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Реферат по теме:
“The Symbolism Of The Orthodox Church.
The Church Interior.”
Выполнили : Самофал Дарья
Гимранов Руслан
Класс:
1 0 «А»
Руководители: Обухова Н.В.
Шевцова Н.Я.
2010-2011 учебный год.
Пояснительная записка
КОМУ ПРЕДНАЗНАЧЕНА ДАННАЯ РАБОТА?
Данная работа предназначена для учащихся старших классов с гуманитарной
ориентацией, а также для краеведческих кружков, хотя не исключена возможность ее
использования на уроках английского языка в средней общеобразовательной школе по
теме « Родной город», «Мировые религии», «Православие» и т.д.
ЧЕМ ОБЬЯСНЯЕТСЯ СОЗДАНИЕ ДАННОЙ РАБОТЫ.
В настоящее время много зарубежных делегации школьников и студентов, различные
волонтеры и миссионеры приезжают в большие и малые города России. Приезжают
они и в наш небольшой подмосковный город Электросталь. Принимая делегации ,
учащиеся хотят сами проводить экскурсии по родному городу, а не пользоваться
услугами турагентств и их переводчиков.
Такое желание вполне оправдано, тем более что по уровню владения иностранным
языком многие выпускники школ достигают уровня независимого пользователя, а
школьные курсы истории, литературы, географии, МХК дают хорошую основу для
подготовки экскурсий по туристическим маршрутам родного края.
Однако межпредметные связи не всегда получают достаточную степень интеграции в
системе школьного образования, а базовый курс иностранного языка, при всей его
сложности и существующем многообразии учебных пособий, не совсем удовлетворяет
данной потребности учащихся. Все это и явилось объективной основой для создания
нашей проектной работы, пособия для школьного гида - переводчика.
ЦЕЛЬ И ЗАДАЧИ РАБОТЫ.
Предоставить отобранный переработанный материал для создания второй части
Практического пособия для школ с углублённым изучением английского языка под
названием:“The Symbolism Of The Orthodox Church.
The Church Interior.”
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ:
1.Предисловие авторов …………………………………………………….2
2.Введение…………………………………………………………. …………….4
РАЗДЕЛ I:
Что значит слово «церковь» для православного человека.
(What the word “church” eans.)…………………………5
ТЕМА II
Внутренние символические составляющие православного храма.
( The Church Interior. )
А.Алтарь. (The Atar.)………………………………………………6
B. Иконостас (The Iconostasis)…………………………………7
С . Особенности иконостаса в храме Андрея Рублёва в Электростали.
( The Iconostasis in the church of St. Andrei Rublev in Electrostal.)11
D. Иконы православного храма.
(Icons In The Orthodox Church)……………………………………………14
E. Преподобный Андрей Рублёв и его икона Святой Троицы .
(St. Andrei Rublyov And His Icon Of The Holy Trinity.)…17
F. Значение Святой Троицы в Православии.
(The Holy Trinity in Orthodoxy.) ………………………………………..21
III Conclusion. …………………………………………………………….……………23
IV. Literature…………………………………………………………………………….24
Introduction
To begin with I would like to say that nowadays more and more people
want to get information about God, faith and religion. I should say that according
to our school program we learn much about outstanding people of the English
speaking world, famous places of the world capitals etc. But we know very little
about places we live, about people whose are honoured in the names of the
streets where our houses, our schools are.
The aim of our project is to tell people about orthodox places of our native
town, our churches, symbols and outstanding people of Orthodoxy. . I would like
to explain you what the word “church” means, what and where The Holy
Sanctuary is,
This project is a part of our school project devoted to Orthodox Moscow
Suburbs.
The main part
I. What the word “church” means.
First of all we would like to explain you what the word “church” means.
The Christian Church is the unity of men with God in Jesus Christ by the
grace of the Holy Spirit.
The centre and uniting
power of the Church is
Christ. Being God and
man, Christ has united
in Himself all that is
human and divine. He is «the alpha and the omega, the beginning and the end,
the first and the last». People often call Him “The Church” too. The Church lives by
Jesus Christ as His true body and bride. The only head of the Church is Christ who
is also its only foundation and cornerstone. Christ is the sole saviour, pastor,
teacher and priest of the Church. Christ all die to this sinful, evil and fallen world
and rise again in Him.
Man's unity with God in Jesus Christ in the Church is impossible without the
Holy Spirit. The very existence of the Church depends on the coming of the Holy
Spirit and the gifts of grace which he brings to men. In Christ and in the Holy Spirit
men are given divine sonship which is the final goal and perfect realization of
human life, the purpose and goal of the Christian faith.
The essence of the Christian life is union in and with the Holy Trinity:
Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Every unity not rooted in God through Christ and the
Holy Spirit is not Christian unity nor the unity of the Christian Church, for as the
apostle Paul teaches, «there is one Body and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one
hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all,
Who is above all, and through all, and in you all».
We believe in One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. We confess that
she is One, because all true believers in Christ are form one spiritual body, which
has one Head — Christ the Saviour, and is animated by the Holy Spirit. We believe
that the Church is Holy, because she was sanctified by the teaching, suffering and
the blood of Jesus Christ. We acknowledge that the Church is Catholic or universal
because she is not limited by any place, or time, or race, but includes all true
believers from all places and times and all races. The church is called Apostolic
and Orthodox or true believing because although as a building of God she cannot
have any other foundation besides Jesus Christ, she rests upon the teaching of all
the Apostles and Prophets whose teaching the Church preaches unchanged and in
the same meaning and interpretation.
Another meaning of the word “church” is a place where people pray God; it
is a building, a temple. Each Orthodox temple is a temple of God, the house of the
Lord.
This is the church oft.
Andrei Rublyov
in Electrostal
ТЕМА II
The Church Interior .
A. The Altar
The main place in the temple is
the Altar. The Altar represents the
throne of God in heaven and the
tomb of Christ.
The Holy Sanctuary is in the
eastern portion of the temple, so that all those praying face Eastward.
It is held that paradise was in the East, and our salvation took place in the
East. The Lord is called The East (Orient) (Zachar. 6:12, Ps. 67:34), The East
(Orient) from on High (Luke 1:78), Sun of Truth (Justice) (Malachias 4:2). St. Basil
the Great said that Christians always turn to the East when praying. In our temple
the Altar (Latin alta ara - an elevated place of sacrifice) is elevated, or is in the
Sanctuary which is already elevated above the nave, so that people may easily see
and look upward toward the heavenly world.
B.The Iconostasis.
The Sanctuary is separated from the choir-place and the body of the Temple
by a solid Image-screen (the iconostasis).
This is the iconostasis
in the church of St. Andrei
Rublyov
Three doors give access through the image-screen to the different parts of
the Sanctuary. The central opening is called the Royal Gate or the Holy Door and on
both sides of it are the northern and southern doors. The central door is called The
King Door, because through it, at the Divine Liturgy, the King of Glory comes forth
to feed His faithful people with his own Divine Body and Blood. The Mystery of the
Eucharist is celebrated in the Sanctuary, and through this door the Holy Gifts are
brought forth.
The Image-screen portrays those who dwell in Heaven.
The customary arrangement of the holy images is as follows: On the right of
the Holy Door is placed the image of the Saviour, and next it, the image of the
Patron Saint of the Temple.
On the left of the Holy Door is the image of the holy Birth-giver of God. On
the leaves of the Holy Door itself (which represents the Entrance into Heaven) is
the image of the Annunciation, that being forefront of our salvation together with
the images of the Four Evangelists.
The classical composition of an Orthodox iconostasis consists of 5 tiers,
crowned with the cross.
The upper storey presents the Forefathers of the church symbolizing the
initial Church of the Old Testament, from Adam to the law of Moses. Open scrolls in
the hands of Old Testament patriarchs presage the Church of the New Testament.
In the middle of this tier we can see the Old Testament Trinity as a symbol of the
first testament of the God with a man and appearance of the Trinity.
The next row from the top is the Prophet's storey. It consists of images of
Old Testament prophets with open scrolls in their hands, on which are written texts
from their prophecies concerning the Divine Incarnation. This is why the centre of
this row is occupied by icon of Our Lady of the Sign. Each prophesies in each own
way, holding his scroll in his own manner. This row represents the Church of the
Old Testament, from Moses to Christ, which was a "presage" (Patriarch Germanus)
and a preparation for the Church of the New Testament. At the same time this row,
together with the row of Forefathers, represents the Lord's carnal ancestors. In this
way the icon of the Divine Incarnation in the centre indicates the direct connection
between the Old and the New Testaments. The order of the prophets here is as
follows: to the right of the icon of Our Lady of the Sign (that is to the left of the
spectator) are the prophets David, Zacharias (father of John the Baptist), Moses,
Samuel, Nahum, Daniel and Habakkuk; to the left of the centre (that is to the right
of the spectator) are the prophets Solomon, Ezekiel, Haggai, Elias, Malachi Elisha
and Zechariah.
The next storey of the iconostasis is that of "Holy Days". It consists of a series
of pictures representing the events of the New Testament which are celebrated by
the Church with particular solemnity, as the principal stages of the action of the
Divine Providence in the world. This is the beginning of what was foreshadowed
and foretold in the upper rows. These holy days express the totality of the Church
teaching; they are "the pearls of the divine dogmas", as Patriarch Germanus calls
them. In church iconostases this row is usually composed of icons of the
Resurrection of Christ and of the eleven principal holy days - six of the Lord:
Nativity, Candlemas (Presentation). Epiphany (Baptism), Transfiguration, Entry into
Jerusalem, Ascension - four of the Virgin: Her Birth, Presentation, Annunciation,
Assumption - the Pentecost and the Elevation of the Cross, arranged according to
the course of the Churchyear.
The next storey of the iconostasis is called "Tchin". It is a developed Deisis the triptych of the ancient Sanctuary screen. The word Deisis means prayer, in this
case the standing in prayer, before the Saviour, of the Mother of God and of John
the Baptist. The Mother of God is always on His right, according to the words of the
psalm: "The queen stood by on thy right hand" (Ps. XITV, 9). The word "tchin"
means order. This order came into being by adding to the Mother of God and John
the Baptist, standing in prayer before Christ, members of various hosts of heavenly
and earthly sainthood: angels, apostles, hierarchs and others.
The order of their disposition in the iconostasis reproduced is as follows: on
the side of the Holy Virgin is Archangel Michael, Apostle Peter, St. Basil the Great,
St. John Chrysostom, St. Zosima, the great martyr George; on the side of St. John
the Baptist, Archangel Gabriel, Apostle Paul, St. Gregory the Theologian, St.
Nicholas, St. Sabbatius, the great martyr Demetrius.
Arranged in a strict and orderly succession the saints depicted here are
united in one common movement - their prayerful effort towards the Lord sitting
on His throne.
The Tchin expresses the result of the Divine Incarnation, the fulfillment of
the Church of the New Testament. Consequently it is the central part of the
Iconostasis. The individual images of saints represented here do not express their
earthly service, although their clothes and attributes indicate it. What is
represented here is the culmination of every type of service - a prayerful standing
before the throne of God. The rhythmic external order of the figures is the
expression of inner order. It is the image of attainment of the normal Order of the
universe, the order of the life to come, where "God" is "all in all" (I Cor. XV, 28), the
contemplation of Divine Glory. This thought is here emphasized by the image of the
Saviour Himself. He is represented as sitting on His throne, with the attributes of
Divine Glory, the mandorla intercrossed by rays coming from Him, surrounded by
heavenly powers, with the Evangelists' symbols at the corners. The mandorla is
placed between two squares which form an octagonal star, the symbol of the eight
day - the future life. The iconography of the Saviour represents Him here, in the
centre of the Tchin, both as the Head of the Church and as the Redeemer Who has
sacrificed Himself for men's sins. This is why in our icon He holds the Gospel open
at the text: "Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give
you rest" (Matt. XI, 28) - accepting all those who come to Him, since He is perfect
love.
The lower storey of a church iconostasis may have a local and occasional
character. It is represented by its central part, the Royal Door, on either side of
which are placed two large icons, usually that of the Saviour and to the right of Him
(to the left of the spectator) an icon of the Virgin and Child. Sometimes the icon of
the Saviour is replaced by the icon of that particular church, that is, the icon of the
holy day or the saint to which (or to whom) the church is dedicated. Further, on the
north and south doors are depicted the two Archangels, Michael and Gabriel, or
saintly deacons, as servitors in the celebration of the Mystery. If some room is 1eft
it is filled with other icons. This storey has still kept its ancient name of the Worship
storey. It was so called because the icons of the current month, of the church
calendar, or of a holy day, which were kept here on the Sanctuary screen, were
taken off and placed on the pulpit for worship. Apparently this name was
preserved because the icons for particular occasions were not placed very high and
so were the object of a closer and more immediate communion and veneration.
They are kissed; candles are burned before them, and so forth. It is to them that
the words of Saint Simeon of Thessalonica can preeminently be referred, that they
“abide both in heaven and among men”. This storey 1acks the strictly rhythmic
arrangement of other storey, and is often quite asymmetrical. The icons composing
it are usually very varied and depend on local requirements and the character of a
given church.