the
meaning from kite oriina-
The former might be expanded into as
the latter means
come, there now are some
iru
I
kite
sii.
come, and
'
they have
they have
Naturally the form with oru or
in use in the case of living beings.
still
more
remain.'
Examples.
ncn no
Issaku
summer from
before last year
kelko
shite
study having
I have been
studying since the
surnmer of the year before last.
orimasu.
made remain
Bakana
koto
foolish
thing
Kono
natsu kara
wo
tabi ni
these socks
You
ittcrn.
are talking nonsense,
say remain
ana ga
hole
These socks have got holes
aitc
opened
in
them.
oru.
remains
Dete orimasu.
He
Tsuite orimasu.
It
101.
Naru,
The verb
'
has gone out.
has arrived.
to be.'
naru, 'to be,'
is
extremely frequent
in
books.
AUXILIARY WORDS.
Ill
In the spoken language it is most usually found in the
Form as an auxiliary joined with the Indicative
Conditional
Thus
tenses of verbs.
it is
common,
instead of ikcba,
'
if
he goes,' to say, iku nareba, or iku nara ;* for ittareba if
he went or had gone,' we may say itta nareba or itta
nara. Nara may be used with adjectives in the same way,
'
'
'
as utsukushi nara
'
if pretty,'
and
is
particularly frequent
with those uninflected words described in
97 which are
used instead of adjectives. It has been already pointed out
that the termination na of these words is a contraction for
naru.
Naredo, the Concessive Form,
is
also in use.
In the written and older language the present indicative
of this verb was not naru but nari, and in some phrases
this
form
is
retained.
Example.
Tatoye kuchi yakiisoku nari
suppose mouth promise
to mo.
Naru,
'
Granted that
it
to be,' should be distinguished
The
become.'
latter
may
being preceded by ni or
is
only a verbal
promise.
from naru,
be generally recognised by
'
to
its
to.
Examples.
Kirei ni naru.
Hito
to
naru.
To become
To become
beautiful.
a man.
to do.' The conjugation of the irregular
given in
44, and its use with the stems of
verbs to form an emphatic negative has been explained in
46. But perhaps the most common use of sum is to supply
verb
102.
Sum,
sum
is
'
the place of verbal inflections in the case of Chinese and
other words, which are themselves uninflected.
* Nara is merely a contraction for nareba. It is the nara which we have in the
well-known phrase say~) nara, the literal meaning of which is if it be so,'' good bye.'
'
AUXILIARY WORDS.
112
Examples.
yisnn sum.
To
bring.
Undo sum.
To
take exercise.
Sudan shimashu.
I
Shimpai suruna.
Don't be anxious.
Yujin shinai to ikcnai.
You must
will consult (about
For the honorific verb nasaru, the
it).
be careful.
and
polite verb masTi
the respectful verbs itasu and mosu, see chapter XII.
103. In, 'to say,' a regular verb of the first
tion.
conjugawill be
way which
used with other verbs in a
It is
understood from the following examples.
Am
to in
Ant
to
If one say that there are,
supposing that there are.
to.
Though one say
iycdcmo.
i.e.
Iku
to iu
Tada
to in
ing for nothing
in this
way
\ve go.
?
often altogether redundant.
is
104. Kent, an old perfect of kuru,
used
in the
'
'
though
is
to come,' is
much
the Indicative
In these combinations the meaning of
is not lost.
Itta keredo for
the tense of the principal verb
example means he went, but
tense
'
Form kendo with
Concessive
Tenses of verbs.
go,' or ittcnio,
one says ikedo,
'even having gone,' no particular
,
while
if
indicated.
Keredo
is
also used with the Verbal
as nigai keredo, 'though
It
i.e. if
?
Iu used
'
al-
Who ever heard of anybody cry-
koto
simply cry called thing
ant mono ka ?
is
are,
are.
Ifwesay that \vego
to.
naku
that there are,
granted that there
though there
i.e.
may
want of a
it is
be useful to notice here
better
name may
Form
of Adjectives,
bitter.'
some nouns which
be called Auxiliary Nouns.
for
AUXILIARY WORDS.
105.
Hadzu.
113
'necessity,' 'obligation,'
is
much used
to
'
express the idea contained in our auxiliary verbs
'must.'
ought,'
Examples.
Kono
shina
this
article
These
ga makoto ni
articles are really cheap.
truly
yasui.
is
cheap
Hanahada wand
They ought
kara, yasui
bad
very
cheap
to be, for
they are
V ery bad.
da.
hadzii
necessity
Sakiijitsit
yesterday
He
iku hadzu de
go
ought to have gone yester-
j ay>
arimashita.
was
Danna wa
master
Master ought to come
konnichi o ide
today
(i.e.
is
expected) to-day.
nasaru hadzu desu.
is
Shird
wil1
hadzu wa
There
nai.
know
no
is
should know.
reason
He
why he
can't possibly
find out.
Sonna koto wo shiranakatta yo.
such
did not
know
I tell
How
Shiranai
hadzu da.
not know necessity is
kane
Sakujitsu sono
yesterday that money
uketoru hadzu deshlta.
receive necessity
you
I
knew nothing
of the
kind.
wo
I
could you
was
money
to
know ?
have been paid that
yesterdav
.
was
hadzu
Raigetsu
next month go ought necessity
ikubeki
He
is
to
go next month,
dcsu.
is
Iku hadzu
will
do as well
as, or better than, ikubeki
hadzu
in the last sentence.
106. Koto, 'action,' 'thing,'
is
much used
with adjectives
and the forms of verbs which are capable of being made
AUXILIARY WORDS.
114
adjectives in a
few examples
Iku
way which
koto.
Ikanu
best understood from a
will be
:
koto.
The
going.
The
not going.
Itta koto.
The having
Iku
koto wa dekimasho
will be possible
going thing
Will
it
gone.
be possible to go
?
ka?
koto wa arumai.
will not be
not going thing
He
Tukio ye
Has he
Ikanu
itta
koto arimasii
gone thing
will surely go.
ever gone to Tokio
?
is
ka?
?
no sake
Nippon
wo nonda
drunk
Japanese
koto
K-rt
have never drunk Japanese
nai.
is
thing
I
sake,
not
Noboni
koto
noborare-
li'a
can
ascending thing
masu:
oriru
koto
wa
ascend coming down
So
far
cer ned,
I
as
getting up
can get up;
coming down
that
con-
is
it
is
the
is difficult.
mudxukashi,
is difficult
Tokiu ye kita
He
koto n~a
come thing
has come to Tokio, so
far
as that goes-
kimasJuta,
Watak&shi wa mo nagai koto
I
wa
I
don't think
I
know
I
have long
to live.
long
arumai.
will not be
Rippana
hi to ni
naru
become
splendid
koto li'O shochi sh\te im.
to in
that he will turn out a
splendid fellow.
know
In the last sentence, koto takes the place of the conjunction that.' The to in is superfluous, as it often is in
'
Japanese.
AUXILIARY WORDS.
me
Ichido o
nl kakatta koto
once
Mita koto ga
nai.
Mint
dekinai.
A
koto
ga
iicmui koto
!
I
have once met you.
I
have never seen.
I
can't see.
hung
eye
ga arimasu.
Ah
!
how
!
sleepy
am
I
!
sleepy
Wakizashi no koto wo
kiko
thought of enquiring about the
short swords.
to otnotta.
hear
will
I
about
short swqrd
thought
Taikomochi
to
wa
dare no
who
jester
Whom
do you mean by
fessional jester
'
pro-
'
?
koto da ?
is
Omaye no
koto sa.
I
wa
Wakaranu,
to
not understand
anata no
mean
you.
Talk of not understanding
!
it is
you who don't understand.
your
koto.
thing
Watakushi no kita koto
wa
come
danna ye
Kono
book
this
O
107.
verbs in
I
heard about this book from
Miss
Kiyo san kara
from
affords
give
no koto via
shomotstt
O
Kiyo.
kikimashlta.
heard
Mono means
'
thing,' but
it
idiomatic expressions to
little
I
o kure.
shirasetc
make kno\vn
master
Let your master know that
have come.
frequently occurs after
which
this
meaning
clue.
Examples.
A. Are
she
wa
miyenakatta
not seen
So
d'aro;
will be
is
are
she
wa
kara kitau'da mono.
year from come is thing
kotoshi
this
fore.
onna da.
woman
thus
B.
A.
sen nl
before
I
never saw that
B. Very likely
that she has
come
;
woman
be-
considering
this year.
n6
AUXILIARY WORDS.
A no
A.
n'o
ire
oita
atsiirayete
holder
:
.
having ordered put
arc ico
tottf
that
having taken
wa
Are
B.
A. I ordered a tobacco-pouch
from that place go and fetch it.
B. Well, considering that it \vas
tokoro ye tabakotobacco
place
that
month
come
raigctsu
left
is
Japanese.)
da mono wo
nichi no yakiisoku
day
of next
sentence
(The
unfinished as so often happens in
Jin ni
next month
that
12th
the
for
promised
ki na.
promise
Kamau mono ka?
care
What
Komatta mono da.
Ikitai
like to
do
I
care
?
?
thing
It is
1
man' dcsu
kercdo
is
go
108. Tokoro,
The
very annoying.
should like to go, but
I
although
'
place.'
mode
of rendering in Japanese the relative
ordinary
clauses of European languages has been already described
in
28, but in order to bring out the relative force more
distinctly, the word tokoro is sometimes introduced, in
imitation of a Chinese idiom.
f
the
man who
goes,'
it is
Thus
instead of iku hito,
possible to say iku tokoro no hito,
which means the same thing.
The
relative force
examples
may
be recognized in the following
:
Omaye no
you
kinD
hanashtta
yesterday
said
By what you
said yesterday,
tokoro dc via.
place
by
ni
Kampukn
admiration
tayenai
do not endure
It is
a thing for which
my adrn rat on
not contain
i
i
I
can-
.
tokoro da.
Kugoro san wa do
sitru
how doing
tokoro
wo
place
Tokoro
What
did
you see Mr. Kogoro
do?
mi-nasatta ?
did
see
has the force
after the indicative tenses of verbs
1
of our 'just, as in the following examples
:
\
AUXILIARY WORDS.
Anata no uwasa wo
We
shite iru
were just talking about you.
report
tokoro d'atta.
Nan da
ka kore kara yomu
11
read
am
I
it
just going to read
what
are just listening to
what
is.
tokoro da.
no
Tonari
hanashl
We
wo
talk
neighbour
they are say n g next door.
i
iru tokoro da.
kite
listening
Other examples of
Tokoro ga, sono ban
tokoro.
Well then, on that night
ni
that night
Yondc
mita tokoro ga
reading seen place
Upon
Sayo mushimashlta tokoro ga
On my saying so
A. I am sure you must have
A. Sazo o yakamashiu gozawill
surely
noisy
riinaslritard.
B. Yakamashi
have been
noisy
reading
it
been disturbed by our noise.
Far from it!
B.
dokoro ka?
?
place
A. Watakushi no tokoro ma-
my
de
place
motte
as
kite
having taken having come
kudasaru koto ga
dcklwill be posthing
give
far as
mashu ka
sible
B. Hei
?
arigato
thank you
?
gozar'unasu
!
;
sashl
-
agcmasu
send up
dokoro de via gozarimasenu.
it is not
place
A.
Would
you to bring
be
it
it
as
possible
for
as
my
far
we
?
B. Thank you
would do much more than send
place
it.
;
('
No
trouble
should say.)
at
all
'
we
CHAPTER
IX.
PARTICLES.
109.
Particles
have very varied
uses
in
Japanese.
serve instead of case and plural terminations, and are
also used as prepositions* and conjunctions.
They
of the particles described in this chapter are really
some of the terminations of verbs and adjectives already noticed.
Many
identical with
They are mostly found after nouns, but are also used with
those parts of the verb and adjective which are nouns in
syntax, and a few are joined to verbs in the indicative mood
or to adjectives in the verbal form.
For convenience of reference they have been arranged
alphabetically.
Dano
no. Dano.
is
a contraction for de
am
no.
It is
enumerations, where it is desired to make each
as distinct as possible.
It is usually transmentioned
thing
lated
and ', but this does not give the full force of this
It resembles not a little the alternative form of
particle.
used
in
'
the verb, and like
it is
found
in pairs.
Examples.
Kid
dano
asu
to-morrow
to-day
mairtt to fc.f kimasent.
come
*
t
come not
As they come
For to Me.
dano
Saying that they were coming,
todayi now tomorrow, they
have not come>
now
after the noun, postpositions
would be the more correct term,
PARTICLES.
lya dano o dano
no
y es
shinai nodesu.
s
not do
to
yaneya dano
no
'
'
at
another time 'yes', he nevertheless
does not do it.
He
dano
sent for coolies, and for car-
carpenter
penters,
yonde,
them
and
for
and
tilers,
set
to work-
having called
tiler
shigoto
wo
sasemashita.
caused to do
work
De
in. De.
'
ous verbs for
da
one time
at
Saying
itte,
saying
Ninsoku dano, daiku
coolie
IIQ
is
to be
With
a contraction for nite.
the vari-
forms a series of contractions, as
it
',
aru, dcsu for de aritiiasii, deshtta for de ariina-
for de
sJnta, datta for de atta,
daro for de aro
De wa
etc.
is
con-
tracted into /a.
De means
'
'
at,'
in,'
'
de
'
by,
ita
by means
wipe
'
on account
'
of,
:
the
boards
with a
c ] th.
To go by
de iku.
land
'
of,
To wipe
wo nugu.
board
floorcloth
land,
go
Kawase
bill
'
'
as in the following examples
Zukin
Oka
'
with,
kane
de
of exchange
To
wo
money
send money by means of a
of exchange .
bill
okuru.
send.
Wakaranai
de komaru.
understanding
am
I
bothered by his not under-
standing.
Hey a wa hanahada fuketsti de
room
by
very
dirty
It is
;
s
an annoyance that the room
so dirty.
komarimasu.
am annoyed
wa
Gan
ichi
wildgoose
one
de kare
that
de
wa gozaima-
kore iu
say
wake
reason
is
not
It
is
ma ki ng
not
a
that
fuss
it
about
is
worth
one wild
goose.
sen u .
Yashiki de sodachimashlta.
I
was brought up
in a yashiki.
PARTICLES.
I2O
Gakko
sonna
de
wa
koto
such
college
at^
shlranu.
ikko
wholly do not kno\v
mlna dcsH ka
Kore de
this
with
Du
what
is
all
iu
called
They know nothing
of the kind
at the college.
Is this all
?
?
?
Under what circumstances
shidai dc ?
order
When
De
as the sign of the Predicate.
joined together by the verb 'to be'
masu), the latter affixes de.
(am,
?
two nouns are
arimasti, gozari-
Examples.
a
Watakiishi
kajiya
am
de
I
dcsu.
This insect
the blacksmith.
blacksmith
gozaritnasu..
Kono mushl iva tombo
insect
dragon
Uso da.
It is
I ja nal ka ?
Is
it
a
no
hen
yatsu
wa
Neruson via Igirisb no hlto
Nelson
Englishman
kaigun
(atte),
navy
fly.
? i.e.,
are you not
?
The Tokio
fellows are effemi-
nate and therefore useless.
fellow
quarter
de (atte) ikenii.
jtujaku
not go
effeminate
de
a dragon
lie.
not good
satisfied
Tdkio
is
fly
Nelson was an Englishman and
a naval hero>
no guketsu
hero
dcsu.
is
Kore
He
mono de
wa
Jiluban
o
report
great
cho
(atte), Aioi
no
He had
a great reputation, and
lived in Aioi St.
ni
street
orimashlta.
lived
De
the
as the
mark
compound
of the predicate
is
much used
tenses of verbs and adjectives.
in
forming
See
99.
PARTICLES.
Demo combines
1
'
'
'
even,
also.
It
(pred.)
meaning of de with that of
generally be translated even'.
the
That
gozaiit
mo
'
may
demo
even
Sayo
thus
121
probably even so, but
is
will
masho ga,
be
but
Demo gozaimasho ga,
Demo
demo
Sore
it
taki
demo
after
even
ye
demo
Sore
won't do.
that the remark
It will
is
a mere guess.)
do afterwards.
good
Even a
wa kodomo demo wakaru.
that
it
He has probably gone round to
the waterfall. (Demo here shows
yoroshl.
is
so
can't go
probably waterfall to
mawatta
no de gozarimasho.
will be
gone round
Ato
last.)
but-
Even
ikenai.
that with even
Okata
(Same as
Yes,
child
even
is
in-
Fntotta no demo, yaseta
fat
lean
no
child understands that.
telligible
Either fat ones or lean ones will
do.
demo yoroshi.
is good
no
Seiyo
hlto
He
demo
man
west ocean
is
neither a European nor a
Chinaman.
Shin aj in demo nai.
Chinese
In the last sentence
we have
dicate and mo, repeated with
'
a combination of de as prein the sense of
two nouns
both.'
For demo with Interrogative Pronouns see
112.
26.
Dzutsu, 'each,' 'every,' 'apiece'.
Examples.
Kono
this
kttsitri
medicine
sando
three times
desu.
is
wa
dzntsu
each
ichi nichi
one day
nomu no
drink
This medicine
times every day.
is
taken three
PARTICLES.
122
Hitori
hairima-
dzutsii
one person
They came
in
Would
not be possible
one
at a time.
at a time entered
shita.
Toshi ni nldo gurai
dzutsu
twice amount each
year
TOkio ye dete kuru wake ni wa
out come reason
ikumai
ka
will not
go
Mlna
come
it
Tokio Uvice every year
to
to
?
?
?
ni futatsu dzutsu haitte
two
all
There are two
in
each of them.
each
or u.
Ga was
Ga.
113.
and
it still
a
originally
possessive
particle,
retains this force in certain phrases.
Examples.
Colt's
Koma-ga-take.
peak
name
(the
of a
mountain).
yiu
ten
ncn ga aida.
For
the
of ten years,
space
(jiu nen no aida
space
year
is
equally good
and much more common.)
Ore ga me
my
no
Kore ga tame
Waga
Waga
It
in
is
dcsaye.
Before
my
very eyes,
even
On
ni.
this account.
One's country.
One's own brothers and
kuni.
kiijdai.
better not to use
phrases for
By
may e
before
eyes
ga as a possessive
which there is good precedent.
sisters.
particle except
the process described in
65 ga has in the modern
come to be chiefly used as the sign of the nomi-
colloquial
panied by ga.
noun and
is, however, not necessarily accomomitted when wa or mo follows the
This case
native case.
in
It
is
many
other cases,
and
a noun
the nominative case without any particle at
Ga is almost always used before the verbs
all
am
'
to
become,'
'
to be made,'
and oru and iru
Examples of ga as sign of the nominative
'
'
may
be in
being added.
to be,' dckirn
to remain.'
case.
PARTICLES.
Kane ga
money
Hana ga
am
ka
is
?
He
Because there
kara.
A man
There
Shiknta ga. nai.
not
is
There
has been revealed
Damatte
iru
hurry.
of
tall stature.
is
is
nothing
no help
for
to be done.
it.
out.
You had
ga
hi)
being silent remain
is
is
Your falsehood has been found
ga arawareta.
Uso
falsehood
airs.
man
tall
do-side
gave himself
because
is
takai hlto.
ga
Have you
?
?
became
am
Isogu koto ga
hurry
any money
any money
high
Sei
stature
Is there
?
takaku natta.
nose
123
better hold your tongue.
side
good.
Saku
last
ya
hltogoroshi
ga
There was a murder
last night.
murder
night
atta.
was
Yube
ante gafutta.
last night rain
Ano
It
rained last night.
fell
san
sumiya
wa
Has
that charcoal-dealer a wife
?
that charcoal-dealer
o kamisan
ga
arimasii ka
wife
Aka ga
red
?
?
is
aru.
nijittan
o hanashi
Oi-oi
ga nakaba
middle
story
gradually
ni narimasu
kara,
becomes because
kore kara
(hon.) tea
is
are at length get-
what remains becomes
interest-
The
tea
is
ready.
made
leisure
nakatta.
was not
Yo ga
aru
kara,
is
because
o ide.
we
ing.
cha ga dekimaslnta.
business
that
becomes
amusing
Hima ga
Now
ting to the middle of the story,
this after
ga omoshiroku narimasu.
O
There are twenty pieces of the
red.
twenty pieces
I
kochi
hither
had not time.
Come
you to
here
do.
;
I've
something
for
PARTICLES.
I2 4
The noun
is often followed by ga where we should expect
an accusative case, as in the following examples.
to find
Kono
this
ga wakarima-
imi
is
meaning
unintelligi-
I
don't understand the
meaning
of this.
sftiu.
ble
Hana ga
o
flower
Kane ga
money
toki
ka
sitkl desii
like
is
Are you fond of flowers
?
?
?
uketoritai
desirable to receive
When
you want
to receive the
money.
wa.
time
Hansho no
ga sum.
oto
sound
fire-bell
There
is
the firebell.
does
In the above sentences imi, liana, kane, and oto are
regarded by the Japanese as the subjects of the verb or
which follows.
adjective
.Ga, after those parts of adjectives and verbs which are
used as nouns for purposes of syntax, has the same force
as
when
follows ordinary nouns.
it
Examples.
Ikit
You had
gayoroshi.
the going
is
Itta
ga
having gone
Ycnrlo
He would
yok'atta.
was good
sczu
ufhi-akcte
You had better make no ceremony, but speak out frankly.
ni
hanashita
the having spoken
have done better to
have gone.
ceremony not doing
frankly
better go.
good
ga
yoroslii.
is
good
ga tsuklmasenu.
Ori-ai
bend-meet
Sugu
at
kita
ni
once
ga
the having
not
They
don't hit
it
off together.
hit.
tsurete
accompanying
ii.
come was good.
You
should have brought him
here at once.
PARTICLES.
O
ga naku
al
meet
te
You need
yoroshiu
without
125
not meet him.
good
gozaimasii.
Ga
mood
after a verb in the indicative
the verbal form
may
Sometimes a pause
in
generally
is
speaking
or
an adjective
in
be translated by
but.
a sufficient equivalent.
'
'
Examples.
to
Tori-naoso
take will mend
omou ga
wish to put
I
it
right, but I can't.
think
tori-naoscnai.
take cannot
Shinsetsu
kindness
mend
wa
You
arigatai ga,
thanks
are very kind, but
I
must
positively be going (to an inferior).
ikaneba naranai.
not go does not
zthi
if
positively
become
wa arimasS, ga,
Motnen
de
cotton (pred.)
aratte
is
shitate-naoshrta
bakari
washed made up renewed only
It is true that they are cotton,
but they have just been washed
and made up again.
desu.
are
nanl ka miseru
Senkoku
former hour something show
mono ga
am
to
osshaimashita
You
said awhile
had something
I
look at
it
here
to
ago that you
show me
may
?
is
said
thing
shitemo
ga, koko de haiken
here
see
having done
no de gozarimasu ka?
yoi
is
good
Ante ga
rain
yamcba,
if
stop
kagen
good condition
yor.oshi
is
n't
If the rain
able
ga
time,
thing, but
good
After tokoro,
Kiite
it
ii
would stop in reasonwould be a good
it
(I
don't expect
ga has a somewhat similar
mita tokoro ga.
having heard seen place
Tokoro ga or daga
(for
Upon
it
will).
force.
making
inquiries
(a
pause)
de aru go) at the beginning of a
so,'
upon this,' 'well then.'
sentence means 'this being
'
PARTICLES.
126
Gena
114.
'
appear
that,'
Cln'man
to
is
found after verbs
am
I
'
told that,'
understand
I
Examples.
I am
yarn de gozari-
dr P s y
is
?
sense
in the
that
told that
'
would
it
that.'
it
is
dropsy,
if
the right name.
is
masS gena.
understand that he came back
I
Sakujitsu kayerimashita
fena
'
yesterday.
So desu
is
commoner
in
Tokio than gena, which is more
same meaning. Ex. Saku-
a Kioto expression, and has the
jitsu kayerimashita so desu,
'
I
understand that he returned
yesterday.'
Ka
asks a question or intimates a doubt, it
very accurately represented by the mark of interrogation.
115.
Examples.
Oki fune
ka
Watakushi ka
Ka
a large ship
Is
it
Is
it I ?
?
?
large ship
Kita ka
?
?
Has he come
?
?
between two nouns represents our conjunction
'
or.'
Examples.
He lives
Osaka ka Nagasaki no uchi
one or
ni orimasu.
other
Ya
-
don
lives
fama
ka
arrow
atatte
ni
bullet
striking
in one of the two
Osaka or Nagasaki (I
pi ace s,
t
know which ).
He was
killed
by an arrow or
a bullet.
shinimastuta.
died
onna
ka
woman
?
Otoko ka
man
?
Itta
has gone
ka
?
?
ikanai
ka
does not go ?
Is
?
it
a male or a female
Has he gone,
or not
?
?
is
PARTICLES.
Sono
wa
hon no hiyoshi
book
cover
that
127
Is the
or tb ; n
cover of that book thick
p
atsui ka iisui ka ?
thin
thick
ka
Where the clause
may be omitted.
begins with another interrogative word,
Example.
Dare desu
Who
?
is
it ?
The Japanese language having no special forms for
when repeated in an
indirect narration, a question or doubt
clause does
indirect
not change
form as
its
it
does in
English.
Anata wa midnichi
tomorrow
you
ni
kimashita.
hear
to
came
ushl ka shiranu.
ka
horse
I
ka
will
go
Man
-
ari
omou.
to
is
a
I
wondered who
I
am
I
think
it
was.
thinking of going,
in
ichi so
koto
i
so called
wa
umai
even be
I
may
perhaps go.
think
?
10,000
demo
it
think
go
Iko
know whether
don't
thought
omou.
to
will
I
omoimashtta.
to
who
Iko
enquire whether
horse or a bull.
bull
Donata ka
to
you had not change d your mind
about oi
tomorrow.
(sign of quotation)
?
kiki
Muma
still
.to
o ide nasaru ka
do you come
Examples.
He came
iyo-iyo
will not
occurred to
me whether there
i
ka
do
It
might not possib y be som ething
to
o f that kind,
?
omotta.
thought
naro
Shijiu hak-ku ni
forty eight nine will become
*a
to
omou
kojiki.
A beggar who one would think
might be per ha P s forty eight or
fort
nine
rs of
think beggar
Aru ka
are
?
mo
even
shirfmasenti.
can't know
There may be some,
j
know.
for
aught
PARTICLES.
128
For ka with Interrogative Pronouns see
Kara, (with nouns) 'from,' 'since
116.
'
'
because,'
From
Korc kara hachi
ri.
Saki kara.
go
ye
seiyo
from west ocean
a while ago.
I
am
I
think of going to Europe via
going by the Nakasendo.
Canada.
to zotijimasii.
think
go
Sore kara no koto nl
that after
ja nai ka
is
from here.
ri
From
?
Nakasendu kara ikimasu.
Kanada kara
today.
Eight
By which way do you go ?
ikimasu ka ?
kara
where from
will
(with verbs)
Examples,
With nouns.
Konnichi kara.
Doko
;'
after.'
i.
iko
26.
not
thing
Let us take
shu
will
it
after that.
make
?
?
Kore kara.
Henceforth.
Omote no ho kara
front
side from
Don't
irete
having let
let
him
in
by the
front.
in
kureruna.
don't give
wo
Kakushi kara
pocket
kane
from money
Taking money from
his pocket.
dashltc.
taking out
Ima kara
sugti ni
now from immediately
kaycrn.
return
2.
(a).
Oyaji ga
father
negaimasii.
request
going straight back
Indicatives.
naku narimashita
not
am now
With Verbs.
With
became
ni
kara
san nichi o itoma
because two three day
leave
wo
I
again.
My
father
is
dead, so
ask you for two
i
eave
or
I
three
would
days
PARTICLES.
Daijobu
desu,
kara,
is
because
safe
I2Q
You may make your mind
go
ease
.
at
quite safe-
it is
anshin
easy-mind
Kono
house
kuruma
wo
jinrikisha
wa
no maye
uchl
this
before
okasenai
Remember
that
I
kara,
don't allow
down
jinrikshas to be set
before
^is h ouse>
not-let-put because
su omotte
iro.
so thinking remain
Ima
now
ni
Tell the driver
kara,
kaycru
go back because
g'wsha ni
o
su itte
moment
demo
With Past
kntte
boiled rice even having eaten
kara yoVaro.
after will be good
atsumatte
having assembled
ni nasaremascnii ka ?
not do
all
Hiru-meshi
noon meal
we might
used where
is
Because
(b).
Mina
going away
the sign of quotation.
to,
Atstti kara.
Mama
am
give
In the last two sentences kara
have expected
I
.
kitre.
having said
driver
in a
wo
kara
after
hot.
Participle.
It will
do
after
you have had
much
your rice (to persons
,
ferior in rank
Won't you wait till they are
assemb i e d before doing it ?
tabete
having eaten
it is
I
my
won't go
till
in .
all
have had
after I
middav mea i.
kara de nakucha ikimasenu.
if not
don't go
after
/^oso
117.
had the
is
effect of
a very emphatic particle.
making the verb
It
formerly
or adjective at the end of
the sentence be put in the Conditional Base, and rare cases
of the application of this rule are still met with.
Examples
Omaye
you
koso usotsuki da.
liar
are
of Koso.
It is
you who
are the
liar,
PARTICLES.
130
YD
You
koso oide nasatta.
are most welcome,
come
well
Watakushi koso go busata
I
not-giving news
Shinzurcba
koso,
go chiukokii
advice
since believe
It is I
who have
neglected call-
ing on you>
It is just
that
j offer
because
believe
I
you advice
it,
.
mvshima.su,.
say (respectful)
Yoroshi
is
;
good
sore de
that with
koso kimi
Right
!
That
is
like yourself.
you
da.
is
118.
'to,'
'up
Made, from ma 'space' and de
to,' 'till,' 'until,'
'as far
as,'
means
'with,'
'inclusive
of.'
Examples.
Miunichi made.
Till
Yokohama kara Tokiv made.
From Yokohama
donogurai
Hathwji made
what quantity
How
to-morrow.
far is
it
to
to Tokio.
Hachoji
?
am ?
made
mo
as far as
even
In
saying
Mivgonichi
day
after
nai.
is
not
made
ni
tomorrow
by
It is
not worth mentioning,
It will
after
be finished by the day
tomorrow.
deki-agarimaaL
is
finished
Kojiki
made
to
beggar
Namaye
name
He
ni natta.
became
as far as
made
fell
so low as to
become a
beggar.
I
even told you
my
name,
as far as
o hanashi tnoshtta.
told
Konnichi no Into ni
made.
today
man
Sakuban
osoku
made
late
until
last night
kayerananda.
returned not
down
to
Even down
to the
men
of this
day>
He had
last night.
not returned up
till
late
PARTICLES.
wo
mo
made
Doko
where as
chikara
even strength
far as
131
Exerting one's strength to the
very u t mO st.
tsukushitc.
having exhausted
Omaye
made
watashi
you
inclusive of
me
wo
Even you
join in vexing
me.
ijimeru.
vex
Mo means
119.
'also,'
peated with two nouns,
K'a
this,
mo
'too,'
both.'
'even,' and,
It is
when
re-
the opposite of wa,
and nothing more,'
'
meaning
'
'
this, if
nothing
some thing else is associated
These two particles
with the noun to which it belongs.
are therefore not found together.
The case particles come
before mo, but when it is used, ga (as sign of the nominative)
more,' while
implies that
and wo are generally omitted.
in.
For demo see
It is
the
same
particle
which
is
used with the concessive
form of verbs and with participles.
Examples,
i.
Kono
tsubo
this
vase
mo
With nouns.
o kai nasare.
buy
Buy
this vase too.
do
Inn mo neko mo.
cat
dog
Both dogs and
Ingirisu
mo Nippon mo.
Futatsu
to
cats,
Both England and Japan.
Both of them.
mo.
So omou mo muri wa nai.
is not
wrong
You
are not
to think so.
wrong
so think even
Shiri
mo
know
shinai
hlto
do not
man
no
Sending
off a letter to
a
man
she knows nothing of
.
tokoro ye tegami
place
letter
Omou and
as nouns.
wo
dashite.
sending
off
shiri in the last
two sentences must be taken
PARTICLES.
132
Shinku shinai
belief do not
Into
mo am.
men
also are
With Verbs.
2.
KHTU ka mo
come ? even
he
There are some who
shiranu.
don't know
do
not
believe.
even
('
').
He may come,
for
aught
I
know.
This phrase implies a slight leaning to the opinion that
kuru ka shiranu is simply an expression of
will come
;
ignorance.
mata Hayaji
a-n
Kill
me
(contemptuous)
termination
don't
I
again
today
know
fellow Hayaji
ga koyo mo
willcomeeven
whether
that
may not come
again
today.
shircnu.
can't know
nani
Tafoye
supposing what
iwd
to
tori-awanai no
take-meet-not
mo,
e"ven
to
will say
ga
No
matter what he
the best plan
of him.
is
may
to take
say,
no notice
ichiban da.
no.
i
is
Mina
tabenaku.
mo
te
You need
not eat them
all.
even
not eating
all
yoroshi.
is
good
Aru
nl
to
mo
kercdo
although even
are
wa
omaye
you
I
have some, but
I
won't give
you any.
yaranai.
not give
120.
Nagara,
'whilst.'
i.
Kage
nagara.
With nouns.
In
my
inmost heart.
shade
Go mendo
nagara.
I
am
sorry to trouble you, but
trouble
Shikkei
nagara.
It is
very rude of me, but
impolite
Ftitatsu
two
nagara.
Both
them.
of
them.
The two
of
PARTICLES.
With Verbs (stem
2.
'
Utnre
nagara,
being beaten
wo
133
kanjd
counting
form).
Going on with his counting
the time he was being beaten.
all
shzte.
doing
Cha wo nomi nagara
drink
tea
shabctte
chattering over their
tea<
orimashtta.
remained
chattering
Kiusoku
While
ski nagara.
resting,
do
rest
O
They were
whilst
o
damashi
(hon.)
deceive
koloba
words
asobasn
to shiri
know
condescend
nagara mo.
even
Even knowing all the time that
wor d s were
deceiving
your
(highly respectful),
Osore nagara.
With
all
due respect,
With
all
due respect,
fear
Habakari nagara.
fear
121.
Ni.
With nouns
ni
usually
means
1
'to,'
'in,
'at,' 'into,' 'on.'
Examples.
He goes
Kioto ni iku.
to
to Kioto,
go
Kioto ni orimasu.
He
lives in Kioto.
Uchi
He
is
ni orimasQ.
at
home,
within
ni
haitta.
telegraph office into entered
Denshinkyoku
Yengawa
ni
dashlte
He went
into
the
telegraph
o ffi ce-
Put
it
out on the verandah.
verandah on having put out
oke.
put
ni
Kiuji
waiting at table
mashtta.
mainhave
I
have come to wait
at table,
come
Hlto
person
wo baka
fool
ni
into
sum.
make
To make
a fool of a person,
PARTICLES.
134
Other meanings of
Dare
whom
ni.
From whom
kiita ?
ill
did you hear
it ?
from did hear
ni
Wakai toki, haha
young time mother from
from
Separated
mother
her
when young.
wakarete.
separated
wa
Toshi ni
is
Anohtto
man
that
He
uki.
for
year
is
big for his age.
big
ni
nicdznrashi
for
rare
him
to be
no mistake about
that.
very unusual
It is
for
so late.
dcsu.
chikokti
late-hour
is
Sore
ni
There
nai.
soi
that about mistake
is
is
not
And
Sore
inata
ni,
that in addition to again
besides,
when
I
went again
to see
mircba
itte
having gone when I saw.
'
Bekon
bacon
ni
tamago.
in addition to
Take
sparrow
na
Taisftsit
valuable
ni
Bamboos and sparrows
ni siiztimc.
bamboo
(as
a
subject of a painting).
kiishi
kanzashi
comb
hairpin
mo
irui
Bacon and eggs.
eggs.
It
contained
valuable
clothing
combs and
besides
hairpins.
haitte
having entered
clothing
MMjftffe.
was
Yomc
ni
ikitai.
bride
as
wishes to go
Ni
is
often
She wants
in
required
to get married.
Japanese where there
is
no
preposition in English.
Examples.
Isha ni Sudan
sum.
doctor consultation do
Isha ni
mite
morau,
having seen receive
To
To
one.
consult a doctor.
get
a doctor
to
examine
PARTICLES.
de
tsuji
crossroads at
Yotsu
four
basha
I
135
met the carriage
at the cross-
roads.
ni aimashlta.
met
carriage
Minn
mat
dzntsu
one (flat object) apiece
ni ichi
all
Give them
all
one apiece,
yare.
give
Shindai
He became
Fuji san ni nobotta.
ascended
Fuji Mt
He
Tonari ni arimasu.
It is
kagiri ni natta.
became
property-limit
Ni with nouns
bankrupt,
ascended
Mj
Fuji.
next door.
often forms Adverbs.
Examples.
Makoto
ni.
truth
in
Tashika
ni.
Truly.
Certainly,
certainty in
Dai
ichi
number one
ni.
Firstly,
in
Above.
ni.
Uye
Mare
Seldom.
ni.
Before passive verbs, ni means
verbs indicates the person who
'
by,'
is
and before causative
caused to perform the
action.
Examples.
wa karasu ni
Hiyoko
crow by
young chicken
The chicken was
carried off by
a crow<
torareta.
was taken
Nani ka
something
iwareta.
was said
Moriyama
mo
He was
by too
Moriyama
ni
talked to a
too.
little
by
136
*
re
Give the Sort* their food.
bai
Example.
I
maj
am knocked op by
this
ibflow those parts of the verb and
wincfa ate rapanie of becoming noiiim.
to
it
When
ieticara
it
would do quite well
r,
.-i
*~~
iT-
~'4.7.~.~.
if
Mb
r-c"
:_
r.\.r-;-r-^.
'-_
wiry
"
-"*
.."-_'
if
i
'_..
".'-"
|
getwet
Bgooiitni
to
at
When
**
don't
'
Ar.c*
"-i
_'
-:
JEir
4,
^
-^
*
-,
.^.
i
;...-
.
_
,
.
_>'-.._.
-
.--
-^
-^
-.._
^
*
i
,
j
ckZckc*.
ra wfay lantern
'
(why
aajm
K, naze
:v^
to listen
.-.'.~ '.'---..
.
*-
I tell yon
yon Ksten ?)
When k
jontriaja]
*o dark,
wby
don't
PARTICLES.
mo
Yd
nai
ni
saki ye
not while first
business
mrtba
if
go
Xi
is
of nai
is
'
yoi
bed
to
is
As
137
have nothing
I
you may go
waiting for me.
for
you to
^d ^fr^
to
do>
good
frequently found after nashi, the old verbal form
This
not,' as yenrio nashi ni 'without ceremony.'
an ungrammatical construction but
has the sanction
it
of use.
(c)
After Stems.
Kimono wo arai id yatta.
wash
sent
clothes
sent
Did
Naoshi ni yatta ka ?
mend
He
sent
you send
mended
clothes
to
be
them
to
be
?
He went
J/i ni itta.
the
washed.
to see.
It is not every verb with which this construction
or possible.
O
kiki
ni
inmost.
I will tell
you (very
is
usual
respectful),
put in
hearing
(d) After
Negative Participles.
(Gosen no) Ato no katadsuke
meal
after putting
away
wo
He went
away the
to
bed without putting
(dinner) things.
-.v.v
stfu
ni
not doing having gone to bed
sAimaitnashtia.
finished.
Kanjo wo kanmant
ni
not paying
skimaimaskita.
bill
He
never paid the
bill
after
jjj_
finished.
122. A'o
of
'
is
the ordinary sign of
the possessive
case.
Examples.
Hlto no
ashi.
Hako no
kagi.
Omayt no kiwte*.
A
man's
The key
Your
leg.
of the box.
clothes.
I
38
PARTICLES.
Ima no
judan
koto)
said thing
dt-sii
is
joke
wa
(Ufa
of
no%v
What
joke,
Yama
no
mountain
kuni.
vi
tall soldier.
A
mountainous country.
While there
ni.
A
Rondon kara no dempu.
London from
telegram.
Kin no
A
numerous country
aru
ttchi
being within
no
a
part).
no takai hcitai.
growth of high soldier
sun's
now was
said just
you.
yo.
(emph.
Sci
Hi
I
I tell
two
coins.
There are two inns below the
no shita ni
Miya
Shinto temple of below
ant.
yadoya ga nikcn
inn
daylight.
telegram from London.
Gold
kahci.
is still
Shinto temple.
there are.
Yane no
tondc
roof
flying
nye kara
of above from
It
flew
away over
the roof.
shimatta.
itte
going finished
Me
no
eye
of before at
mays
No joins
Before
de.
two words which
my
eyes.
relate to the
same person
or
thing.
Dokushin
no watakushi.
single body
Sagami no
I,
who am
The
knni.
Mekura
no kojiki.
eye-dark of beggar.
A
Bfttv no Tsunckichi.
The
ni
Sugu
at
once
koi
to
A
no
come
a single man.
province of Sagami.
blind beggar.
horse boy Tsunekichi.
message that he was
to
come
at once.
kotodznkc.
message
No
is
sometimes used
enumerations.
Here
it
like
may
dano (which is=</a-f no)
and or 'or.'
be rendered
'
'
in
PARTICLES.
Muko
no
to
no
yoshi
adopted son
son-in-law
mo
tea
negatte
having requested even
thing
kanaimast-nu.
cannot be granted
koto
Moto
.
nan no
anything
no
izon
yori
difference of
.
ongm
from
in
wake
called
reason
to
Even
above
ni
sonna ml
siigita
such person
exceeding
139
if I
asked
my
for
a thing so far
station as to
granted.
Of course
there
is
no difference
of that
of opinion or anything
wa
become
your son-in-law or your adopted
son, my request could not be
kind.
nai.
is
not
No
with numerals.
Mitsu no hako.
Three boxes.
Sannln no dorobo.
Three
No
mono
after adjectives
'
very often be taken as equal to
may
'
thing
no
Ito
thread
thieves.
and translated by one.'
futoi no wo motte
Bring me
'
thick
a
stout
piece
of
taking
koi.
come
Kore ! nibui
no bakari aru ;
are
only
togatta no ga arimasenu ka ?
?
are not
sharp
blunt
this
Ichiban yasui no no ncdan.
no.
i
cheap
Look here
!
there are only blunt
Are there no sharp ones
ones.
The
?
price of the cheapest ones.
price
Omaye wa warm no
You were
ni
certainly to blame.
bad
you
nai.
chigai
mistake
In the following examples no ni
Ka
ga
musquitoes
ni
naze
whilst
ui
why
numerous
wo
kaya
musquito net
okanai ?
having hung not put
tsutte
no
may
be rendered
With such a
'
whilst.'
of musquitoes
about) why did you not put up the
musquito net ?
lot
PARTICLES.
140
wa
Ki'i
not
dushitc
ni
whilst
How
nai no
tic
Doy'ibl
Saturday
today
day
is
it
you have come
to-
not Saturday.
It is
?
ide
o
how having done
come
nasatta ?
did
No
Kfisatsusho
iku
tsnrctc
Because
yc
to
station
police
with verbs.
no
wa mcndo
too
it is
go with
to
you
much
to
trouble
the
police
station.
trouble
accompany going
da kara.
because
is
Ku
arimasu. no
kaitc
thus written
wo
Seeing what was thus written.
is
mite,
seeing
Omaye ga kowashlta no ka?
broke
you
Kowashlta no
wa
?
watakushi
broke
Is
it
of your breaking
you who broke
It
was not
I
?
Was
it
it ?
who
broke
it.
I
dc gozartmascnu.
is not
Kowasu
mifa yo.
no
Hisashi
long
nakatta
was not
koto ycnzctsu ga
thing speech
kid wa
no
ni,
whilst to day
nin
ni
ichi
I tell
you
I
saw you break
it.
saw
break
no
jozu
one two men
no
There have been no speeches
a long time but one or two
for
clever speakers'
the
list for)
names appear
(on
today.
clever
namaye ga miyerti.
names
are visible
Watakushi
wa ima
I
no
nani
ni
when
mil a
now looked
inai.
mo
is
something
will be
now
until
I
looked just now, there
there.
not
Doko ye o idc nasatta
where to
did
go
Ima made koko
no desh<~> ?
ni o idc nasatta no ni.
When
was nothing
here
Where can he have gone to ?
here till a moment ago.
He was
PARTICLES.
Ra
123.
a plural particle.
is
With adverbs
like the
141
of place ra adds vagueness to their
abouts
'
English
example, means
'
here,'
'
same
in the
kokora
'
position.
meaning
Koko,
for
hereabouts."
When it is wished to show respect ra
nouns or pronouns, but daclii or gata.
is
not used with
Examples.
ra
Suzdshl
yatsu
noisy
fellow
no
ra
Sore
that
(plural)
koto
segare
thing
kara kikimashita.
son
from
wo
wa
about
my
those
(koto)
son.
Whereabouts
:
n~
lllgO
desu
dochira
whereabouts
it
heard
I
things from
travel-residence
124. So,
!
heard
riokwan
where
a noisy lot of fellows
is
(plural)
Go
What
da !
are
your lodg-
>
.
?
is
is
found after nouns at the end of a sentence,
has the same meaning as da
'
is,'
but
more
is
emphatic.
Examples.
ni
Ayashimu
think strange
wake
There
is
not enough reason for
thinking
it
strange.
is
Go
sodan
musu
consultation
do
tsuinori
sa.
intention
is
Yo
ga aru
business
Sugu
once
dcsu to sa.
is
taranu
not enough
sa.
reason
at
is
to sa.
is
ni
I
He
you
tonde
iku no
flying
go
intend to consult you.
says there
is
something
for
to do>
I tell
you
it is
said that
flying off at once>
it
goes
PARTICLES.
142
Are
(A phrase used as the equivalent
of our 'I say' in calling one's atten-
sa.
tion or
thus
i
by way of remonstrance.)
Yes.
Say'i sa.
is
nouns or the stems of verbs means
after
Saye
125.
'
only.'
Examples.
Danna
saye
master
only
watakushi
wa
If
yoroshikcreba,
if is
good
dudemo
I
my
master
is
only
satisfied,
don't'mind.
anyhow
I
yoroshiu gozarimasu.
.
is
good
Yudachi
shower
no
dckakcte
huritsu
ga
if
remain
wo
okashi
law
self
saye
If they
-
senya
not do
For
break
(for seneba)
my own
wh J
reason
.
mo
junsa
anything
wa
koto
thing
kowai
no
part, so
long as
l
is
I
no
should be the least
afraid of the police.
afraid
police
hadzu
nal
not
.
don't break the law, there
if
only
nani
have only started before
the shower
ircba.
saye
having gone out
Jlbiin
nl
maye
before
sa.
necessity
De sometimes comes between
the
noun and
It
saye.
adds nothing to the meaning.
de saye go
Sempu
shuchi
If the other party only agrees,
consent
other party
de gozarimasu nara.
if
is
Chikusho de saye mo
wo
on
favour
beast
The very beasts have a sense
o f gra titude.
shiru.
know
126.
Shi
is
a conjunction.
only
'
but,'
and
used with verbs
It
may
so.'
in the indicative
be rendered
'
and,' 'and
mood
also,'
as
'not
PARTICLES.
143
Examples.
am
mo yohodo
much
way
Michi
osokn
natteru
kara,
has become because
late
m
ban koko
one night here
hito
ashita
Toi
distant
had
better stay here for
and
start
one
ni ht
tomorrow.
tomatte,
having stayed
if
mlchl
demo
art
way
even
be
shimai
will not do
watareba
cross
As you have a long way to go,
and besides it has got late, you
tattara
yok'aru.
started will be good
tomorrow
if
shi,
is
Not only is it no great way off,
if you cross the
bridge) there
but
wo
hashi
ski,
wa
it is
before your nose,
bridge
hana
tstti
no
casually nose
saki.
before
Soto
wo arukeba
ashi
walk
leg
outside
if
ga
kutabireru shi, tichi ni
at home
get tired
oreba
taikutsu surit shi,
if
remain
jitsu ni
truly
go
if j
out,
stay at
SQ that rea n y
my
_
legs get tired,
home
j feel
bored>
do
ennui
domo
somehow
Sewashi hi mo aru shi;
bus y
dav
hi mo aru.
hima
na
leisure
day
Shin
I
have busy days and days of
leisure.
a moderately respectful plural particle.
comparatively little used.
127.
It is
If I
and
is
Examples.
Tomodachi
Kodomo
Danna
128.
particle.
Friends.
shiu.
Children.
shiu.
Masters.
shiu.
Tachi
or
dachi
is
also
a
respectful
plural
PARTICLES.
144
Ima
now
Examples.
When we
dachi
no ftijin
lady
ga
(plur.)
gakutnon wo
sluts
learning
doing remain
wo mini
consider the pursuit
of learning by the ladies of the
no
iru
present time.
to.
see
if
Mo
Have you gentlemen got
kimi tachi zva tncshi
rice
already you
r i ce
ka?
To between two nouns means
129. To.
sometimes repeated
WataktsJri
I
kuni
province
?
'and.'
It is
after the second.
to
otnayc
and
you
Examples.
When
wa
you and
I
came from our
province.
kara kita toki.
from came time
Temayc no oknbio
cowardice
you
mttgakn
ignorance
to the
(the last part of a meal)
to
wo
tana
to
Putting in the background your
cowardice and ignorance.
ni
shelf to
ngete.
raising
Uchi no inn
home
ga oba san no
IMM to
aunt's
dog
wo
hato
daijina
Our dog and another one have
my
killed
aunt's
much-prized
pigeon.
much-prized
koroshtta.
killed
pigeon
Note
no
dokka
somewhere
to
dog
that in the last
sentence the whole phrase uchi no inn
the subject of the sentence and therefore takes
the sign of the nominative case.
no
tint to
Hone
bone
is
to
kawa
skin
to ni
kenkwa wo
Shina -jin
to
China man with quarrel
did
to
dokka
after
it
has become skin and bone,
has become
Other uses of
shtta.
He
natta.
ga
to
with nouns.
He had
man.
a quarrel with a China-
as
PARTICLES.
Kino
fan/mono
kattn
yesterday bought piece goods
to
onnji
mono
as
same
thing
are the
They
j
goods
same
as the piece
bought yesterday.
dcsn.
is
kanakin
Sakujitsu katta
yesterday bought
to
145
shirtings
are
They
i
shirtings
from the
different
bought yes terday.
chigannasn.
from
differs.
Kono
into'
this
man
Go
issho
to
along with this man.
with same place
ni ike.
go
Arc
K'o tfizoku to
him
mini
see
toki
shite
If
we
look on him as a robber,
having made
robber
wa.
time
Riunin
mo.
to
Both of them,
two men and even
Ittu
shokikan
first
class secretary
to (or
He
/)
has
made
been
First
Secretary.
iiarimashtta.
has become
To with some uninflected words
is
used to form adverbs.
Shikkari
to.
Firmly.
Totsuzcn
to.
Suddenly.
Pan
With a bang.
to.
Bara barn
With a
to.
Onomatopoetic words
exceedingly
common
in
like
rattling noise.
two
the
Japanese,
examples are
last
but they
are
rather
inelegant.
To with nouns sometimes corresponds
commas
to
the inverted
used as a sign of quotation.
Urashiwo
Vladivostock
to
ka hi tokoro.
A
place called,
?
,
rigbti
if
viadivostock.'
I
remember
PARTICLES.
146
O
nam:n'c
nan'
"Ct!
name
IVataktshi
in?
to
what
\Vhatisyourname?
say
My name
Deiikichi fo
~i'(i
is
'
Denkichi.'
tn'ishiniasS.
call
mo
Hontit to
(lite
yoroshl).
even saying
truth
is
To
be sure
it is
true,
good
With verbs, to (like our conjunction 'that') is the sign of
quotation" or of indirect statement generally, and is used
after such verbs as 'to say,' 'to think,'
to promise,' 'to
It must not be omitted as
that often is
advise,' etc. etc.
'
'
'
in
It
English.
mo
Scri-nri go.
auction
natta
must sometimes be rendered by
shiinai ni
finish
already
to.'
said that the auction
was
over
iinmslitta.
to
became
said.
to in
.Ike
go (imp.)
no da.
say
I
to
tell
you
to
go away,
is
What
1
Nail da
what
He
'
ye?
is it
you say
it is ?
is it
awo
Koko de
here
will
to
wa
I
meet
did not expect to meet you
here
omowananda.
did not think
He made
Utfi
to shita.
will strike
did
When
to is used, there is often
of one of the verbs in 'to
think,'
sum
'
to do,' kiku
'
will
do
to
an
some
ellipsis of
mint 'to
part
omott 'to
see,'
to hear.'
Anata ni
sSdan
you with consultation
(shfi)
say,'
to strike him.
I
came
to consult with you.
(oniottc) kiin a shit a.
thinking
came
am inclined to think that to is identical with the root so of sore that.' and that
a demonstrative, this particle has become a conjunction, just like its English
equivalent. In the phrases to kaku, to mo kakti 1110, its original demonstrative force is
*
'
I
from
retained.
PARTICLES.
Kubn
yc
n'nigaku
matriculation
engineering'
(.)
fo
to
goznrimasu
to
(''/<)
that
is
To
be sure
To
be sure there are.
I
will,
said
(yoroshl').
even
is
good
ArimasS.
The
'
was going
said
?
good
mo
think he said he
matriculate in Engineering.
ka Ufa.
do
y
I
147
vio.
,to
ordinary force of to
mo
verbs
after
is
'
though,'
even though.'
Nani
what
to
tsukai-harawarcru
be paid
nl
for
spend
mo omayc no
even
your
kattc
da.
convenience
is
You can spend the money on
whatever you please.
In the language of the lower classes, to
tracted with the verbs iu and
ike
Ikcttara, (for
to
go (imp.)
i
ikanai
not go
tiara)
when
I
said
Shiranai
not
often con-
following.
Why
you
is
don't you go
when
I tell
?
ka ?
?
ttc (for to ittc)
When
I tell
you
I
don't know,
know
in
nl,
saying
Na
name
to
am
attc)
in
wo
iyc
sonna
being such
arhnascnn.
is not
Hongu ye
tcnde
tatte (for
say (imp.)
litto
You
me
ask
but there
;
s
to tell you his name,
no such person<
wa
person
hiki-koshi nasatta
remove
did
(for to in
no dc),
by-its-being-said-that
yu-yo no koto de shiremashtta.
hardly
thing by found out.
By
you
the help of a statement that
had removed
found you out with
to
Kongo,
difficulty,
I
PARTICLES.
148
Mfknrn
wa, which
ta (for to
Whom
do you
Have
I
call blind
?
blind
for to hi
is
again
koto
dare no
who of
<i'n)
lid ?
is
thing
nai
ga
Tcgntiii
letter
tcbd
not
is
letter
not
told
you there
is
no
?
(for to ifba).
if
I
To
'
say
verbs must sometimes be translated
after
'
'
or
if
when.'
Giidzit
gudzu sum
do
loitering
on sun
goes
Yoku-jitsn
toki
that
time
narn
no
If
you
loiter,
it
will
be dark
before you get there.
yo.
to.
become when
So HO
onion
think
way
down
iii
next day
'
tofhitt
if
kitrcru
ga
///
</(
to,
koto
When
the
day
following
arrived.
ico
When
ni.
As soon
I
think of that time.
thing
to.
Kuril
to
come when
sugit
at once
as he
comes
(or
came).
Wa
i
It has
is a distinctive or separative particle.
130.
the force of isolating or singling out one object from among
a number, of opposing one thing to another, or of limiting
a statement strictly to the word which x>a follows. Thus
korc
wa may mean
not
that
one,'
'
one out of a number,' this one
this one at
this one and nothing else,'
'
'
this
'
least.'
Wa
is
often found with the subject of a sentence, but it
It
for the sign of the nominative case.
must not be taken
also found
is
dc,
it
and even
combined with the locative
after
wo
particles ni
the sign of the accusative case,
takes the iiigori and becomes ba.
and
when
PARTICLES.
I
49
The French quant
a is perhaps the nearest equivalent to
in
but
wa,
European languages the same idea is usually
not
expressed,
by a separate word, but by means of a great-
emphasis on the noun. Wa has frequently very little
meaning, and its presence or absence is often immaterial.
er
Wa
be used after those parts of the verb or adjective
may
which are nouns
in syntax.
So far as whiteness
Sliiroi koto u-a shiroi.
goes,
it is
white.
Arc
wa warui ;
that
bad
is
korc
wa.
That
is
bad, this
is
good.
this
yorosli i.
is
good
Korc
this
wa
dc
with
Watakftshi no
ni
kiiui
my
wa
sonna wake ja
such reason
this time
dc wa)
santhree
how having done even
wa kakaru d\ird.
ya
belong will be
Hako no
box
uchi
ni arimashita
was
inside
wa mlna
mottc
malri-
having taken came
all
mashita.
TokaidTi no
ninsoku
wa
coolie
kumosukc
This time, there will be nothing
of that kind.
not
sh > tctno
nights
in
nai.
is
Do
no earthquakes
country.
not
is
Konda
There are
my
tiai.
go.
earthquake
no
wa
country
jishin
(for
This won't do.
ikcnai.
cannot go
No
think
what you
matter
it
will take at
I
box.
brought
all
wa
may
(The
were, or
that were in the
have been, others
not in the box.)
The Tokaido
coolies are called
call
takai ka ?
dear
fish
?
I
three
implies that there
to iu.
this
do,
nights.
ktinwsukc.
Kono sakana wa
least
Is this fish
dear
?
PARTICLES.
150
Hi to
man
ilc
no mono
mono
nu.
r
7,-vi
waga mono
is
via
p CO ple's.
Ever since he became a colonel.
nattc
to
having become
kara tea.
colonel
(The
\Vntakiishi no bunko ni iikai
red
desk
mX
ichlmai ant
na-fuda
is
name card one
:
sore
KO
that
There
na koto
fortunate
a red visiting card in
The ba
(
bring ; t to me
my
shows that the card ; s to be singled
.
.
,
KOI.
koi,
having taken come
Saiwai
is
desk
out
tottc
hints a contrast with the
ir
time before he became a colonel.)
remain since
ba
other people's is mine,
mine is not other
is
not
Taha
ini
is
but what
no mono
liito
What
:
my
thing
among
.
.
,
the other things in the
desk.)
ni u-a.
Fortunately.
thing in
Kawagishi no dcnakatta
not
saniifii
\\'hat a pity Kawagishi
:ca
come out
present
was not
!
d'atta.
disappointment
Xanibcku
become could
Kaigitn ni
was
If possible.
iva.
irai
tc
li'a
in
case
naranu.
does not become
M'atakiishi no
si>z<>
idea
ataranai ka
not hit
wa
must
rely
upon the Navy.
not doing
reliance
my
We
shinaku.
navy
ataru ka
hit
?
I
is
know whether my
don't
idea
correct, or not.
(or U'o) shiranu.
]\'a without any apparent meaning at the end of a sentence has been already adverted to in $65. The Kioto
terminations wni na, wii na suggest that the verb iinrtt
to be
must be supplied in. this case, as inada o kaico ni
'
'
sukoslii >no dcinascnu
wa
(nani),
the least on your face is (a
on your face in the least.'
'
lit.
'
fact),'
not yet
it
coming out
in
does not yet show
PARTICLES.
An
interrogative
O
(hon.)
is
What
(iiani dc
iva
atsurayc
order
often understood after wa.
do you order, Sir
?
what
gozarimasu) ?
is
A to
iva?
(What
is)
the next (course)
?
next
Dcnkichi
sail !
impolite whilst
Denkichi
the guide
what
!
name
(hon.)
about
?
Excuse me, but what
o
Shikkfi nagara,
namayc wa
Mr.
aimaija wci ?
guide
is
your
?
?
name
In the common language of Tokio wa often suffers
change or contraction. Thus for arl wa slrinai ka, we have
ari ya shinai ka, for sore wa, sore ya or sorya, for nauzo wa,
nanzd, for korc wa, kord, for koto wa, kotd,
Wo
is the sign of the accusative case. But a noun
accusative case does not necessarily take wo after it.
131.
in the
The
etc.
accusative case governed by a preposition does not take
is often omitted before sum or itasu 'to do
and
'
wo, which
in other cases.
Daiku
iva dai
carpenter
Anc
wo
table
to
I
yarn
love letter
wo watakushi made
me
to
carpenter makes a table.
makes
no ycnsho
elder sister
The
tsuktirti.
?
kaycshitc
return
should
love
call
letter,
it,
like
if
my
elder
that
is
sister's
what you
to be returned to
me.
moral fat.
wish to receive
Umcjiro san no koto bakari
thing only
wo
ki ni
mind
kakctc
He
j
iro>
thinks of nothing but UmeNote the pos t i on of wo ^
(
j
iru.
having hung remain
Ktinuin
shite
kudasarc
patience having done give
Please have patience with me.
the abse nce of wo after
(Note
kannin.}
PARTICLES.
152
Stizatca
da
'n-atakushi
fi'o
He
to
thought Sazawa was
I.
I
oniotta.
thought
Wo
often found
is
where we use a preposition
He left his house,
in
English.
demashUa.
lye
house from went out
'co
wo
Kiiruma
Getting out of the jinrikisha.
oritf.
jinrikisha from having got
kanc
wo
money
of
no
Sfiivfii
loob yen
down
He was
of one
robbed
thou-
sand yen>
torarcta.
was robbed
A
Kon~atsn wo hanarctn tokoro.
turmoil from removed place
place removed from turmoil,
For mono wo see mono, ^ 107. In
wo has a somewhat similar meaning
mo
ni
Taikii
ncini
tokoro
even become place
dc atta
dare
ka
wo,
was whereas somebody
expulsion
SHlt<-
S/llllSt'H
offices
good
But ga
is
'
the
co n egei
from
body
^^
s
good
far that
of
^^g
when
he was
expe ii e d
by
some
.
offices
having done
commoner than wo
Ya
Ya.
132.
had gone so
It
on
the following sentence
:
in this construction.
oscillates in
meaning between the two
being sometimes expressive of doubt,
signs
and at others a mere exclamation.
'
?
and
'
!,'
After nouns
is
it
1.
used
As
a Vocative termination.
Tnke ya
2.
Nido ya
twice
With
samist-n u-a
guitar
</<
nearly with
Ttikc
!
the
meaning
Two
samio.
three times
Koto
ya
Jap.harp
ttl
;
tat-
A
'
or.'
or three times,
moderate
pretty- ciencv
on the
is sufficient.
is
good
/
degree
of
profi-
ku(o or satltiKll
PARTICLES.
153
With Verbs.
A person with precarious means
of subsistence.
Kuu ya
kuwazii no mi.
or not eat
body
eat
Anata no
your
ya
inaya.
?
not?
The
last
Ikr>
ya !
go
will
wa
basha
is
carriage
idiom
is
moment
miycru
The
visible
comes n
;
Let us go
Yara
Yara.
133.
carriage
rather bookish.
!
as a corruption of wa, see above,
Forya
your
sight>
130.
a contraction for
is
ya
(see pre-
vious section) and aran, the old future of aru, 'to
be.'
It
expresses uncertainty.
Doko
ni
orimasu,
yara
lives
?
where
watakushi ni
me
sion.
is
itta
previous example
to
is left
wonder where he has gone.
incomplete
is
(for to
The
Macao,
Qf
I
itta
t jj
A
yara) iu
geisha.
Dare yara ga
the Japanese ver-
to be supplied.
yara ye o idc ni
to
went
Tanoji tara
in
phrase as the concluding words of the
narimashlta yoku nen.
(respectful) next year
who
I
koto.
year after you went to
if that is the right name
e p i ace .
singing-girl called Tanoji, if
rightly.
remember
Something somebody
said,
said thing
Ye, 'towards,'
134.
'to.'
They
in this particle is
and perhaps the student's
pronounced very lightly,
plan is to omit it altogether, as many Japanese do.
Itsu o
kni ye o kaeri
When do you return
when country to return
country ?
nasarit
do
lives,
known
yara.
Some such
Amakao
Macao
not
sentence
last
don't
wa wakarimasenu.
to
Doko ye
The
know where he
I
ka
?
?
to
safest
your
PARTICLES.
154
Tabi
wo
no
tafsii
yc
journey
He
starting
off
put
starting
on
his
night
in
my
journey.
nobashtta.
put
oft
Watakushi no
my
yado
yc
lodging
in
o
the
for
Stay
lodgings.
tomari nasarc.
do
stay
Wait
Achira yc male.
Ye
in
mean
the last two sentences seems to
but perhaps o idc nasatte or
There
there.
is
a ye (or
thing like our
towards.'
'
eh
itte is to
'at' or 'in,'
be supplied after
it.
a mere interjection someand must be distinguished from ye
which
e)
?,'
is
'
is
Yo
is used with nouns in the vocative case,
more
than a mere vocative particle. It
something
and
emphatic,
implies pleading, remonstrance, appeal
\
but
Yo.
i^S'
it is
Indeed
or warning.
it
often stands quite by itself as
exclamation with this force.
It is difficult to
any English word, but
you,' will
'
I tell
an
render yo by
sometimes translate
In the Kioto dialect yo is used with
the roots of verbs of the second conjugation to form the
it
pretty accurately.
imperative mood. Thus for tabero, the Kioto people say
In the Tokio dialect, jo with the imperative is not a
mere termination, but has the emphatic force described
tabeyo.
above.
It is
Okka
a favourite particle with
women.
Mother!
san yo.
mother
O
cha yo! o
Abunal
is
yukata
bath
tea
yo.
gown
yo
!
Some
tea
!
a bath
gown
It is
dangerous,
I tell
you
I
tell
dangerous
Shiranai yo.
!
a guest).
I
don't know.
you.
(for
PARTICLES.
O
O
'55
Do come.
ide yo.
agari nasal
nasare) yo.
(for
come up
do
136.
Yori,
'
Do come
'
'
from,'
in.
than.'
since,'
Examples.
Kore yori hachi
ri.
Eight
ri
from here.
from eight
this
Konaida
yori
some days ago from
dc
bioki
illness
slntkkin
to
owing
going to
For some days past I have been
prevented by illness from going to
office.
office
itashimasenit,
do not
Mdshi-agemashtta nedan yori
stated
price than
shtta
low
wa
de
with
I
less
can't let
than
I
you have them
for
said.
sashi-agerarareoffer
can
mcisenii.
not
Omotta yori yasui.
cheap
It is
Watakushi yori hoka ni
Nobody knows but me.
cheaper than
I
thought.
thought
me
shiru
than other
wa
htto
know man
nashi.
is
not
He
Itsumo yori kenku desu.
ever
than robust
is
usual.
Scppuku sum yori hoka ni
harakiri do than other
to
shikata
do-side
ga
A.
O!
do
how
137.
is
commit
nothing
left for it
than
but
harakiri.
not
Fuku ka?
Hilloa
san
There
in stronger health
nai.
is
shtta ?
did
is
!
B. Ore yori
me
than
wa
do
A.
Hilloa
!
how
What became
o'maye
rather
is
what became of
you
shtta ?
did
Zo
is
that
of you
a very emphatic particle.
?
Fuku ?
Or
B.
?
PARTICLES.
156
Examples.
Keshlte
nchi
yc
positively house
wa
in
into admit
case
naranai
zo,
not become
Kataku
n-tsiikcta zo.
hard
ircte
positively not allow
into the house.
You have my
strict orders.
ordered
Here he
Kita
zo.
has come
Kiku
hodo
hear
quantity
no mono
nai ze (for zo ye).
not
is
You must
him
thing
wa
is
!
I
tell
you there
worth listening to.
is
nothing
CHAPTER
X.
ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS.
ADVERBS.
The
138.
adjective ending in
l
atarasJiiku,
Japanese the form of the
the syllable ku : as hayaku, quickly ;'
yoku, well.'* See 82. Many words
true adverb
newly
in
is
'
'
;'
used as adverbs are really nouns or nouns
particles, as aslrita,
'
'
'
foolishly
;'
suguni,
'
subete,
generally
;'
tomorrow
once
at
semete,
'
;'
'
sakini,
;'
followed by
before
bakani,
;'
or participles of verbs, as
at least
;'
nokorazti,
'
without
exception.'
The
present indicative of verbs
form an adverb, as miru-miru,
as one goes along.'
to
(
139. The following
commonly used adverbs
list
is
l
sometimes reduplicated
a vue d'oeil
contains
some
',
yuku-yuku,
of the most
:
ADVERBS OF TIME.
Mo,
already.
Itsu,
when
Mada, not yet.
(interrogative).
Itsudemo, always.
Toki, ditto, (relative).
Jikini, soon.
Mionichi, to-morrow.
Mettani, (with neg.) seldom.
Ashita,
ditto.
Konnichi, to-day.
Kid,
*
ditto.
Tadaima, immediately.
Mohaya, already.
Sudeni,
Also contracted into hayo, atarashiu, yo.
ditto.
ADVERBS.
158
ADVERBS OF TIME.
Tabi
Sakujitsu, yesterday.
Kind,
some days
Scndattc,
tabi,
Nochihodo, by and
ago.
Ni
&c.
&c.
by.
ADVERBS OF PLACE.
.
several times.
do or Into tabi, once.
do or futa tabi, twice.
Iclii
ditto.
: :
'
Koko, here.
Dochi ra, where, whither.
Kokoni, here.
Doko, where.
Sochi, there, thither.
Dokoni, where.
Sochira, there, thither.
Achi, there, thither.
Soko, there.
Achira, there, thither.
Sokoni, there.
Asuko, there.
Sakini, before.
Atode, behind.
Asukoni, there.
Sakasama, upside down.
Kochi, here, hither.
Kochira, here, hither.
Yokoni, across.
Uyeni, above.
Dochi, where, whither.
Sliltani, below.
ADVERBS OF MANNER.
Do, how.
Domo, howsoever.
Ikaga, how.
Ko,
in this
Hanaliada, very.
in this
Kayoni,
Naze, why.
way.
way.
So, in that way.
Sayoni, in that way.
Zelii, positively.
jfozn ni, cleverly.
Yoku, well.
ADVERBS OF QUANTITY.
Takusan, taiso, much.
Donoknrai, how much.
Bakari, only.
jfiubnn, enough.
Motto, more.
Sukoshi,
Amari
Ikutsu,
*
little.
how many.
See also
18 to 24.
Ikura,
how much.
or
Yokcini
too
much.
ADVERBS.
159
ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION AND NEGATION.
He, or hai yes.
t
lye, no.
Mottomo, right
He
It is
!
must not be understood in too strict a
more than a polite expression of
or hai
sense.
often nothing
tion to
what
affirmation
is
being said.
The
true
mode
atten-
of expressing
repeat the verb of the clause referred to.
is to
A
negative answer to a question may be expressed in a
similar manner. He and hai are more used in answer to
commands than
to questions.
Examples.
Mo
kimashzfa ka
Has he come
?
yet ?
Yes, he has come.
Kimashlta.
Miunichi
yorosli
is
z
wa
tsugo
tomorrow
Is
it
convenient tomorrow
?
convenience
ka ?
good
SayO dcsii or He, sayu desuHe, sayo de gozaimasenu.
140.
Yes,
it
No,
it is
is.
Onomatopoetic Adverbs are
not.
common
but most of them are somewhat vulgar.
followed by the particle to.
in
Japanese
They
are often
Examples.
Gata gata.
Butsu bntsu.
of a rattling noise.
Potsttri-potsTiri.
grumblingly.
of the spitting
Domburi
of falling with a
'
to.
The adverb
invariably precedes the
'
of rain.
'
flop.'
word which
it
qualifies.
PREPOSITIONS.
The
141.
Preposition should in Japanese be called
the Postposition, as it always follows the noun. The pre-
positions have been treated of in the Chapter on Particles.
l6o
INTERJECTIONS.
The English prepositions must often be rendered in Japanese by different parts of speech. Thus, for
between,' we
have no aid a ni, lit. in the space of: for beside we must
'
'
'
say no soba
ni,
lit.
'
'
'at the side of;' for 'over,' koyete, the
past participle of koyern, 'to cross.'
CONJUNCTIONS.
in English are variously rendered
Japanese by Particles, Verbal or Adjectival terminations
etc.
Some have been already noticed under the head of
Conjunctions
142.
in
and hints as
Particles,
will also be
found
in
to translating
them
into Japanese
Chapter XI.
INTERJECTIONS.
143.
As
in
other languages Interjections are merely ex-
clamations, and can scarcely be said to have any grammar.
The principal are
:
Oi, Halloa!
Aita,
Oya,
He
Ah
Oh
!
!
of pain.
of surprise
used chiefly by women.
(rising accent) of surprise
Yai, of terror.
,
Dokkoi, when
lifting a
and admiration.
heavy weight, or otherwise
exerting oneself.
Sd, of inciting a person to do something.
Ma, of satisfaction, 'surprise, etc.
The
ne so
common
very
little
the vulgar
in
Yedo
dialect (in other
na or no) is a sort of interjection. It has
meaning, and merely serves to draw the attention
parts of Japan
it is
of the person addressed.
It
has about the same force as the
you know,' sometimes heard
in English conmeaningless,
Yoroshi ne, it is good, is it not '? mata viiunicJii
o ide nasarn ne, 'you will come again to-morrow, won't
after that, don't you know
you '? sore kara ne
'
'
versation.
'
,
Ne
is little
used by men.
CHAPTER
XI.
ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.
144. At the risk of some repetition, it has been considered desirable to give a few notes on the mode of render-
ing into Japanese
some common English words."
'
'Although or 'though.' Keredo with indicatives
or verbal forms of adjectives, as itta keredo 'although
he went,' samui keredo although it is cold
participle
145.
'
'
;
and mo or adverb and
samnhu
gone,'
ikcdomo
146.
'
te
mo
te
'
mo, as
mo
itte
though cold
'
;
although having
concessive form, as
although (he) go,' samnkcredo,
'And.'
Connecting nouns,
'
'
although
which
to,
cold.'
is
often
wine and
repeated after the last noun, as sake to sakana,
fish ;' kore to are to, 'this and that
ni, as kashi ni kndn'
'
:
mono
<
cakes and
fruit.'
Sometimes the nouns are simply
placed together as sake sakana 'wine and
in
dano,
and no,
fish.'
See also
Connecting verbs, 'and'
122.
is
expressed by putting the first verb in the participle form,
at least where the action of the first verb is conceived as
preparatory or preliminary to that of the one succeeding it,
as tokkuri ivo akete motte koi, 'open the bottle and bring it
here.'
In other cases, and at the beginning of a sentence,
and.' When Adjectives are
joined by 'and,' the first is usually put in the adverbial
form followed by te, as yasukute atatakai it is cheap and
soshite or sore ni is used for
'
'
warm.
*
The
See also
shi,
126,
consulted.
de,
in.
more fully dealt with in Dr. Imbrie's excellent
Messrs. Satow and Ishibashi's Dictionary should also be
subject of this chapter has been
'Japanese Etymology,'
and
ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.
l62
147. 'As.'
manner
of your
'As you know,' go
knowing' 'as you
take
narubeku takusan
or
;
'the
lit.
say,' ossharu tori; 'as
as many as possible,' naru-
;
dear as that,' sore Iwdo takai
zonji no tori,
'
;
soon as finished,' deki-
'as
shidai or deki-agaru to sugu ni ;
as far as,' made; 'as it
sono
mama
'as
I
was going out,' deru toki ; 'just as
;
is,'
I was going out,' deru tokoro de ;
'the same as mine,'
'
ivatakushi no to onaji koto.
'
j
148.
Because.'
used after verbs
Kara, ynye, yuye
in the
indicative
ni, all
mood and
adjectives in
the verbal form: 'because why,' naze nareba
because,' naze demo.
'
j
149.
Before
'
is
usually no
maye
/,"
as
of which are
'Oh!
;
just
me no mayc
ni,
'
'
Nichi-yo no maye ni, before Sunday
maye ni kiita, I heard before ;' deru maye ni, before he
Before he comes' may be rendered
goes (or went) out.'
'
before one's eyes;
'
;
'
'
'
kimasenu
maye
ni.
Instead of a conjunction like our
but,'
concessive
forms
constructions with mo or the
'
150.
the
or kiiru
ncJii ni
'
But.'
described in
j
145 are preferred.
At the beginning of a sentence,
See also under ga,
'
but
'
may
123.
be rendered
by shikashi, shikashi nagara, datte, daga, or demo.
is but one,' hitotsu shika nai.
'
There
'lean go,' iku koto ga dckiru,
151. 'Can,' 'could.'
ikareru; 'you can go,' (permission), ittcmo yoroshi ; 'can't
you come?,' o ide nasani wake ni wa mairimasenu ka ? ;
'
I
could not come,' kurn koto
masenu
wa dekimasenanda,
korare-
d'atta.
'
152.
If.'
Conditional or
participle
If
usually expressed by one of the
Hypothetical terminations of Verbs, the
'
is
and wa, or the indicative with
toki
wa
or to.
ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.
163
preceded by a present tense where
we should expect a past, as atarashi no desu to ikenai kara
kareta no motte kimashita, as it would not have done if it
To
'if
for
often
is
'
Even if
brought a seasoned one.'
expressed by the participle and ino, in which case the verb
had been a new one,
is
is
is
'
I
sometimes preceded by tatoye, supposing that.' Moshi
sometimes prefixed to the verb when a mere hypothesis
'
one in ten thousand,' followed by
Man-ichi,
the indicative with toki wa, may be used when a bare posis
intended.
sibility is
of.
spoken
'
153.
yoroshi
'so that all
;
You may
'
'
May,'
ino
may
'
-
might.'
'there
may
154.
wa
mo
shirenti
;
'
;
'
;
kimono de mo attamete okeba yoi
'
aru ka
mina ni kikoyeru yoni ; 'I think I
I said you might go,' itte
ka to omou
you might have warmed my clothes,'
hear,'
perhaps go,' iko
ino yoroshi to itta
be some,'
may
go,' (permission) itte
Must.'
'
I
must
go,'
ni.
ikaneba naranu, ikanakute
you must have noticed
woman,' ano bijiu wa me ni tsnkanx hadzn wa
nai ; you must be aware,' go shochi no nai hadzn wa nai ;
you must have been bored sazo go taikittsii de'mashitard.
See also
59, 94, 95.
naranu, ikanai
to
narimasenu
'
;
that pretty
'
'
1
'
155.
Or.'
Ya between two nouns
;
132 and 115.
See
both alternatives.
ka repeated with
'Or' is some-
times not expressed, as go roku nen, five or six years go
shinzo omaye nomitakereba,
if your wife or you wants
;
'
to drink.'
'
156.
sumanai
'
Ought.'
You ought
what ought I
;
to
have
told you
ought
'
yoroshiu gozarimashita.
(hadzu).
to
do
my
not to do that,' so shite
'
?
do itashltara yokaro ?
wa
'
I
name,' namaye moshi-agereba
See also
95
(beki)
and
105
ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.
164
If any one should come,' moshi mo
ga kitara ; 'if you had not fired, I should have been
killed,' anata wa teppo wo utanakcrcba, watakiishi wa
'
157. 'Should.'
j
Into
wo
inocJii
shimau no da;
torarete
once,' sugu ni o
'
'
and
ought
'
wa;
'
(see
129).
who has
g<i.
'if
I
had
See also
1
must.
'That' as a conjunction
158. 'That.'
vi
go at
that should
if
;
happen,' moslii so hi koto ga atta toki ni
time, I should go,' hima ga atttira, iko
'
should
'you
nasaru ga yokaro
idc
Please
tell
(your master) that
is
it is
usually to
somebody
make of him,' sukoshi go iral
maitta mono da to ko itte knrc. Other
a trifling request to
no suji ga attc
'I am sorry that I did not
'modes of rendering that
take
do so sooner,' liayaku shi-nakatta ga zanncn da
'
'
;
'
;
care that
does not catch fire,'
ga kakaranai yd ni
For 'that as a relative and as a demonstrahi
it
'
sliiro.
yojin
'Think'
iko
to
think
dcsu
mo
'
:
'
;
i
1
it is
mo
kimashita
to
omottc iinasu,
think he will go,' ikiinasu desho ;
ready,' inada shitaku wa dckimasu mal.
'
;
I
'I
For 'to' as a preposition with nouns see
121, 134 and 118.
60. 'To.'
yc and made, Ch. IX.,
Where
'
'
is in
think he has come,'
I
kimashita ro
don't think
t
and 28.
I think of
Japanese omou.
going,'
iko
ka
to
omou.
Other
omou,
ways of translating
what do you think of doing,' ikaga nasaru tsumori
159.
ni
20, 21
pronoun see
tive
'
is
it
used with verbs to form an infinitive mood
must be variously
according to circumunable to go,' iku koto ga dckinai ;
I
want to go,' ikitai ; 'I have to go,' ikaneba naranii ; 'it
is too late to go,' mo iku ni iva osoi ;
do you intend to go?'
to
stances, as
'
translated
am
I
'
'
iku tsumori ka
to send
'
;
tell
me some
him
to go,' ike to
money,' kane
itte
o kure
wo okuru yd
: 'tell
him
ni hanashlte
ENGLISH WORDS INTO JAPANESE.
kurc
'
;
it is
yakusoku
to go,' iku koto ni kimatta
itta ;
'
it
won't do to be
161.
'
Want.'
to go,' ikitai
'
want this ?
I want to
'
162.
wa
easy to go,' iku koto
to come,' kuru to
'
;
kore
I
shita
'
;
late,'
'
;
he promised
arranged that he is
yasui
it is
165
'
;
he has gone to buy,' kai ni
osoku te wa ikcnai.
want money," kane ga iru
don't want to go,' ikitaku nai
'
wa
'
I
o iriyo dcsii
ka
?,
kore
wa
;
I
want
do you
hoshl ka ? ;
'
;
buy,' kai ni kimashlta.
'Would.'
'
He
said he
would
go,' iku (or iko)
thought you would be here,' koko ni o ide nasaru
konnichi
(Varo to omotta ;
I would have come today but
kuru no deshlta ga
'if he came, what would you do,'
to itta; 'I
'
'
;
kitara do nasaru
gone,' itta
'
;
it
would have been
better
if
he had
ho ga yok'atta, ittara yok'atta.
would get some tea ready, only the fire has gone
wo irerunda (ireru no da') ga, hi ga kiyete
sliiinatta ;
if my father had been alive, I am sure he would
have been pleased,' ottotsusan go zonjo nara, o yorokobi
'
I
out,' cha
'
nasaimasho.
CHAPTER
XII.
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
163.
foreigner
One
of the chief difficulties which confront the
whose ambition
accuracy and propriety
is
it
the
to speak Japanese with
use of the honorific and
is
"humble forms of expression. Grammatical rules, however,
go but a short way in teaching their use, and much must
be
left
to the student's experience
and observation.
It may be taken that the honorific forms are chiefly appropriated to verbs, nouns, and pronouns in the second
person, though they are also used in speaking respectfully
The humble forms belong
of absent persons.
person, and the
criminately with
It will
polite termination vtasu,
all
is
to the first
used indis-
three persons.
be seen below that there
is
a considerable variety
humble expressions, varying according to
the rank of the person addressed.
But even in speaking to
the same person, forms, the neglect of which on a first introduction or on other formal occasions would be a gross
of honorific and
breach of decorum,
may
be dropped without offence in the
heat of an argument, or in the freedom of more familiar intercourse.
Women use honorifics more than men, and they
are less frequent in dependent than in principal clauses.
?
164. Respect
lowing ways
:
and humility are indicated
in
the
fol-
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
By
1.
special honorific or
verbs.
By
By
2.
3.
167
humble nouns, pronouns or
:|:
honorific prefixes.
honorific suffixes.
165. Honorific
and humble nouns.
Examples.
Neutral.
Ko
Humble.
,
Honorific.
Kanai, wife.
(Go) shisoku (your
Snikun (your wife).
lye, house.
(O) taku (your house).
or kodomo, child.
Scgarc (my son).
son).
Chinese words are commonly considered more elegant
than their Japanese synonymes, and are therefore sometimes preferred in polite speech. Thus for o sake, go shin
is
considered a more polite term go ran nasare 'look' is
mi nasare and go zonji de gozarimasu, 'you
;
preferred to o
know,'
is
always said instead of o
It is chiefly in
more
of others,
sJiiri
nasaru.
speaking of the relations of one's
particularly of the person
self
and
addressed, that
words are used.
Special humble
not
are, however,
very numerous, the absence of
honorific forms being usually considered sufficient.
The
humble and
honorific
nouns
following
list
of relations
which has been taken, with some
Kuaiwa Hen will serve
alterations, from Mr. Satow's
as a guide to the use of these words.
With some, the
'
'
honorific prefixes described in
mentioned
167 are used, or the suffixes
168.
in
RELATIONS.
Another's wife.
One's
under
[all
o kami san \ the rank of
own
wife.
niubu.
(samurai.
*
The
honorific and
Chapter IV.
humble distinctions of pronouns have been already noticed
in
1
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
68
Ana|
go
lowe rank
san
\
gentlemen
oku sama
of
rank.
j-
go
kanai.
official.
j
okit
sai.
;)f
saikun
naishitsii)
kanai.
Old-fashioned people sometimes say g-usai ('stupid wife')
own wives.
for their
One's own husband.
Another's husband.
danna.
tsnre-ai (by the lower class).
teishi (familiar).
danna or
go
But
teishi.
teishi.
yado.
the husband's surname
in general
is
used both
in
addressing the wife and by her in speaking of her husband,
in the former case with san added, in the latter without san
One's
Another's father.
go
souipu.
own
father.
oyaji.
ototsn san (to children).
chichi.
One's
Another's mother.
own mother.
haha.
go boku.
haha sama.
o fiiknro.
okka san (to children).
okka (by children).
go rubo (when aged).
One's own grandfather.
Another's grandfather.
go sofu sama.
go
sofu.
sofu.
MIBfl l
J!f
to children.
o jt san
j
One's
Another's grandmother.
go
sobo.
o ba san (to children).
baba.
One's own brother.
Another's brother.
o ani san (elder).
go sonkei
go
go
shatei
shatei
oro/o
go
own grandmother.
sobo.
(
do
ani.
).
sama (younger).
(
(
do.
do.
).
).
otuto.
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
Another's
One's
sister.
o ane san (elder).
own
169
sister.
ane.
anc san.
o imuto
imuto.
go (younger).
One's own son.
Another's son.
go shisoku,
segarc,
musuko.
o musttko san.
kodomo
go
sHriv (eldest).
go jinan (second).
go sannan (third).
jinan.
samian.
One's
Another's daughter.
go
o
(also of daughters).
svriu.
own
daughter.
musume.
sokujo.
musume go.
o jo san.
own
Oji and oba are used for one's
same words followed by san or sama
01 and mei are used
oi
go sama and
o mei
for one's
go sama
uncle and aunt
;
the
for another's.
own nephew and
niece
;
for another's.
Another's father-in-law and mother-in-law are shiuto go,
; one's own simply shiuto, shiutome.
shiutome go
own son-in-law is muko, another's
Similarly one's
muko san; daughter-in-law (own) yome or (another's)
o yome go ; grandchild (own) ma go or (another's) o mago ;
o
cousin (own) itoko or (another's) o itoko ; adopted son,
(own) yosJii or (another's) go yoshi. San or sama may be
added to any of the above honorific forms.
Children, and to
ing of their
ane san for
'
own
my
some
elder sister,'
The words used
women, add san in speakThey say, for instance,
okka san for my mamma.'
extent
elder relations.
of one's
own
'
relations
of the relations of third persons to
is
whom
may
also be used
no special respect
due, or even of the relatives of the person addressed
when
the latter
is
of a rank decidedly inferior to the speaker.
I
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
7
To
one's servant, one says
oyaji for
'
omaye no
or
chichi
omaye no
father.'
your
Segare and gusai can only be used of one's own son,
and one's own
Honorific and humble verbs.
66.
1
are of
wife.
Honorific verbs
two kinds
stituted for
(a) where a wholly different word is subthe ordinary verb and (b) where the causative
or potential (passive) verb
verb, on the principle that it
is
put instead of the simple
is more respectful to say that
a person has caused a thing to be done or has been able
to do it than merely that he has done it.
Humble verbs
belong exclusively to the
first
of these
Neutral.
two
Honorific.
'Sum, to do
Nasaru
Itasit or
tsukamntsiint
Ikit, to
classes.
O
Maim
go
or
asobasit.
idc iiasarn or
irnssharn.
In, to say
Musu
Ossham.
Yaru, to give
Agent
Kudasarn
or
toman.
Taberu, to eat
Mcshi-agam.
Onion, to think
Oboshhiu'stt.
no Kiitei
DoitsH
Germany
The German Emperor
ga
is
dead.
Erriperor
shinaretnashila.
was able to die.
His Excellency (used of Mihas gone out.
Daijin ga deraremasluta.
H. E.
nisters of State)
He
Hittu'i in
without
command
(
i.
e.
died a violent death.
of
shinaremashtta,
Heaven)
O mac hi
died.
asobase.
Be pleased
to wait.
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
S
The
Honorific Prefixes.
167.
IJI
honorific prefixes o and
are used before nouns, verbs and adjectives, as indica-
go
They generally, though not invariably,
words
with which they are used are in the
show that the
second person or have something to do with the person
tions of respect.
addressed, and they therefore render to a large extent unnecessary the use of pronouns of the second person. Thus
usually mean
your horse,' 'your
jinrikisha' without the addition of any personal pronoun.
Sometimes however the pronoun understood is not in the
o inuina,
o,
kuruma
'
will
O ncgai, for example,
possessive but in some other case.
a
to
and
o muma may only
means
petition
you
usually
mean a horse for you,' as in the phrase osore-itta o muma
'
'
'
'
de gosari/uasu,
'it is a horse
o saki ye
on
'
ahead of or
Go
go burei
;
leaving
'
'
either
It
is
i.e.
The phrase
to offer you.'
before
'
an apology for going
the
addressed.
person
answer) may mean according
either
circumstances,
'
before you.'
(honorable
licnji
you
a fear-entered honourable horse
am ashamed
I
means
it is
your answer
'
or
'
your impoliteness
'an
or
to
answer to
'
impoliteness
to you.'
Sometimes the honorifics are intended by way of respect
which they are applied. There are words
with which the lower classes use them almost invariably,
partly from this reason, and partly no doubt from habit.
The sun for example is o tento sama with women of
to the objects to
'
'
the lower class, 'cold water'
'
food
'
go
sen,
'
'
cash
o ashi,
is
'
o Jiiya, 'hot water' o yu y
o tera
a Buddhist temple
'
etc. etc.
O
is
a word of Japanese origin, no doubt connected with
'
oki,
Go
is
great,'
is
and
is
ordinarily prefixed to Japanese words.
But neither of these rules
number
of Chinese words
good
used before Chinese words.
without exceptions.
A
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
172
have become so assimilated that their Chinese origin is
overlooked, and they are no longer recognized as strangers.
therefore take the native prefix, while on the other
They
hand one or two Japanese words have come
some-
to be
times preceded by go. Ex.
taku, 'your house;' o kyaku,
'a guest;' o tokei, 'your watch;' go inottomo, 'you are
right;' go (or o) ynruri to, 'at your ease
(in pressing a
'
guest to stay longer).
A very common use of o is with the stems of verbs in the
second person followed by the honorific verbs nasant or
asobnsu as o kashi nnsare 'lend,' o kasJii nasatte kitdasare,
'
please be kind
good enough
enough
to wait,
to lend me,' o inaclri nsobase,
is
altogether.
But
in
is
such cases the honorific force almost
wachi na or
entirely disappears.
only be used to servants or
is
be
sir.'
very common in the imperative mood
sometimes contracted into na or even omitted
This combination
when nasarc
members
also used before the stem
word niosu
'
'
o maclii
of one's
wait
own
'
would
family.
followed by the humble
person, so that this construction
an
of
respect for the person addressed
comprises
expression
Ex. O ncgai inosJiiniasu
with a humble reference to oneself.
'
in
the
first
ask a favor of you, o tanomi
I
O may
masho
'
I
inosu'-'-
'
I
pray you.'
also be used with adjectives. Ex.
am
sure you are cold,' o
sainuu goznri-
wako gozariinasu
'
you
are young.'
In the compound gozariinasu or gozainiasu, so common
to be,' go is not a
as a polite substitute for the verb
honorific particle indicative of respect to the person who is
am
the subject of the verb, but
*
like
'
masu,
its
This phrase or o tanomu, tanomu or o tanomi moshimasu
Japanese house instead of knocking or ringing a bell.
visitor to a
is
use implies
called out by the
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
courtesy to the
nominative to
'
person
addressed whatever
When we
it.
arc de gozaimasu
it is I,'
'
be the
may
say ivatakushi de gozaimasu
is he,'
it
173
there
no intention of
is
speaking honorifically of oneself or of him the courtesy
implied by the use of go is all intended for the benefit of the
;
person addressed.
?
168.
HONORIFIC SUFFIXES.
The
Plural Suffixes gata and tacJii and in a less degree
have a moderately honorific force ra and domo are
used when no honorific meaning is intended.
sliiu
:
Santa, the original meaning of which is 'appearance,'
used after the name, description or title in addressing or
speaking
respectfully
of
superiors,
servants to their masters,
customers.
It
more
especially
and by tradespeople
to
is
in
by
their
much the same degree of respect
Danna sama 'Sir,' annta sama 'your
indicates
Ex.
as our 'Sir.'
honour,' Takeda
sama Mr. Takeda, oku sama
able interior of the house,'
'
the honour-
the lady of the house,' koshi
'the Minister,' Tenshi sama 'the Mikado,' o Tento
sama
sama the
'
It is
sun,' tono
i.e.
sama
'
'
daimios) your Lordship.'
also used with a few other words, as go kuro sama
(to
thanks for your trouble,' o sewa sama I am much obliged
Kocliira sama, achira sama are highly respectful
to you.'
'
'
expressions for kochira, achira.
San, a contraction of sama, corresponds roughly to our
Mr., Mrs. or Miss. It is used chiefly between equals, occasionally to superiors and even to inferiors when one wishes
to be civil.
It
is
not used with reference to one's
relations or in addressing one's
is
own
servants.
'
My
own
father
'
not oyaji san but simply oyaji.
San may be added either
name or to the surname. In the case of
to the personal
women
o is usually prefixed at the
same
time,
when
the
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
174
name is used, as
own servant or wife
Tora san
personal
one's
without o
is
san
husband
'
To
Miss Tora.'
name with
or
personal
wife does not speak of or call her
In speaking of her
a concubine does.
A
used.
husband
'
the
;
the third person, a wife generally says
the house' or tcishiu (pron. tcislii), husband.'
San
in
'
But
used to one's friend's servants.
yado
not
is
of
to the servants
'Madame'
strangers don should be used instead of san.
is okn san or in a lower class of society o kaini san.
'
Mademoiselle
'
for
person
kanai or saiktin
.
'
the
the doctor,
mnsnmc
go.
A
,
In
the
no
go
san
the proper expression.
San is much
of trades and professions, as daikn san
banto san
carpenter,'
'
or o
is
used after names
san
o jo san
Mrs. A
is
third
'
'
the merchant's
isha
clerk,'
both in the second and in the
third
person.
Children use to each other the
name with
addressed
or without san.
abbreviated, as
part of the personal
own male
servants are
personal names which
their
by
first
One's
Tsune
for
Tsunesaburo.
are
Little
mostly
boys up
to five or six are called bo clian (for bo san).
Dono
used
is little
used
speaking but
in
its
contraction don
is
addressing or in speaking of the servants of others,
in
also by female servants
and bantos (merchant's
clerks) to
each other.
Knn
like
word
use by students for Mr..
the use of the bare surname in English.
is
the
in
without any addition
address, and
is little
As an example
servant.
His
full
It is familiar,
The surname
an exceedingly familiar form of
is
used.
of the use of these suffixes, take your
name
is
Ikcda
Torakiclii, Ikcda
the surname and TorakicJii the personal name.
being
You
will
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
address him as Torn or Torakichi
rank
will
175
his intimates of his
;
him Torn san or perhaps Ikeda san ;
call
own
his
wife Ikeda, and strangers Ikeda san; if his son goes to
the university or is drawn as a conscript, he will be called
by his comrades Ikeda
and if he becomes an official
him and speak of him as Ikeda
kitii,
his subordinates will address
sauia.
On visiting cards, the personal
or official rank only are written.
name, surname and
No
title
san or other similar
suffix is used.
Go
used as a
is
See the Table
169.
suffix after a
few names of relationships.
166.
in
The above modes
of expressing respect or humi-
Thus the phrase
lity are generally found in combination.
o ide nasaremase includes the honorific particle o, the special
verbs ideru instead of ihu or kurn, and nasaru for sum, and
the potential form nasareru for nasaru.
Masu was
originally a honorific.
As now
used,
it
ex-
presses neither respect nor humility but is a polite termination which may be used indiscriminately with any person
of the verb.
It
should be remembered that masu
element of the contracted forms
desii,
is
an
deshita and desho,
which are therefore somewhat more polite than da, datta,
and daro. But a contracted form which contains a honorior polite form
fic
is
uncontracted form.
masii
is
always
always
The
much
less respectful than the
politeness implied in the use of
for the benefit of the person addressed,
and
not of third persons.
It
j
should not be used to servants or coolies.
170.
Examples of Honorific and Humble expressions.
See also the extracts
in
Chapter xvi.
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
176
Nouns.
A. Go
shin
how
K-a
sake)
(for
ikaga dc gozarimasn
B.Hal,
?
is
chudai
A.
May
sake?
B.
I
offer
Thanks,
you
I
will
some
take
some.
itashimaslw.
receive
will
do
O
(for
atama) kara saki
from first
tsumuri
head
Shall
sir
I
(a s h a
?
do your
m pOoer
head
first,
asks).
ni Itashimasho ka ?
shall do
?
Go
zcn
ga
(for mcsJil)
dcki-
meal
Dinner (breakfast or supper)
is
ready, Sir.
mashita.
Go
zcn tsubu
boiled rice grains
dc
tsuketc
having
Stick
it
on with some boiled
r j ce
o kurc.
stuck
give
Yu go han
A.
gozaimasu, ka ? B.
ii'a
mada
wci mad a dc
He ; yu-mcshi
A. Have you not had supper
B. No, not yet.
yet?
dcsu.
Verbs.
O
maclri moshite (humble for
I
was waiting
for you.
wait doing
shite) orimashita.
remained
Kataku go
chitikokit
m~>shi-
advice
do
hard
I
strongly advise 3'ou.
masu. (humble for sum).
Go
konrel asobasanai (honodo not
Before you perform the marriage.
marriage
rif.
for
sum)
nchi.
within
O
siiki
asobasn ongakii.
do
like
music
O
ret
TJCO
no koto
thing
de
so fond
of.
(student's
Ian-
guage).
o tike
receive
is>a
is
Have done,
Oki-tamayc.
put give
thanks
The music which your Lordship
mDsti hodo
do amount
gozainmstiiu.
is not
It is
for.
not worth being thanked
HONORIFIC AN D HUMBLE FORMS.
?
O hima
no
o
toki
hannshi
time
leisure
talk
When
177
you have time, please
come and have
a chat.
ni irasshatte (for kite) kudasare.
having come
give
Donata dc irasshaimasu ka ?
who
are (for
Nan'to
May
What
osshaimashita ?
what
say
I
II aikcn
shltcmo
see having done even
May
no desu ka
ii
mitcmo)
who you
are, Sir
?
did you say, Sir
?
will return
I
see
it
tomorrow.
it ?
?
is it
good
Haishaku
borrow
ask
(for itta)
Mionichi o kaycshi moshimasu.
do
tomorrow return
(for
I
am)
wa
shite
Would
having done
borrowed
it
be
any harm
if
I
it ?
warui ka ?
bad
Honorific Prefixes.
O
toshi
wa
nari
become
O
o
ikutsu
o
What
age are you
?
how many
year
nasaru ?
do
toshi ni shite
wa
o tassha
robust
year
You
are a robust
man
for
your
age.
de gozarimasii.
is
O
medetu gozarimasii.
beautiful
I
beg
to
compliment you.
(a
new
year's greeting, also used at wed-
dings etc.)
O yakamashhi
gozarimashita.
noisy
Makoto
truly
ni o sewa da.
trouble
O
atsuu gozarimasii.
hot
O
shidzuka ni irasshaimase.
quietly
Donna wa
master
have been making myself a
I
nuisance to you.
be,
go or come.
o uchi ka ?
within
I
am much
obliged to you (said
ironically or to inferiors).
It is hot.
Go
in
peace,
(to
a departing
Kues t).
Is
your master at home
?
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
178
Oku sama
o
He,
tva o iichi ka
Is
?
dc gozarimasu.
ritsit
your mistress
at
home?
No, he (or she) has gone out.
absent
O
O
dckake dc gozarimasu.
iirami
n't
wa
hate
Ditto.
zonjimascnu.
not think
I
don't hate you for
it.
Anaia wa o wakai
kara.
are young because
you
Because you are young,
Anata no
In your opinion,
o
kangaye de wa.
opinion with
O
Thanks
de.
kage
to you.
shadow with
O
ivo itashimashita.
jama
interference
Doko
did
ni o sitmai desu,
where
dwell
Otoko no o ko
male
no o ko
desu.
ka
ka?
is
desu.
child
I
apologize for having inter-
rupted you-
Where do you
master
ka
onna
;
female
is
Is
it
etc.) live
(or
your father,
?
(your friend's child) a boy
or a g ; r i
p
?
child
Danna
mukai
meet
o
!
master
ni mairi-
I
have come to meet you,
Sir.
have
mashlta.
come
O
machi nasarc.
Koko
ni
Wait.
o
kite
knrc
having come
here
Come
here,
give
(nasarc).
O
aki ni
nattara
wata-
empty when became
kttrcnu ka ?
kushi ni kashitc
me
O
having lent give not
tsuki
sama
moon
Yoku
well
O
Won't you lend it to me when
?
you have done with it
ni suppon da.
tortoise
o tadztinc kndasalta.
visit
have given
kinodoku
sama.
It is
as different as chalk from
cheese.
Thank
see
you
for
coming
me>
I
am
I
have kept you waiting.
sorry for you.
mind of poison
O
machidd dcshita.
to
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
Go mends
de gozaimashu
will be
trouble
go
Go
wn
shimpai ni
anxiety
masenu.
not
Go
oyobi-
It will
179
be troubling you very
much) but
_
You need
not be anxious.
reaches
katte
Just as you please.
shidai.
convenience according to
Goran nasal!
Look!
Gomen
Pardon
Gyoi
nasai
go
(for
!
ni gozaimasu.
i)
hon. opinion
meeting
!
I
:
Your Honour
beg your pardon.
is
quite right.
is
Mada go mcnkai nwshimascnu
yet
me
I
have not met you before.
do not
dcshtta.
was
Go
yenrlo naku
Sazo
Without ceremony.
You must
go shinsho de
sorrow
surely
grief
gozaimashu.
surely be
in great
expression of
common
(a
condolence).
will be
Iro
iro
all
kinds of
go
yakkai
ni
assistance
I
am
under
all
kinds
of obli-
gations to you.
narimashita.
become
Goran no
Tdke
this
As you
tori.
see.
manner
see
no go
house
shisokti
Your son Hayazo.
son
Hayazo kun.
Mr.
Go
isshin
Before the Restoration (of the
mayc.
restoration before
Mikado's power
in 1868).
Suffixes.
O
kyaku sama ga miyemavisitor
shita.
come
visible
has be-
A
visitor
has arrived,
Sir.
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
i8o
A.
Uycki-ya san
gardener
kiinrii
kono
!
this
ka
nai
ja
A. Gardener
ki
wither
He !
sama
achira
there
is
not this tree
-
B.
?
!
dy mg ? B< Y es. Sir
p l an t it over there.
tree
I'll
;
trans-
yc
to
ttyt-keyemtukQ.
plant change.
Danna sama
ni
conduct has been inexcus-
My
tnushi-icakc
master
excuse
able, Sir.
ga gozarimascnu.
How
san jw go biuki
Yomc go
illness
daughter-in-law
wa ikaga dc gozaimasu, ?
is
your daughter-in-law
?
how
Kono
wo
gata
ftijin
Show
ladies
these ladies to the waiting
room.
khtsokitjo
yc
ainiai
restingplace
to
guidance
nwshi-agcro.
do
The word
171.
come
'
'
!
(imp. mood) in a gradually
ascending scale of respect towards the person addressed.
To
Koi.
children or animals, and to
servants,
coolies etc.
in
giving
short orders.
O idc.
O idc na.
O idc nasare.
Familiar.
Ordinary form
among
equals.
Irassharc.
O
To
idc nasarcmasc.
superiors.
Irassharcmasc
O
To
idc asobasc.
persons
much
superior in
rank.
O
idc asobashinmsc
If the
follows
word
'
please
:
Kite kiircro.
Kite
ktirc.
Exceedingly respectful.
.
'
is
introduced, the scale will be as
HONORIFIC AND HUMBLE FORMS.
Kite kurc
l8l
net.
Kite o kurc.
Kl tanwyc.
Kite kudasare.
O
O
O
Student's language.
idc kudasare.
idc nasatte kudasare.
ide
wo
negaimasu.
Irasshattc kudasare.
Irasshatte kudasaimase.
CONTEMPTUOUS FORMS OF EXPRESSION.
172.
Some nouns have a contemptuous force, as
for kawo face,' yatsu fellow,' for Into man.'
'
'
Examples
Kuti or
of
'
krirati,
'
Agarn with
iliary,
as kono
'
mug,'
Contemptuous Verbs are
Userti,
Ketsukaru,
tsura
'
'
to eat
to
'
go away
to be
'
'
for
taberu.
for
iku.
for
aru or oru.
the stems of verbs
is a contemptuous auxbnka yard me nani wo uukashi-agaru ?
'
fool gabbling about ?
What is this
Me is used after nouns as a contemptuous suffix, as chikusho me beast,' ama me hussy,' berabo me scoundrel,'
(
'
yard me
l
low
'
fellow.'
'
CHAPTER
XIII.
SYNTAX.
ORDER OF WORDS
IN A
SENTENCE.
The first place in a Japanese sentence is occupi173.
ed by the nominative case, the next by the indirect object of
the verb or by a noun followed by a postposition, the third
by the direct object of the verb (accusative case) and the
Ex.
last by the verb or the adjective in the verbal form.
IVatakiishi
wa
uchi ni tabako
wo
nomanii,
'
I
don't
smoke
drink') tobacco in the house ;' tenki wa saknjitsu kara
the weather is hot since yesterday.'
atsui,
'
(lit.
'
Exception.
is
In comparisons the object with which the
is usually, but not always, put first.
made
comparison
Ex. Kono yama yorl are
than that.'
takai, 'this
mountain
is
higher
Qualifying words or phrases precede the words
174.
which they
(a)
wa
The
Thus
qualify.
:
adjective and the verb in the
attributive
form
precede the noun to which they belong, as yoroshi hito,
a good man,' kuru hito the man who comes.'
1
'
(b)
which
1
The adverb
it
precedes the verb, adjective or adverb
qualifies, as
goku hayakn 'very
very early,' hayakii koi
'
come
early,'
goku hayai
quick.'
(c) The noun followed by the possessive particle no or ga
precedes the noun to which it is joined, as hito no chikara
'a man's strength,' kin no tokci a gold watch.'
'
SYNTAX.
Particles indicating
175.
183
number and
case, with
wa,
ya, ga, mo, ka, to, or jiagara, come after the noun, asyama ni
to the mountain,' korc ka is it this ?
Roughly speaking
'
'
'
to or
plural particles
they come in the following order
or
but
this
to
case
wa,
mo,
ka,
ga, ya,
Kagara
signs
:
;
;
;
there are
numerous exceptions.
176. The signs of gender o and on, me and men and
the honorifks o and go are put before the word to which
they belong.
But these are
under the rule
in
really qualifying words,
and
fall
174.
Expressions denoting time precede expressions
denoting place and a general expression precedes one that
is more precise.
Ex. Itsu Kobe ni ikimasu ka ? when are
177.
'
you going
to
'
Kobe
?
konnichi go ji ni oide nasare,
;
'
come
at five o'clock today.'
But
this rule is
by no means rigidly observed.
Conjunctions and interrogative particles are
178.
placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they
Ex. Kane ga arimasenu kara, because
naze nai ka ? why have you none ?'
'
belong.
I
have no
'
money
;
Dependent clauses and
179.
precede the
participles
principal verb of the sentence.
Kane ga
money
am
is
kaimasho.
time will buy
Fund kimono wo
old
clothes
some when
intend to buy
have the money .
I
toki,
l
Having
uttc,
having sold
she bought
sold her
ncw
old
clothes,
ones>
atarashi no kaimashita.
new
bought
Clauses ending
in
kara occasionally follow the principal
Ex. GiosJia san, basha wo tomete
clause of the sentence.
kure, koko ni oritai kara,
I
want
clause
to get
is
really
down
'
here.'
Driver, please stop the carriage
But
:
in these cases, the latter
added by way of an afterthought.
SYNTAX.
184
INDIRECT NARRATION.
180. In European languages, a sentence when reported
If I say
another
person changes its form considerably.
by
I will
another
in
go,'
person
reporting my promise, says
i
'
1
he said he would
'
go,'
and 'he' substituted
'
will
being changed into
'
would,'
In Japanese no change takes
and
the
fact
that
the
is a quotation is insentence
place,
dicated simply by the particle lo placed after it.
Thus I
for
'
I.'
'
will
go'
See
to, p.
ikn
is
;
'he said he would go'
is
iku to iimashita.
146.
APOSIOPESIS.
181. The Japanese are very fond of breaking off a
sentence in the middle leaving the remainder to be understood.
This habit of theirs explains many apparent
anomalies.
Examples.
O
rusu nara, sashi-oki dc
leave
absent if is
kara (mottc kaycruna).
yorosht
he
is
absent,
sufficient
to
leave
If
bring
it
it
it,
will
so
be
(don't
back again),
good because
is
wo
Daiku
carpenter
(o
yonde
having called
Call a carpenter,
knrc).
give
O
after
knrc
itself
is
an example of
this
practice,
nasarc bting omitted
it.
Dusu
kannin
please patience
shite
Please have patience with me.
having done
(kndasart).
COORDINATION.
182.
The Rule by which, when two
or
more Verbs or
Adjectives are coordinated in a sentence, the last only takes
the inflection or particle belonging to all, the others being
SYNTAX.
185
put in the indefinite form, has been already explained in
46 and 82.
A
somewhat
similar rule applies to nouns.
Particles
which belong to several nouns are not put with each of
We do not
them, but only with the last of the number.
say for example niobo wo kodomo wo sutete nigemashlta
he ran away
but niobo kodomo wo sutete nigemashlta,
'
abandoning- his wife
and
children.'
CHAPTER
TIME, MONEY,
XIV.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
YEARS.
183. The Japanese have two modes of reckoning years.
One is by means of a cycle of twelve years, to which the
names of the twelve signs of the Japanese zodiac have been
given.
These signs are
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1 88 1
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
:
Ne, the
This mode of reckoning
in referring to the
rat.
Ushi, the bull.
Torn, the tiger.
U (for usagi) the hare.
Tatsu, the dragon.
Mi, the serpent.
Munia, the horse.
Hitsnji, the goat.
Snru, the monkey.
Tori, the cock.
Inu, the dog.
/, the wild boar.
is again Ne, and so on.
is
not
much used now
except
year of one's birth.
The
other plan is by means of periods of uncertain length
These periods
distinguished by a special name (nengo).
were formerly fixed arbitrarily, but it has been announced
that
future they will coincide with the reigns of the
in
The present year (1888) is the aist year of
The Japanese year now coincides with our own and
Mikados.
Meiji.
begins on the ist January.
TIME, MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
i8 7
MONTHS.
184.
Japan
The Gregorian calendar has been
month as well as for the year.
introduced in
for the
The months
are called
:
January,
August,
September,
hachi gatsu.
October,
November,
jiu
jiu ichi
December,
shiinotsuki.
jiu ni gatsu,
ku
,,
,,
or
,,
or shiwasu.
'One month,' 'two months,' &c., are expressed by
means of the Japanese numerals and tsuki, the Japanese
word for a month.
One month is hlto tsuki, two
months futa tsuki, &c.
'
'
'
'
Ik-ka-getsu (contr. for ichi-ka-getsii), one month,' ni-ka'
two months etc., may also be used.
getsii,
'
l
DAYS.
185.
The days
of the
month
are as follows
:
TIME, MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
l88
The above numerals may
when
also be used
a
number of
meant, and not the day of the month. For one
days
we must say iclii nicJii not tsnitaclii. Misoka
however
day"
is used for the last day of the month on whatever day it
'
is
may
fall.
The days
186.
Bi
one
week
are
:
Sunday,
Niclii
yd
bi.
Monday,
Getsu yd
bi.
Tuesday,
Ka
bi.
Wednesday,
yo
Sui yd
Thursday,
Moku yd
Friday,
Kin yd
Saturday,
Do yd
(for hi)
may
of the
'day'
is
bi.
bi.
bi
bi.
often omitted.
Thus
for
'
'
Sunday
say either Niclii yd bi or Niclii yd.
The month is also divided into three jun, the first ten days
being called jojun, the second chiujnn, and the third gejun.
HOURS.
The Japanese have now adopted the European
187.
For one o'clock' they say ichi ji, for
division of the day.
'
'
two o'clock
'
'
etc.
'
san
'
ji,
four o'clock
'''
yoji
ichi-ji-kan, 'two hours' ni ji
Minutes are called fun, and seconds bid. Thus
is
minutes and three seconds past six'
five
sam
three o'clock
'One hour'
and so on.
ban
ni ji,
'
is
roku ji go fun
bid.
MONEY.
188. 100 sen
The yen
=
i
yen.
a silver coin worth at the present rate of exthree
about
change
English shillings. It is the equivalent
of the Mexican dollar which has disappeared from circulais
tion in Japan.
*
See
p. 37-
TIME, MONEY,
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
189
MEASURE OF LENGTH.
189.
10 rin
10 sun
6 shaku
10 shaku
60 ken
36 cho
The shakn
English
The ken
or kaneshaku
More
foot.
bu
sun
shaku
ken
i
=
=
=
=
=
=
10 bu
i
i
i
i
ri
i
be taken as equal to one
may
accurately,
jo
cho
i
it is
11.93 inches.
nearly six English feet (71.58 inches).
is
The
ri is
equal to 2.44034 English miles.
The
hiro
is
not
much used
for accurate
measurements.
may be taken as equal to about 5 feet, and like our
fathom is chiefly used in speaking of the depth of water.
It
'
'
For nautical purposes, the European Geographical mile
(kai-ri) is used.
DRY GOODS MEASURE.
190.
For measuring dry goods, a shaku
kujirajakii) of 14.913 inches
pretty
used.
(called the
The English yard
is
generally known.
Japanese cotton and
pieces
is
of a
little
goods are usually made up in
lof yds (tan) or of twice that
silk
over
length (hiki).
SUPERFICIAL OR LAND MEASURE.
191. 30 tsubo
10
se
10 tan
=
i
=
i
=1
se
tan
cho
The tsubo, which is the ordinary unit, of
6 kaneshaku square or about 3.95 sq. yds.
to 2.45 acres.
measurement
The
cho
is
is
equal
TIME, MONEY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
IQO
\VKIGHT.
192.
I
10 fun
i
100
1000
1
The/H
me
is
=
=
mommc =
10 rin
60
mommc
mommc
is
kamme
the weight
commonly used
is
It is
10 shaku
10 go
10 sho
10 to
is
to about
~
commercial transac-
if
132.5073 Ibs. avoirthe kin were ij Ibs.
CAPACITY.
=
=
=
=
=
i
shakn
i
go
i
sho
i
to
i
koku
is
of a ton or a
194. All the
ts2ibo,
the kam-
used for liquids and grain. The slid is
a gallon.
A 5//o of rice weighs about 2^ kin. The
used for junks' measurement. One koku is equal
This measure
koku
in
;
or picul (100
equal to
usually taken as
193. 10 sai
f
kin
The hyaku-kin
MEASURE OF
397
i
equal to 5.7972 grains avoirdupois
tions with foreigners.
dupois, but
Jiyakii-me
=
to 8.2817 Ibs. avoirdupois.
kin)
fun
mounne
words
piculs.
in the
above
tables, except hiro
and
are of Chinese origin, and are accompanied by Chin-
ese numerals only. See Chap. V.
CHAPTER
COMMON ERRORS
IN
XV.
SPEAKING JAPANESE.
The
195.
likely to fall
The use
following list of errors into which he
may be useful to the beginner
of the honorific words and particles
(as in arimasu}, nasaru, (as in o ide nasare),
addressing servants or coolies.
O
'
Shinjo means
to
The
'
respectfully to offer,'
mean simply
late in the
and should not be
hltotsii,
in
futatsu,
where
&c.
32.
of the form of the adjective ending in
u
in
give.'
custom requires the words described
The use
go, masu.
'
of the numerals
use
o,
and anata
kayo means early,' and should not be used
without
some special meaning.
day
made
most
is
:
z
where
Yoroshi arimasu, warui
that ending
required.
gozaimasu, are often heard instead of yoroshiu arimasu,
in
is
waru gozaimasu.
The
indiscriminate introduction of personal and possessive
pronouns.
pronouns
See Chap. IV.
in
Remember
that for one of these
Japanese there are at least ten
in English.
Confounding in pronunciation short and long vowels and
single and double consonants.
The arrangement
order.
of the words of a sentence in a
See Chapter XIII.
wrong
CHAPTER
XVI.
EXTRACTS.
The
following extracts are intended chiefly to illustrate
use of honorifics.
They are taken from modern
the
Japanese novels, the conversations
the
in
which are
narrative
in
in the
the written
part being
Yencho's novels, which are entirely composed in
the spoken language, are an exception.
Ycnclw is the bestcolloquial
style,
language.
known public
down his
story-teller
The number
and
it
called
of Tokio,
and an amanuensis
he delivers them.
tales exactly as
takes
of lady students of Japanese
is
increasing,
therefore be convenient to state that the story
may
Asiikagawa, the opening passage of which
The
in Extract V., is suitable for their reading.
is
given
narrative
in the written style, and perhaps the
not
to attempt to read it but to get a
plan
relate
the substance of it viva voce.
teacher
to
Japanese
part,
is
however,
will be
best
I.
Conversation with a Jinrikisha Coolie.
Fare.
Oi
I
Coolie.
(for iku
!
He,
he,
no da) ka
?
kochira
this
Kurumaya !
oi !
say
jinriksha
daiidbit
quite safe
shittc
gara gara).
rattle rattle
F.
came
Oil oi!
I
say
michi
road
ga
ka
?
?
F.
Doko yc ikunda
where
is
oru
chigai iva shinai ka ?
not do ?
mistake
dc trnzaimasu^
knowing remain
kara mairimashlta
way from
man
C.
to
go is
He, zonjitc orimasii
knowing remain
:
Iw ga chikai no dc gozaitnasv. (gara
is
near
rattle
side
shittern
Daga, doko da ka
But where is ? knowing remain
EXTRACTS.
ka ?
C.
He,
he,
orimasu.
zonjitc
knowing remain
?
oru
ja
remain with
de iva)
(for
is
ni.
rattle
rattle
Zonjite
knowing
Doko yc iknnda
not intelligible
where
to
go
?
C.
is
to
in
matte
kitrc
having waited give that saying
!
this
rattle rattle
F.
(gara gam).
wakaranai.
Korc
F.
He, he (gara gara).
193
gara gara gara).
(gara gara gara
rattle rattle rattle rattle rattle rattle
in
From
a Japanese novel called Shosei katagi.
TRANSLATION.
Fare.
Coolie.
I
Yes,
are going
F.
are not you going the
!
F.
wrong way?
Do you know where you
know, this is the short road (rattle, rattle).
you know where it is (I am going) ? C. Yes,
I don't understand what you
F.
(rattle, rattle).
Yes,
?
man
all right, Sir.
it is
Sir,
Sir, I
say, but do
I
Sir,
say, jinriksha
I
know,
mean with your
'
Where
know.'
I
Sir (rattle, rattle).
Look here
F.
!
is
it
wait,
you are going
I
tell
you.
?
C. Yes,
(rattle, rattle,
rattle, rattle, rattle, rattle).
II.
A Lady
Teacher
is
informed by one of her pupils that
come to pay her a visit.
a gentleman of rank has
O
Tadaima Yagimoshi-agcmasn.
say raise
just now
wara sama ga o ide ni narimashita ga,
o ima
ye o tushi
come
became
pass
sitting room
mushimashu
ka? Teacher. E, nani ?
Yagiwara sama
eh what
(humble auxiliary) ?
Pupil.
shisho
sama
ye
teacher
Ima
wa ano oku no
yori
back
sitting-room rather than
ko-zashikl
annai
Sore kara
yc go
moshi-agete kudasai.
invitation (humble aux.)
that after
small-parlour
please
ga....
O, say d desu ka ?
oh
so
is it
?
ni mo go shht
shiu
snye
ye iitstikctc, o tomo no
servant to ordering
suite of persons to too
sake
wo
daslute,
put out
no
o riuri
wo o mochi
take
back part of the house
always of cooked food
nasai yot
Hayakn nasaranu. to (ikcnai) o isogl ka mo zonjiif
soon
not
do not
haste ? even
oku
mascnu yo.
know
Shinso no gajin.
yc
mo
it
sumo
EXTRACTS.
IQ4
TRANSLATION.
beg to inform you that Mr. Yagiwara has
Shall I show him into the sitting-room ?
Teacher,
Mr. Yagiwara has
Is that so ?
Don't show
Madam,
Pupil.
just arrived.
Eh
!
what
him
?
I
into the sitting-room but
Then
the back of the house.
into the small reception
tell
room
at
the servants to let the people
of his suite have some sake, and being the usual refreshments to
the back part of the house. You must be quick about it, for he
may perhaps be in a hurry.
Note the highly respectful forms sama, moshi-ageru, used by the pupil
teacher, and the honorific references to the guest by the use
of sama, o idc ni naru, o tushi mH'shimashu, go aitnai, o riuri and o isogi.
to the
The
teacher's language to the pupil differs from that used to a servant
as the forms
show.
It
desii,
has an
kudasai, o machi nasai, nasaranS. and zonjimascnu,
of friendly condescension.
air
III.
A young man
as the latter
is
of the lower class meets a merchant's son
going to the bath-house.
A. Toki ni waka-danna ! kore kara go
ni
niutu
nattc,
time
enter bath having become
young master this from
sore kara do nasarit no desu ?
B. Uchi ye kayerii no sa. A. O
is
that from how
do
house to return
ni
sore kara
nattc,
ye o kayeri
house to return having become that from
uchl
knu no yo.
A.
eat
?
B.
Asameshi
wo
morning rice
sore kara ?
Asa gozcn wo
meshi-agatte,
having-partaken of that from
morning meal
B. Urusai na; mise ni
akinai
itte,
wo sum no
bothersome shop to having gone business
Nanthodo :
sono
become quantity that
o
akinai
business
wo
shite
sa.
A.
do
hi
ga kiircm
having done sun
go down
to ?
B. Yu-meshi
wo knu no sa. A. Sono go
yuhan
ga
when
that
eat
evening meal
evening rice
aite
sumu
do nasaimasu ? B. Mise no ivakai mono wo
to,
finish when how
do
shop
young person
partner
ni (shitf) hanashi demo sum no sa.
A. Sono hanashi ga sianit
finish
that
talk
talk
even do
to?
B.
when
ncru
Urusai na.
bothersome
no
hoka
!
sa.
go to bed
Mfiji uki yo no furo.
else
ni
shikata
mo
do-side even
nai
not
is
kara,
because
EXTRACTS.
195
TRANSLATION.
You are now going to have a
young master
what will you do ? B. I shall go home. A.
When you have gone home, what next ? B. I shall have my
A. And when you have had your breakfast, what
breakfast.
then ? B. You are a nuisance, I go to the shop and attend to
Well but
A.
A.
business.
sun goes down
is
!
After that
bath.
finished;
To
be sure.
?
B.
And when
have
I
what do you do
my
is
and the
over,
And when
A.
supper
very likely have a talk with
And when your talk is over ?
B.
?
business
supper.
I
the youug men in the shop. A.
B. You are a nuisance. Then there
nothing else to be done
is
but to go to bed.
IV.
Interview with a ragman.
Ragman. Kudzuya dc gozai kudzu wa o harai wa gozaimascnu,
it
is
sell
is
not
ragman
rags
Choito ! kudzu ya san ! kore wo
totte
ka ?
Customer.
?
a little
Mr. this
ragman
having taken
R. He, he!
yes
o ktire.
give
haiken
Itashimasho
look (respectful)
will do
soshite
fnrubite
and
having become old
n i Itadakimasu,
ikahodo
how much
R. He, he,
yo.
d'attayo;
was
ne?
R.
but
Omayc ma
demo
wa
wa
ga
chirimcn
?
C.
how
wa
moto
takaku
dear
nareba
because it
;
Bakana
koto
foolish thing
takaku.
dear
tamaru
estimate being knocked
moto
He
is
goran
funde
having estimated see
ikaga sama
fiimi-taosarctc
much
He ;
this
C.
you
originally
ga; kore
?
that with even originally
sonnani
so
having become dirty
hassen
de
eight sen with
Sore
oil denaiyo.
say is not
tolerably
imasu na.
yogorete
receive
for
zuibun
;
down endure
te kirei
nl
pretty
chigal
kircl
te
and pretty
mono ka
?
thing
arimasaiu
mistake
not
is
koso
hassen
(emphatic part.) eight sen
is
crape
do
shite
he.
itadakimasu; sore de nakercba
for
receive (humble) that for were-it-not how having done
watal mo hassen de wa iyada
C. Atarlmaye da ne ; da kara
I
dislike
is because
too eight sen for
ordinary it is
nl
mo
]
to
iunda, ne
saying is
:
jiu go sen nl o shl ; sore de omayc ni son
fifteen sen
do that with you
to loss
wa
is
nai
not
EXTRACTS.
196
(emphatic part.)
un'tlfsu
itashimashttc
sore
having done
well then every
C. Shikata
do-side
fie.
zonjimasu:
you
dc gozai.
nai
nc
not
ga
He,
motte
;
maldo
R. Arigatu
thank
go
maldo
jisscn;
arigatu zonjlmasu.
thank you
exactly ten sen every time
Ing<~>
na kudzu ya da
hard
ragman
C.
gozarimasctiu,
R.
nc.
ncgatime re-
sore dc yoroshlkuthat with if good
o ide yo.
having taken
is
cln~>do
is
it
jisscn ni itadakimashd.
will receive
kara,
ja
because ten sen
is
questing
ba
DO
how
R.
yo.
Kudzu
Kudzu ya
ragman
u'a o liarai dc
sell
rags
ka?
not
is
Kudzu ya no
kago.
TRANSLATION.
Ragman,
Customer.
Yes,
besides
The Ragman
(calls)
I
Ma'am please let me see it
yes, Ma'am how much shall
!
;
a price on
put
Would
Don't talk nonsense
it
was new and
it
Yes,
Ma'am
!
was new, and
No
I
I
it is
is pretty old, and dirty
give you for it ?
it.
eight cents
was
that
;
it
it
was a
just because
otherwise
I
?
a very pretty and expensive thing
can't let
doubt
for eight sen,
you
it
!
;
Do you
!
ragman! won't you take this?
say,
Yes, Ma'am.
when
rags for sale
Any
!
for so little as that.
go
and expensive thing when
crape that I will take it from
pretty
it is
really
Well,
suppose you have a right to name your price, but I
would have you know that I have something to say to it too and
I
won't take eight sen.
I
by
Make
it
sen
fifteen
;
you
will lose
nothing
it.
Ma'am,
Really,
a good customer,
I
I
could'nt think
will take
it
.
Well then, as you are such
from you
for ten sen.
If that will
suit
you
Well
it
!
Thank
obliged for
How
Any
can't be helped, take
you,
all
Ma'am,
(here
your custom,
fond that ragman
rags for sale
!
is
Exit.
is
it
away.
your money)
(calls)
just ten sen.
The Ragman
of a hard bargain
!
!
Much
EXTRACTS.
197
V.
A
young engaged couple view the plum blossoms and
listen to the nightingale.
:;:
Takco
She (from the garden).
He
(from the house).
anything
dcsii.
(comes
it is.
Ima
She.
out).
san
!
Takeo san
(personal name) Mr.
Nani ka arimashlta kn ?
was
muko
?
no
no\v opposite
.
chotto.
!
a
;
moment
ima
iku
tokoro
now
go
place
dc
mumcbayashi
plum grove
in
no hatsu ne ga shita
desu.
kiki
ni
kara,
yd
first note
did
manner is
because hear to
nightingale
ikimashu. He. Sayo desu ka.
Sore wa yukai
desu na :
sd,
let us go
thus it is ?
that
is
come
pleasant
itte
kikimasho. (A little later). O jo san! anata wa o
Miss
having gone let us hear
you
ttguisu
damashi
wa
de
mascnu
is
She.
ne.
Chitto mo
ugiiisu
ga nakia little even nightingale
sings
sakki
wo
shite,
futa
lye,
yoi ne
no a while ago good voice
having done two
arimascnu ka ?
deceiving
not
not
?
kara
anata wo o yobi tiwshita no desu.
koye bakarl nakimashlta
call
did
is
cries only
because
sang
you
ate
ni naraHe.
So desn ka ? Shlkashi
nan? da
ka
it is so
not
?
but
somehow
reliance
na
yd
manner
nai
become
sakki
a while ago
matte
naita
hodo
desu ne.
Ko
thus
it is
nodo
will see
amount waiting
if
nakimashlta
completely
kara
sukoshi
because
a little
nakanakattara do nasaimasu. She. SO
so
should not sing how
do
Nan'daka hinata ye
what is it sunshine to
shimashiJ.
will do
kawaita
ga
She. Mattaku
ne.
sung
He. Sonnara kore kara mo
ichiji
if so
this from more one hour
thing
matte
shimasn
does
wa
mimasho.
waiting remaining
space
ga
koto
sung
ite
kan
kl
mind
yd
desu
kara,
detara
since
kahe
went out
wo
ii-tsukc
became dry appearance it is because coffee
order
iku
o tsukai wo shimasho. He. Sorewa omoshiroi. Watakushi
I
that is amusing
go your messenger will do
throat
ni
to
mo nanda ka
too
what
is it
noini
mono ga hoshiku
drink thing
naita
tokoro desu kara
desirous have become place is because
She. Sore de zvatakushi no o yaku
that with
office
my
*
The uguisu
is
wa
dekhnashlta ga;
has been made
not a nightingale but a bird
moshi
if
somewhat resembling
it.
EXTRACTS.
198
wa
anata
should sing you
watakushi mo sono
naitara
He. So dcsu
do nasaimasu.
do
how
it
o
if
it is
ni ikimasho.
tsitkai
Naitara
nc.
should sing
She. Sore wa ikcmathat
won't
so
your messenger as will go
scnu yo. Sono koto wa watakushi ga kangaycta no dcsu,
kara.
I
is
do
that thing
because
thought of
He. Sonnara nan demo
o nozoml no koto wo shimasho.
She.
if so
will do
anything at all your wish
thing
also
I
1
mite
mono
o idc nasatta watashi no
namayerashl
a while ago reading
my
nameresemhling thing
you were
no ntta ano o tcgami wo o mise nasal na. He. Yo gozaimasu, ;
Sakki
was
that
show
letter
it is
good
ni kakcmashO.
naitara
o me
She. Kitto desuka?
if
it should sing your eyes on will hang
certain it is ?
o me ni kakcmasu to mo.
sakarl
He. Kitto
She. Ima ga
moshi
certainly
dcsu, ne.
so
is
fioka no
plum
other
see person
now
it is
mume wa
mint hlto
now
eyes on will hang
He. So dcsu, Ima ga chodo
exactly see-place
it
is
truly
kin ga yoi
kara
chigattc
flowers from differing quality is good because
liana
to
made
shizen
as far as
naturally
no kokoro
heart
dcsu nc.
yd
manner it is
blossom
full
midokoro dcsu ga, jitsu ni
to
Hlto
She. Sayo de gozaimasu.
it is
thus
naru
kosho ni
elevated
no
become
kosal
intercourse
people
mo
korc to onajl-koto
de watashi nado mo ko sliitc anatagaalso this as same thing being
I
etc. also thus doing
you
ta
no yuna o
kata
to
o
tsnki-ai wo
shijiu
kind of gentleman with constantly association
no de jibun no
ichi
dcsu.
Toki
kanjin
important is
by the
mo
ni,
way
wa
hito
wa
sonna wake ni
such reason
tomodachl
friends
people
o jo san
!
Miss
wa
ga, o kajimuki no o
shirabe
no
koto
not stick
thing
household
investigation
well
shirimascnu,
ga,
do not know but
is
anata
you
She.
?
ga
choosing
tsftkanai
dcsn ka.
mai-
do
wo ycrabn
wo
o
kiki
inquire
moshimasu ga, kono mayc no Nichiyo mo ima no Nichiyo
this before
now
(humble aux.)
Sunday
Sunday
wa nanika o shirabe mono no
Daijin
yo
His Excellency
appearance
something investigation
yoku wa
irit
doing
shizen to agaru ka to omoimasu yo.
?
rises
think
ga
by own
naturally
position
He. Do
watakushi nado
shite;
how having done
I
etc.
rimascnu ga:
nan'dc
not go (pause) anyhow
shttc
mo
also
dcsu,
is
lye, watashl
mo
no
too
mo go
zonji no
too
know
I
tori
manner
EXTRACTS.
mai-toshi
kono
mume
every year
this
plum
itashimastt
does
no
sakari
full
199
nl
bloom
kono aida
haha
kara
because the other day mother
wa
ko-toshi
mashttara,
she spoke of
yenkai
entertainment
sono koto
that thing
ga
wo
mfishi-
when
is
unfortunately investigation
wa gozarimasenu
is
to
wo
shirabc-mono ga aru
ayanikn
this year
kara
yenkai
because entertainment
wa
at
kotayemashita.
answered
not
Asiikagawa.
TRANSLATION.
(from the garden) Takeo
He. (from the house) what is it ?
She.
!
comes
(he
come here
I'll
for a little.
be with you in a moment,
out).
thought just now I heard the first song of the nightingale from
the plum orchard over there let us go and listen to it.
I
:
How
Indeed.
later)
!
will
go and hear
Have you not been humbugging me, Miss
does not sing a bit.
Yes, a while ago,
was why
Indeed
It
Come we
nice!
I
it
?
it.
The
(a little
nightingale
did sing twice with a beautiful note, and that
called you.
But somehow
!
I
don't feel quite satisfied.
did really sing a while ago, so let us wait a
Well then,
we'll wait for an hour from
little
now, and
and
if it
see.
does not
what will you do ?
Well, I'll tell you what I will do.
Coming out into the sun
makes me thirsty, so I will go and order a cup of coffee for you.
That is a good idea. I do feel as if I should like something to
sing by that time,
drink.
Now
that
it is
settled
what
does sing, what will you do
have got to do,
I
if
the nightingale
?
If it sings, I will go as your messenger.
Certainly.
That will never do that was my idea.
Well then, I will do anything you like.
Show me the letter you were reading a while ago which had
:
something
like
Very good
;
my name
if it
sings,
You promise me
I
I
in
it.
will
show
it
to you.
faithfully.
promise faithfully to show
it
to you.
EXTRACTS.
200
The
plum-trees are just
Yes,
now
now
a quality so
as it were the minds of those
You
blossom.
in full
Indeed the plum is of
exactly the time to see them.
far surpassing other flowers that it naturally elevates
is
And
who
look on
it.
same with the
society one keeps ;
of a person like myself were naturally raised
by constant association in this way with gentlemen like you.
Not at all that is not so in my case. Still people ought to be
I
are right.
the
is
it
feel as if the position
!
very careful in their choice of friends.
By the way, Miss! to
change the subject, I want to ask you a question. Both last
Sunday and today His Excellency seems to have been engaged
something; is it some private matter ?
in investigating
No, I really do not quite know, but as you will remember, he has
been in the habit of giving an entertainment every year when the
plnm-trees are in full blossom. When my mother asked him about
it the other da}', he said that unfortunately he would be
prevented
from giving it this year by an investigation which he had in hand.
VI.
A man
of high rank talks to a newly-engaged
servant.
Kore
Master.
korc
!
this
Servant.
z>'<7
Temayc wa Kudzuke
you
!
this
wa
Tonosama
ni
Hci,
yes your Lordship
Kmlznke
tnOshimasn
to
to
mosit
are called
I
good
mono
shinzan
dc
gozaimasu..
am
new came person
called
?
watakushi
gokigcn yoroshin
health
ka?
naku
mono demo kagc hinata
M. Sono ho wa shinzan
new come person even shade sunshine withoutyou
yoku hatarakn
work
hioban
daibu
yokti mina
saying a good deal reputation well all
to iftc,
distinction well
no
like
ga yol
is
reception
yo.
Toshigoro
good
to ii,
ga,
hito-gara
personal appearance say
oshi
mono
da. S.
regrettable thing
fnkai
indisposition
dc
is
wa
ni jiu
otokobnri
to
manly bearing
Tonosama
ni
to
miycru
so
ziJri-tori
ii,
konaida-jin
for
dc
seem
ni
-^-a
say sandals take as
wa
your Lordship
gozaimashita
having been
ni
ichi
twenty one or two
age
go
some days past
o
appearance by
atyi-mushifeel
anxious
EXTRACTS.
ga;
agemashlta
did (humble)
(pause)
M. 0, yokn
tadzunete
oh well
n ai
it is
thing
kureta
now
'
mo
idznkata ye
hoko
where
until
wo
service
Hell Tadaima made
hobo
hoko mo
Yes just now until all quarters service
ichl-ban
to begin with
ye mairlmashiia ga,
koto
important thing even
specially
wa ima made
tcmayc
gozaimasenii ka.
is not
?
ni sashitaru
betsu
;
gave
madzu
jtashimashita
have done
koto
important
you
shlta koto gaatta ka ? S.
did thing
was
mo
sashi-taru
having asked
ga. Shite
not (pause). And
201
sciki
ni Yotsuya no kanamonoya.
first-of-all
nen
hodo
ironmonger
kake-dashimabut one year amount having remained ran away
went
shita; sore kara
ichi
Shimbashi no
that after
orimashlte,
tsuki
kajiya
ye mairi, mi
blacksmith
going three months
kake-dashi, main Nakaddrl no Yezoshiya
sugitc
ye
amount having passed ran away again
picture dealer
hodo
M.
tdka
de kake-dashimashlta.
mairimashlta ga,
went
but ten days with ran away
yo ni
'manner
wa
akite
so
so getting tired
no de
akippoi
readily disgusted
ddzo
wa
dckinai yo.
wa gozaimasenu
am not
I
ate
hit
kara,
because
is
na buke hoko wo
ja?
S.
kenjutsu
fencing
to
shitai
Hei ; watakushi
I
wo
to
M.
to
wa
hoko
wa
moshimashite,
mo
too
tsuraface
Sono ho wa
you
iu
mono wa ikaga na
said
thing
how
buke
hoko
military house
no de, hei.
oboyetai
wish to learn
by
omoi,
thinking,
having said
I
gave
wish to do
reason
o
yarimashlta.
having run away
irksome
wake
to
bukc
watakushi
kara,
because
sends
kake-dashlte
ni
kiukutsn
ni yarlmasu,
service
by way of
wa
choka
ye ike
merchant's house to go (imp.)
hoko
kochi
hither
wa
I
or another military
mendo da
achi
thither
Watakiishi ga
ivatakushi
ga,
(pause)
sono wake wo oji ni tanomimashitcmo,
oji
that reason
uncle having applied even uncle
trouble
S.
cannot do
service
buke
hoko ga itashitai
house service
wish to do
shttc
some how
hoko
Sono ho no
you
M.
Ha !
ah
wo
itashi,
doing
kenjutsu-suki
fencing like
na.
Botan dord by Yenchd.-
2O2
EXTRACTS.
TRANSLATION.
Look here
Master.
Servant.
Yes,
Is
!
name Kudzuke
your
My name
Sir,
KOdzuke,
is
I
?
have just entered your
Lordship's service ; I hope your Lordship is in good health.
I hear that though
you are a new comer you have made a favour-
impression on everybody, and that you have got a good
character for working hard night and day. You seem about twenty
one or twenty two years of age, and with your looks and bearing,
able
a pity you are nothing better than a sandal bearer.
understand that your Lordship has been unwell for some days
1
past, and I was anxious about you
hope it is nothing serious.
Thank you, it is nothing of importance. And where have you
it is
I
;
been
at service
of
up to now ?
I have been
to the present,
Up
all I
went
three years
bashi.
I
at service in various
to an ironmonger's in Yotsuya,
ran
I
ran
away then
away from him
:
I
and
First
being there
went to a blacksmith's in Shim-
after three
months.
service with a picture-dealer in Nakadori St, but
But you
places.
can't do your duty as a servant
if
after
I
left
next took
I
him
in ten days.
you get disgusted
in
that way.
Oh
It is
!
not that
to take service in
I
am
easily disgusted
the house of
some
;
it
is
because
military noble.
wanted
I
I
begged
uncle to get me a situation of this kind, but he told me that
service with a military noble was very troublesome, and that I must
my
go
I
So he sent me
to a merchant's.
away just to spite him.
But what made you want
to service here
and
there,
and
ran
noble
It is
?
Well,
Ah
!
employment with a
to take
military
an irksome kind of service.
Sir, It
was
You say you
in order that I
might learn fencing.
are fond of fencing
?
VII.
A
youth named Tasuke goes to the Toda yashiki to ask
for his father.
He
addresses the officer in charge of the
gate.
Tasuke.
Half Gomen
pardon
morai narn achira ye
gar
if
are thither
ike,
go
nasai.
Officer.
do
T.
Doko ye maintnda
where
Hai.
are going
?
Monobeg-
Shusho mono ga ukftamawawish to
little
thing
EXTRACTS.
Mono ga
O.
203
kikitakcrcba
o fsnji
ye ike,
wish to hear outer guard
go
\tinda ? kojiki mita yo na narl -wo shite T. Korc kara kojiki
what
this from beggar
beggar seen kind of dress
ritiJ
gozaimasu.
am
learn
if
narunda
ga, mada kojiki ni wa naranai. Ano
become is becoming but yet beggai
ot-become
Toda sama no o
wa koko dc gozaimasu ka? O.
yashiki
narcbn
ni
if
daimio's residence
here
Toda sama HO yashiki wa kochi da.
here
ni
mayc
before
O.
?
is
Nani
what
shita-dzumc
is
does not live
wa
jiu san
he
person
ncn
maye
thirteen years before
kono
natte,
o
wa
ni
yashiki
Kodzuke
province
is
dc atta ga, Matstidaira
was but
before
?
?
ncn
jiu yo
fourteen years
to iu
kata ga
Kakuycmon
? hai, arc
Maye wa Utsunomiya
O.
is
wa
having become this
kuni wa Yashin no Utsunomiyadc gozaimasu
O
T.
oraiiii.
Shiobara
?
ni
country-station
ka ?
Sore dc
then
kochi yc kakaycrareta Shiobara
here
employed
arlmasu ka
ni
T.
Tonomo
ni
ima dc wa Hinattf,
kuni-kayc
province change
having become now
zcn no Shimabara da. T. Hizcn no Shimabara to iu tokoro wa
no kami dono
to o
is
gozaimasu ka
to
distant
biaku
is
ichi
Kore
!
this
Su
?
han
ri
hundred one
O.
place
O.
?
half
this
am
na.
made
Shimabara
wa, sain
as far as
yes
(Tasuke
falls
down
in
three
a
faint.)
is
achi
kore !
sa.
thither
ye maire
go
!
achi ye maire .
Shiobara Tasiikc
by Ycnchu.
TRANSLATION.
Tasuke. Excuse me.
come
to beg, get
Where
Officer.
T.
away.
I
want
are
you going
?
If
you have
to inquire something from you.
O. If you want to inquire, you can go to the outer guard. What do
you mean, you beggarly looking fellow ? T. If after this I am to
become a beggar, I suppose I shall become one, but I have not
got so far yet.
is
Is this the residence
Lord Toda's residence.
T.
Then
of Lord
is
named Shiobara Kakuyemon who entered
years ago
?
O.
province thirteen
What ?
Toda ?
O. Yes,
it
there a gentleman here
this
service fourteen
went on duty to our
years ago, and does not live here now. T. Your
Shiobara
?
yes, he
EXTRACTS.
4O2
O. It was Utsuis Utsunomiya in Kodzuke, is it not?
nomiya formerly, but there was an exchange of domain with Lord
Matsudaira Tonomo no kami, and now it is Shimabara in Hizen.
T. Is Shimabara in Hizen far off?
It is three
O. That it is.
hundred and one ri and a half to Shimabara. (Tasuke falls down
province
a faint.) O. Here
in
!
here
!
Be
of:
Be
with you.
with you.
off
VIII.
Dreams.
A. Yinnc dc
dream
ga zommci
matsu-jo
iru
shite
y<Jsn
alive doing remain appearance
youngest daughter
wo
kokoro ga mayohnashtte nc, ika nam duri to 1110
mite,
how be rationale
having seen heart
being bewildered
in
kancmasu ga ;
zcntai
Shina dc musu yu
nl
cannot (pause) generally China in say manner by
koto ga gozaimashu ka nap Ninna sail
nazo to in
kai
shi
understand do
seltnii
true
dream
H'rt
da
student of philosophy
shifsnnion
wo
to
do
B. Naruhodo,
indeed
soriya
that
kara,
learnt
because
dcsu
reason
?
nkctamawatta
is
itasu n-akc
interrogation
will be
called thing
(plur.)
tctsngakiika
it is
(surname)
fufo
go
suddenly
ga
(pause)
hanahada
kitai
na o ynmc
ni
dream
strange
'ca
nal
koral
sono
rcl
ga shikashi
is not (pause) but
from old time of that precedent
koto
dc,
nani
mo
very
-u>a
s<>i
mistake
ainata
plenty
na koto ja arhnascnu yo.
miraculous thing
is not
kikai
aru
is
Set-
true
thing being anything
no gotokl u'a tnoto yorl nioto arubckarazarn
duri
dc,
dream the like of
of course a jot ought not to be principle being
somo-soino
in
yumc to in mono v.-a ika nara mono ka to
how being thing ?
this being so dream
called thing
saving
tint
kcdashi
ni
in
u-aga
pretty nearly one's
ni
hoka
naraoperation than other does not
kokoro no hataraki
own mind
Yarn ni tiarti to ningcn no shintai u-a liintma no
becomes
human
body
daytime
night
dc
nc-ittc
tsiikarc
shimai, mam dc Annsensafatigue on account of having fallen asleep finish wholly
kakn ga naku narimasu, ga, nu wa niattakn shintai to
chigattc
tion
not becomes but brain
wholly body from differing
zn
dcsu.
become
is
shite him no
tiiri
ni hatarakikinsoku sczn
works
although rest not do doing day of manner in
no ga odayaka
de
nai toki
nanzo
inasu kara,
because brain
quiet (sign of pred.) is not time (plural part.)
yarn
night
to iycdonio
EXTRACTS.
wa
2O5
koto wo mirtni'dc arimasii.
Katsti ya
kinds of thing seeing(pred.)
is
farther
kankakii ga yasun'de
ini
no dc gwaibu kara no shigcki
sensation
resting remaining
by outside from
impression
nai
moknzcn no
kara,
shltagattc
ga sukoshi mo
a little even is not
because,
accordingly
eye-before
koto
ni
iroiro net
all
particularly
wo
koto
kangaycnt
mo
hitsuyu
naku,
shizcn
is not
upon
necessity
naturally
nado yumc de wa mini koto ga
omoi-yoranu, mukashi no koto
in
not think of ancient
see thing
thing (plur.) dream
reflect
thing
arimasu. no
Korc
'sa.
ta
nashi.
other
this
is
is
not
ningen
Sojitc
on the whole mankind
to
in
called
mono wa
kcikcn
wo ba minna nozui
yushti no toki kara no
time from
all
brain
thing
infancy
experience
no uchi ni
osamete
tsitnc
ni takuwayctc wa orimasu
within
stored
remains
having laid up ordinarily
no da ga, him
is
but day
ya
wa
sum
mi-kiki
see hear
do
ni
tori-magircte mokuzcn
by being confused eye-before
okute
sort y a korc
koto ga
this
thing
being many that
shisd wa
no koto ni muyo-na
thing for needless thought
nattc
shizcn
oku
no ho yc hiki-komi-gachi ni
yui ni
side
retire
naturally back part
having become readily
wo
mottc korc wo
taking this
moscba
san-taru wo mini ga
ydriu kage kuro shite kcika no
if one say willow shade dark
see
shine
firefly
chin-chin to shite hajimclc mushi no koye wo
gotokn,
yashoku
mono
omoidasu,
think of
like
kiku
dc
thing (pred.)
night-colour
to
ippan,
arimascnii.
Tatoye
not
illustration
is
insect
first
quiet
hotam wa
hirinna
same thing firefly
day time
naku, mushi iva him nakanu, mono dc mo nai
is not insect
day not cry thing even is not
hear
cry
mono dc mo
oranu
even
not remain thing
ga,
but
him wa
day
yuyc hoka no shigcki ni
go.
sasayerarctc
go-jin
because other impressions
being impeded I +man = we
ki ga tsukanu.
in
duri
dc arimasu. Dcsu kara ynmc to
mind not stick principle
called
it is
it is because dream
suzushi
noisy
mono
katsiitc
omotte
otta koto wo mini
see
previously having thought put thing
mon''
de
kcsshttc omowanai koto wo mini mon" dc arimascnii yo.
see thing
is
not
thing being certainly not think thing
iva to ni
thing
kakn
in-any-case
1
The above passage
others.
It
is
in
a
much
less
familiar
contains numerous expressions and
only used by educated
men
style
than the
forms which are
or in books.
From
the Shosei Katagi.
EXTRACTS.
2O6
TRANSLATION.
A.
mind
Having seen
is
in a
dream
and
quite perplexed,
I
my youngest
daughter as if alive, my
cannot understand on what principle
Is it possible that there may be after all such
I hear thru you, Mr.
things as true dreams, as they say in China?
Ninna, are a student of philosophy, and it amounts to subjecting
you without warning to an examination (but I should like to know
this could take place.
your opinion).
B. Indeed. That is unquestionably a very strange dream.
But
there are numerous precedents of such dreams from old times, and
there is nothing miraculous about it.
In principle there can of
course be no such thing as true dreams.' This being so, let me
'
It may be taken that
explain the nature of what we call dreams.
they are neither more nor less than the operation of one's own
mind.
At night, the human body, owing to the fatigue of the
day, falls asleep, and
all
sensation ceases.
But the mind, unlike
the body, does not rest even at night.
It continues its activity as
in the daytime.
The brain therefore, when it is unquiet, is specially
sensitive to all manner of things, and as sensation is suspended, there
are no impressions from without. There is therefore no necessity
for it to attend to that which is immediately before it, and so in
dreams we naturally become conscious of past things which we had
not been thinking of. The sole reason for this is that mankind
generally are from their infancy continually receiving and storing
In the daytime, o\ving to
all their experiences in their brains.
up
the multitude of impressions, our minds become confused by one
thing and another, and thoughts needless for immediate matters are
huddled back into the
interior of the
readily brought out again
Imay quote
we can
the saying
by
'
:
mind from whence they are not
As an illustration of this,
reflection.
It is in
the dark shade of the willow that
best see the lustre of the firefly;
all is still,
that
there are no
we can hear
fireflies in
it is
not until night, when
It is not that
the cries of the insects.'
the daytime, or that the insects do not utter
by day, but our minds do not attend to them owing to
being embarrassed by other impressions caused by the noises
their note
their
of daytime.
Hence what we
call
dreams are visions of things which we must
have previously thought of, and we certainly can not dream of
things that have never entered our minds before.
INDEX.
PAGE
PAGE
208
INDEX.
INDEX.
209
210
INDEX.
INDEX.
211
PAGE
Shi
...
100, 142
..
18
Shika
Shinjo
Shiu
164
. .
Should
7.
Sochi
^3' !73
. .
13,
18
Sochira..
..
Soitsu
..
19
18
Sokka
-.
13
PAGE
Taro
..
. .
Taru
Te (with
Te (Past
..
55
Adj.)
..
. .
Participle)
96
. .
53
Temaye..
Te mo
ir,
Terminations of Verbs
..
Soko
..
18
Te wa with Adj.
with Verbs
,,
,,
That .
18,
Sokora
..
19
They
..
.
..
13
97
186
97
55
21, 25,
164
29
Theirs
..
..
16
Something
So
..
29
Think
..
. .
164
..
21
This
. .
Sonata
18,
23
21
Though
Time
Somebody
Sonna
. .
. .
Sonnani
..
18
To
Sono
..
21
Tokoro
. .
So MO ho
..
13
Tonin
. .
Sore
..
21
Transitive
Stems, as Nouns
IO
,,
of Verbs
..
,,
of Adj.
..
. .
Su
50
Land Measure. 189
with uninflected Words 85
Superficial or
Sum
,,
,,
Conjugation
with Negatives
to
. .
46, 48
..
..
51
in
do
T
55
Tachi
7
Tagai ni
Tai
.
. .
.
.
.
..
.
.
J 43
173
..31
Words
. .
. .
78
6
Verbs
Verbal
. .
. .
. .
. .
13
. .
. .
. .
. .
42
100
. .
. .
Form of A dj
Wa
148
Waga
Want
. .
. .
30
165
Ware
.,
..
..
Washi
..
..
..
Watai
..
..13
..ii
..ii
..
..
..
..
ii, 15
57
Watashi
..
..
..
57
. .
. .
. .
57
We
Tareba
..
. .
. .
57
61
Weights
60
What
,
14
. .
Intransitive
used as Adjectives. 104
Unu
Wattchi
Tari
. .
and
Verbs
Uninflected
Tara
Taraba
Taredo
32, 106, 125
Watakushi
61, 102
Takke
161
186
144, 164
94
81
..
..
ii
ii
ii, 15
Week
1 88
. .
. .
. .
190
27
212
INDEX.
PAGE
When
33
PAGE
Years
. .
Who
Why
Wo
18, 27
Yori
..
151
You
12,
Would
..
165
Yours
..
F
..
152
Zo
Yara
153
Zit
Ye
153
Ziiba
18, 25
Yo
ERRATUM.
Bottom of
p.
57 after tabetareba, add kashitaraba, tabetaraba.
"
Printed at the " Hakubunsha
Tokio.
186
75. 154
155
13
16
J
..
55
66
66
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LO
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Acme
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