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Lesson 2 | Shaping Earth’s Surface
Student Labs and Activities
Page
Appropriate For:
Launch Lab
28
all students
Content Vocabulary
29
all students
Lesson Outline
30
all students
MiniLab
32
all students
Content Practice A
33
Content Practice B
34
School to Home
35
Key Concept Builders
36
Enrichment
40
Challenge
41
Skill Practice
42
all students
all students
all students
Assessment
Lesson Quiz A
44
Lesson Quiz B
45
Approaching Level
On Level
Beyond Level
Teacher evaluation will determine which activities to use or modify to meet any
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
English-Language Learner
student’s proficiency level.
27
Name
Date
Launch Lab
Class
LESSON 2: 15 minutes
What happens when a volcano erupts?
Some volcanic eruptions are quiet. The lava flows out of the volcano and over Earth’s surface.
Other eruptions are explosive and send gases, lava, and pieces of rock high into the air.
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Cover your work area with newspaper.
Place a small plastic cylinder in the
center of the paper.
3. Use a funnel to pour one heaping
spoonful of baking soda into the
cylinder. Then add one spoonful of
small plastic beads and five of the
larger plastic beads to the cylinder.
4. Pour about 50 mL of white vinegar
into a small beaker.
5. Pour the vinegar into the cylinder.
Record your observations in the Data
and Observations section below.
Data and Observations
Think About This
1. Describe What happens when you add the vinegar to the baking soda? How are the
different-sized beads erupted?
2.
28
Key Concept How do you think a volcano can change Earth’s surface?
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Content Vocabulary
Date
Class
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Directions: Explain the relationship between the terms in each pair on the lines provided. Use complete sentences.
1. earthquake; fault
2. lava; magma
3. mid-ocean ridge; lava
4. volcano; earthquake
5. magnitude; earthquake
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
29
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
A. Earthquakes
1. The vibration caused by the rupture and sudden movement of rocks along a break
or a crack in Earth’s crust is a(n)
.
2. An earthquakes can occur at a(n)
, which is a crack or a
fracture in Earth’s crust along which movement occurs.
a. Because of the
currents beneath tectonic plates,
forces build up along faults at plate
.
b. When a fault ruptures, Earth’s
moves along the fault,
causing a(n)
.
3. Most earthquakes occur at
boundaries.
a. The size of an earthquake is called its
by how much
and is determined
is released during the earthquake.
b. A plate boundary involves more than one
.
c. Faults are largest where one plate
into the mantle,
and the strongest and most damaging earthquakes occur there.
4. The movement of crust along faults can make mountains,
,
and other landforms.
a. Blocks of crust move horizontally past each other at
a(n)
boundary.
b. Mid-ocean ridges form at
boundaries between oceanic
plates.
c. At a(n)
boundary with a subduction zone, the plate
that does not subduct deforms and crumples as the two plates push toward each
other.
d. At a(n)
boundary without a subduction zone, the
edges of both tectonic plates become crumpled and deformed.
B. Volcanoes
1. Geologists call molten rock stored beneath Earth’s
surface
.
2. Magma that erupts onto Earth’s surface is called
30
.
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Outline continued
are vents in Earth’s crust through which molten rock
3.
flows.
4. Most volcanoes form at
plate boundaries.
a. At some convergent boundaries, one plate
another
plate.
b. Magma formed from the subducted plate then rises toward the
and forms volcanoes on the plate that does not
subduct.
c. A line of volcanoes forms
to the plate boundary
directly above the plate that subducted.
5. Mountains can form over millions of years, but
can
form in hundreds to thousands of years.
6. Volcanoes erupt in
ways.
, lava can flow over Earth’s surface before
cooling, hardening, and becoming solid rock.
a. In a(n)
b. Sometimes, volcanoes can erupt
, as happened at
Mount St. Helens in 1980.
c. Tiny pieces of glass made from solidified lava are called
and can be blown high into the atmosphere.
C. Ocean Basins
1. At convergent plate boundaries and divergent plate boundaries, lava hardens
and forms new
.
2. At an oceanic
plate boundary, newly formed crust is
added to the edges of the plates as new ocean crust.
3. Long, narrow mountains formed by magma at divergent boundaries
are
.
4. Three-quarters of all lava erupts at
5. Most
.
form near plate boundaries because folding and
crumpling usually occur at the
of plates.
a. Large mountain ranges form when two
collide at a
convergent plate boundary,
b. The
are the world’s largest and highest mountain
range, and they are still growing.
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
31
Name
Date
MiniLab
Class
LESSON 2: 15 minutes
What are three types of fault motion?
A fault is a fracture in Earth’s crust along which movement has occurred. There are three main
types of faults. Can you model these faults and relate them to the movement at plate
boundaries?
Procedure
1. Read and complete a lab safety form.
2. Obtain a pair of blocks. What do the
different colors represent? Where is the
fault?
3. Line up the rock beds. Model a fault by
moving the block above the fault plane
down about 5 cm. In the Data and
Observations section below, use
colored pencils to draw and label the
positions of the two blocks.
4. Line up the rock beds. Model another
fault by moving the block above the
fault plane up about 5 cm. Draw and
label the positions of the two blocks.
5. Model a third fault by lining up the
blocks, then moving one block
backward or forward. Do not move the
block vertically. Draw and label the
positions of the blocks.
Data and Observations
Analyze and Conclude
1. Cause and Effect Identify the three types of faults modeled. Along which type of plate
boundary does each of these faults occur?
2.
32
Key Concept How are faults related to plate tectonics?
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice A
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Directions: Complete the crossword puzzle with the correct terms from the word bank.
earthquake
fault
lava
magma
mid-ocean ridge
volcano
Across
3. the vibration caused by the rupture
and sudden movement of rocks along a
break or a crack in Earth’s crust
5. molten rock stored beneath Earth’s
surface
Down
1. a long, narrow mountain formed by
magma at a divergent boundary
2. a crack or a fracture in Earth’s crust
along which movement occurs
4. magma that erupts onto Earth’s surface
6. a vent in Earth’s crust through which
molten rock flows
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
33
Name
Date
Class
Content Practice B
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Directions: For each set of terms, choose the one term that does not belong. Explain why it does not belong on
the lines provided.
1. earthquake, magnitude, magma
2. fault, volcano, earthquake
3. earthquake, magma, lava
4. mid-ocean ridge, convergent boundary, subduction zone
5. underwater mountain, mid-ocean ridge, transform boundary
34
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
School to Home
Class
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Directions: Use your textbook to respond to each statement.
1. Earthquakes are events that shake the land.
Explain the relationship between faults and earthquakes. State where most earthquakes
occur.
2. Thousands of volcanoes exist on Earth.
Discuss different ways that volcanoes form.
3. Most mountains form at convergent boundaries.
Compare and contrast three types of mountains that result from plate movements.
4. Earthquakes and volcanoes change Earth’s surface in different ways.
Explain how earthquakes and volcanoes change the crust.
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
35
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Key Concept Where do most earthquakes occur?
Directions: On the line before each statement, write the letter of the correct answer.
1. The vibration caused by the rupture and sudden movement of rocks along a break
or a crack in Earth’s crust is
A. a fault.
B. a volcano.
C. an earthquake.
2. A crack or a fracture in Earth’s crust along which movement occurs is
A. a fault.
B. a volcano.
C. an earthquake.
3. The amount of energy released during an earthquake is called
A. magnitude.
B. subduction.
C. convection.
4. Most earthquakes
A. occur over land.
B. occur at plate boundaries.
C. occur in the pacific basin.
5. The strongest earthquakes occur where plates
A. diverge.
B. subduct.
C. strike-slip.
6. Strong earthquakes occur when movement along faults covers
A. large distances.
B. small distances.
C. moderate distances.
36
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Key Concept How are landforms related to plate tectonics?
Directions: On the line before each statement, write T if the statement is associated with transform boundaries,
D if the statement is associated with divergent boundaries, or C if the statement is associated with convergent
boundaries.
1.
Edges of tectonic plates can become crumpled and deformed.
2.
Blocks of crust move horizontally past each other.
3.
Reverse faults can form when no subduction occurs.
4.
Mid-ocean ridges form between oceanic plates.
5.
Tall mountains form when no subduction occurs.
6.
Faults associated with these boundaries also are called strike-slip faults.
7.
Features that cross faults are shifted.
8.
Valleys form at these boundaries.
9.
A volcanic arc can form when subduction occurs.
10.
The strongest earthquakes occur when subduction occurs.
11.
Between continental plates, one side of the fault moves down relative to the
other side of the fault.
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
37
Name
Date
Key Concept Builder
Class
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Key Concept Where do most volcanoes form?
Directions: Place the events in chronological order by writing a number 1 through 5 on the line before each statement.
Heat and pressure drive water out of the rock.
Magma rises toward the surface.
The tectonic plate subducts.
The water lowers the melting temperature of the mantle.
Volcanoes form on the plate that does not subduct.
Directions: Answer each question or respond to each statement on the lines provided.
6. Compare magma and lava.
7. What are volcanoes?
8. About how many volcanoes have erupted in recent geologic history?
9. Where do most volcanoes occur?
38
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
Class
Key Concept Builder
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Key Concept How does plate movement form mountains?
Directions: Label this diagram by writing the correct letter for each term from the word bank on each line. Some
terms may be used more than once.
A. asthenosphere
E. oceanic crust
B. continental crust
F. older
C. magma
G. oldest
D. mid-ocean ridge
H. youngest
3.
2.
1.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Directions: Respond to each statement on the lines provided.
11. Explain how mountains can form at divergent boundaries.
12. Explain how mountains can form at convergent boundaries.
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
39
Name
Date
Class
Enrichment
LESSON 2
Fire and Ice
Iceland is an island that has extreme
environmental differences, where some of
Europe’s biggest glaciers coexist with active
volcanoes. Iceland was formed by volcanic
eruptions 200 million years ago, a short
time relative to historical geology. Magma
that poured out of the Mid-Atlantic ridge
cooled, producing the island as it appears
today: a 300-mile-long, 200-mile-wide oval
landmass between Greenland and Europe
in the icy seas near the arctic circle.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Some people in submersible vessels have
seen a mid-ocean ridge deep in the sea.
Jacques Cousteau, who dragged a camera
behind his bathysphere, took photographs
of high black cliffs standing in blue water.
The Mid-Atlantic ridge is part of an
interconnected ocean ridge system that is
the largest topographic feature on Earth’s
surface, more than 70,000 km (43,000 miles)
in length. This ocean ridge system winds
through all the oceans something like the
seam on a basketball. The ridges are from
3,000 to 4,000 km wide and stand
2 to 3 km high above the ocean floor.
Volcanoes and Glaciers
Iceland is one of the most volcanic regions
on Earth; it has more than 100 volcanoes,
of which about 25 erupt regularly. Estimates
are that one third of the entire amount of
lava that erupted on Earth since A.D. 1500
was produced in Iceland. Most of the
volcanoes in Iceland are located on the
Mid-Atlantic ridge or its associated fracture
zones.
Eleven percent of the land in Iceland is
covered by glaciers. The most active volcano
in Iceland is situated in the middle of
Vatnajokull, the largest glacier in Europe.
When the volcano erupts, great volumes of
meltwater are generated and burst out from
beneath the glacier to produce enormous
floods.
The Island and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Iceland is the only place on Earth where
a mid-ocean ridge can be seen on land.
Iceland is being split by the Mid-Atlantic
ridge, the spreading center between the
North American and Eurasian plates. The
results of this plate movement can be
seen around Krafla volcano, where existing
ground cracks have widened and new
ones appear every few months. Between
1975 and 1984, the rift splitting Iceland
widened about 7 m. The spreading center
can be seen throughout Iceland; some
parts of it are filled with water, and other
parts resemble a hiking trail between two
cliffs.
Applying Critical-Thinking Skills
Directions: Respond to each statement.
1. Explain why the Mid-Atlantic ridge is located in the middle of Iceland.
2. Research the location and shape of Iceland. Draw a map of the island in the ocean
that shows the path of the Mid-Atlantic ridge from the southeast coast at Reykjavik to
the northeast coast near the Krafla volcano. Label the Atlantic Ocean, Iceland, the
volcanoes, and the directions that the North American and Eurasian plates are moving.
40
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
Class
Challenge
LESSON 2
Earth’s Magnetism and Seafloor Spreading
Earth’s magnetic field is similar to a simple bar magnet’s magnetic field. Under normal
polarity, the lines of force are arranged so magnetic north is close to Earth’s geographic
north. Researchers discovered that Earth’s magnetic field periodically reverses; the north
magnetic pole becomes the south pole and vice versa.
Basaltic lavas contain minerals such as magnetite, which act like compasses; as they cool,
they become magnetized in the direction of the surrounding magnetic field. Measurements
of magnetic variations showed that alternating bands of rocks were arranged symmetrically
on both sides of mid-ocean ridges.
Model Seafloor Spreading
Work with 2–3 students to demonstrate the evidence for the process of seafloor spreading.
Materials needed: 2 magic markers of different colors, 2 pieces of legal-size paper,
2 desks or tables facing one another
Directions: Turn two desks so they are facing each other and are approximately 0.5 cm
apart. You and a partner should stand facing each other with the desks between you. Then
you and your partner should complete the following steps:
1. Place a piece of paper on each desk. Arrange the paper so a short side of the paper is by
the gap between the desks. Your paper and your partner’s paper should be directly
across from each other.
2. Lower the paper into the gap until approximately 2 cm of paper is still on the desk.
3. Keeping the ends of the paper on the desk, you and your partner practice pulling both
papers slowly out of the gap at the same time and at the same rate. The moving papers
represent new crust forming and then spreading out from the ridge on the seafloor.
Then repeat step 2.
4. Use one color of marker to make a horizontal line on the part of each paper that is on
the desk. These marks represent rocks formed with the magnetic materials they contain
pointing toward magnetic north (normal polarity).
5. Keeping the end of the paper on the desk, pull about 2 cm more of the paper out of the
gap. Using the other marker, make another horizontal mark on the part of the paper by
the gap. These marks represent rocks formed with the magnetic materials they contain
pointing toward magnetic south (reverse polarity).
6. Alternating the colors of the marks, repeat step 5 until all the paper is on the desk.
Conclusion: Tape the papers together down the line between the two desks (the middle
of your ocean ridge) and label (a) the rift zone, (b) the strips of color that represent N (normal)
polarity and those that represent S (reversed) polarity, (c) the oldest rocks, (d) the youngest
rocks. Describe in detail what the activity is showing and what it represents. Explain why
this model demonstrates how evidence supported the plate tectonics theory.
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
41
Name
Date
Skill Practice
Class
Interpret Scientific Illustration LESSON 2: 30 minutes
Do the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes form
a pattern?
You’ve learned that many earthquakes occur on Earth every day and that hundreds of
volcanoes are active. How are they related?
Learn It
Scientists sometimes use maps to organize and display data. Maps are scientific illustrations
that show information about places on Earth. Data on maps are often represented by symbols
and colors.
Materials
transparencies
masking tape
fine-tipped markers
Also needed: earthquake data map, volcano data map
Try It
1. Obtain the volcano and earthquake location maps.
2. Tape the earthquake data map to your desktop. Tape a transparency over the map. Use
a fine-tipped marker to transfer the earthquake data onto the transparency.
3. Repeat step 2 using the volcano data map, a different colored marker, and another
transparency.
4. When you are finished transferring the data, place one of the transparencies over the
map in your textbook. Record your observations.
5. Repeat step 4 with the other transparency. Record your observations.
42
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
Class
Skill Practice continued
6. Place both transparencies over the map in your textbook. Use your observations to answer
the questions on the below page.
Apply It
7. Interpret Scientific Illustrations What patterns did you observe between the two sets
of data? Infer why these patterns exist.
8.
Key Concept Where do most earthquakes and volcanoes occur? How are they
related to each other?
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
43
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Quiz A
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Completion
Directions: On each line, write the term from the word bank that correctly completes each sentence. Each term is
used only once.
earthquakes
mid-ocean ridge
1. A(n)
faults
volcanic arcs
lava
volcanoes
magma
is an underwater mountain chain.
are cracks in Earth’s crust along which movement has
2.
occurred.
3. Molten rock that reaches the surface is called
4.
.
occur when stored energy is released along a fault.
5. Mountains that form when an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate are
called
.
6.
are vents in Earth’s crust through which molten rock flows.
7.
is molten rock deep within Earth.
Multiple Choice
Directions: On the line before each statement, write the letter of the correct answer.
8. The strongest and most damaging earthquakes occur at a convergent boundary
where
A. subduction occurs.
B. there are many faults.
C. no subduction occurs.
9. Most volcanoes form as the result of
A. divergent
B. transform
C. convergent
plate movement.
10. Most mountains form along convergent boundaries because
A. strong forces cause rocks to fold and crumple.
B. ocean crust is much thinner than continental crust.
C. earthquakes at these boundaries cause the land to rise.
44
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
Name
Date
Class
Lesson Quiz B
LESSON 2
Shaping Earth’s Surface
Completion
Directions: On each line write the term that correctly completes each sentence.
are cracks in Earth’s crust along which movement has
1.
occurred.
2. Molten rock that reaches the surface is called
3.
.
is molten rock deep within Earth.
Short Answer
Directions: Respond to each question or statement on the lines provided.
4. Synthesize What causes earthquakes? Where and why do most earthquakes occur?
5. Define mid-ocean ridge. Along which type of plate boundaries do they form?
6. Define volcano and explain where most volcanoes form.
7. Contrast the mountains that form at different plate boundaries.
Earth’s Dynamic Surface
45
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