The Internet and New Technologies: The Media Converge Chapter 2 The Internet and Cell Phones “A fresh approach to fostering innovation in the mobile industry will help shape a new computer environment that will change the way people access and share information in the future.” — Eric Schmidt, Google Chairman The Internet’s History Begun by the Defense Department’s ARPA (Advanced Research Project’s Agency) Survivable communications in a post— nuclear war world Nicknamed the “Net” No central authority, therefore no way to decapitate in wartime This effort gave birth to the Internet. Figure 2.1 Bulletin Boards Bulletin boards listed information. Health issues Computer programs Employment services As Internet use proliferated, entrepreneurs took notice. The Net Widens Microprocessors—miniature circuits that could process and store electronic signals— were the first signal of the Net’s marketability. Using microprocessors, the first personal computers were created. By the mid-1980s, fiber optic cables were the standard for speedy data transmission. By the time ARPAnet ended in the 1980s, the foundation was laid for a new mass medium. The World Wide Web Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web at CERN in the late 1980s. HTML (HypterText Markup Language): Allows computers to communicate With Web browsers, users can navigate the Web. Internet Structure Today Internet Service Providers (ISP) = big business Interpersonal communication Connecting users to their proprietary Web system E-mail Search engine reliability varies. Direct marketing dream come true Media Convergence Internet offers unprecedented communication opportunities: Interactive content Hub for converging media Participatory media: People become producers rather than just consumers of content. • What are the positive and negative aspects of a decentralized, unhierarchical Internet? Web 2.0 Web 2.0: a rapid and robust environment that has become a place where music, television shows, radio stations, newspapers, and movies coexist Has moved toward being an interactive and collaborative medium Instant messaging (IM) Blogs Wiki Web sites Social networking sites (MySpace, Facebook) Dividing Up the Web Four companies dominate Web 2.0. AOL: Once the industry leader, suffered setbacks from merging with Time Warner in 2000 Microsoft: Dominated the Internet with the merger of its Windows and Internet Explorer programs Yahoo!: Established in 1994 as the main Internet search engine, now best known for its popular sites. Google: Established breakthrough search engine in 1998, currently dominates search market What Google Owns Search • Google Web Search • Google Blog Search • Google News • Google Book Search • Google Scholar • Google Finance • Google Maps • Google Images • Google Video • Google Earth • Google Sky • Ganji (Chinese language search) Web Sites and Services • Blogger • Gmail • Postini (security and anti-spam service) • iGoogle • YouTube • Knol • Picasa/Panoramio Advertising • Adwords • Adsense • Doubleclick • Feedburner (ads for blogs and RSS feeds) Software and Apps • Google Docs • Google Calendar • Google Checkout • Google Desktop • Google Glossary • Google Groups • Google Talk • Gapminder’s Trendalyzer Software (visualization graphics) Mobile • Google Mobile • Google SMS • Google Maps Mobile • GrandCentral Communications (Web-based voicemail integration) • Zipdash (navigation assistance) Radio • dMarc Broadcasting (digital audio systems) • Maestro (digital audio recording) Regulatory Issues Little regulation on the Web In a world where information rules Merger mania with telecoms Everybody wants to dominate Staggering amounts of money involved Google dominates advertising Online Alternatives Open-source software Digital archiving Linux Open Content Alliance What are the potential benefits and dangers of user-created Web content? The Challenge to Keep Personal Information Private Everything you buy with a credit card Every Web site you search Every form you fill out All can be combined into a database about you. Modern marketing relies on such data. E-commerce’s popularity despite the risks Cookies Spyware Opt-in, opt-out policies Digital Divide Digital divide The growing contrast between “information haves” and “information have-nots” The reality of the digital divide In the United States Between the U.S. and the rest of the world Nicholas Negroponte’s $100 laptop project Will the Internet’s promise be crowded out by commercial interests? How has mass customization changed the way users interact with the Internet?