Download Fire and Wildlife

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
Fire Effects on Wildlife
18 September 2006
Direct Effects
• Few studies, marked re-capture approach ideal
– Body size and mobility, i.e. burrowing, influence direct
mortality
• Life cycle stages are impacted differently
• Depends on fire regime
– Frequency, intensity, extent, and season
– Extent-small area, greater ability to repopulate
• Must look at populations rather than the
individual
Indirect Effects
• Fire severity and resulting successional
patterns dictate wildlife habitats and the
effect on wildlife
• Importance of fire regime
• (+/-) Consumer response is species
dependent, must consider mechanisms at
work
TTYP: What are the indirect effects
of fire on wildlife habitat?
Mechanisms of post-fire population
change
• Availability of food resources and changes
in cover regulate population response
• Sorting out these mechanisms is a
research challenge
Understanding the Consumer
Response to Food Resources
• Fire alters production, species availability,
and food quality
• Migration and immigration
• Short term effects
– Arizona grassland example
• Green vegetation declines while seed availability
increase
• Differential small mammal response
Understanding the Consumer
Response to Food Resources
• Alternatively, shift in food sources
– Ex. Australian eucalypt forest
• Bettongs exploit fire adapted
fungus
– Ex. Primates in Borneo shifting food sources
• Flowers and fruits unavailable→ foliar/herbaceous vegetation
and caterpillars/larvae of wood boring insects
Plant Succession and Animal
Response
• Ex. Browsers in N.A. boreal forest
– Caribou eat lichen, slow growth, easily burned
• Caribou in late successional
– Moose eat woody resprouts (birch, aspen)
• Moose in early
successional
Consumer Response and Food
Quality
• Pulse of higher quality new growth
– Increase in protein (nitrogen content) in new
growth
– New tender shoots with greater digestibility
– Increase in population growth rates?
• Ex. Domestic grazers
Changes in Cover
• Burned vegetation results in drastic change in
both physical and thermal cover
– Ex. Cryptic insects, evolutionary response
• Physical protection from predation
– Structure provides protective habitat
• Structure effects visibility
• Clearing of structure
provides visibility
– Ex. Red-cockaded
woodpecker and loblolly
pine understory
maintenance
Balancing Protective Cover and
Food Availability
• Tallgrass prairie example
• Bird response
• Increase in seed/insect availability
• Decrease in cover, nesting habitat, and predator
protection
• Small mammal response
• Some small rodents, i.e. prairie vole, are small
navigate litter layer and find seed
• Other larger rodents, prefer burned area with
easier seed access
Structural Diversity
• Interspersion of food resources and
cover
• Positive or negative effects depending on
the severity and extent and the wildlife
considered
• Reduced habitat heterogeneity by large
extent, severe fires
Example: Structural Diversity
• Habitat diversity
and complexity,
each supports a
specific faunal
community
– Ex. Snags
important for birds,
mammals, reptiles,
amphibians, and
invertebrates
Structural Diversity and Patchiness
• Refugia for migration
and nucleus for
recovery
• Mature cover and
adjacent high quality
growth
• Mosaics of food
resources and cover
create structural
diversity
– Ecotones - boundaries
Landscape Diversity Example:
Mississippi Alluvial Valley
• Landscape complexity through burning
– Rice and waterfowl management
– Mississippi rice fields, interspersion of open
water and emergent vegetation (Kross 2006)
Document related concepts

Theoretical ecology wikipedia, lookup

Habitat conservation wikipedia, lookup

Renewable resource wikipedia, lookup

Habitat wikipedia, lookup

Food web wikipedia, lookup

Local food wikipedia, lookup

Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project wikipedia, lookup

Conservation movement wikipedia, lookup

Overexploitation wikipedia, lookup

Habitat destruction wikipedia, lookup

Mission blue butterfly habitat conservation wikipedia, lookup

Wildlife crossing wikipedia, lookup

Fire ecology wikipedia, lookup

Animal genetic resources for food and agriculture wikipedia, lookup