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Mutations
Mutations
1. Changes in DNA sequences that affect genetic
information are known as
a.
b.
c.
d.
replications.
transformations.
translations.
mutations.
Mutations
2. The word mutation comes from the Latin word
mutare, which means
a.
b.
c.
d.
duplication
replication
to change
the effect
Mutations
3. Gene mutations that involve changes in one or a
few nucleotides are known as
a.
b.
c.
d.
point mutations.
mutagens.
polyploidy.
chromosomal mutations.
Mutations
4. A point mutation where one base is changed to a
different base in a DNA sequence is called a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
insertion.
deletion.
polyploidy.
substitution.
Mutations
5. A point mutation where a base is either inserted
into or deleted from a DNA sequence is called a(n)
a.
b.
c.
d.
substitution mutation.
frameshift mutation.
polyploidy mutation.
mutagen.
Mutations
6. Identify the type of point mutation that has
occurred in the mutant sequence.
Original sequence A T G C G G A C T G T A…
Mutant sequence A T G C G A C T G T A…
a.
b.
c.
d.
G
Substitution mutation.
Frameshift due to an insertion
Frameshift due to a deletion
Polyploidy mutation.
Mutations
7. Identify the type of point mutation that has
occurred in the mutant sequence.
Original sequence A T G C G G A C T G T A…
Mutant sequence A T G C T G A C T G T A…
a.
b.
c.
d.
G
T
Substitution mutation
Frameshift due to an insertion
Frameshift due to a deletion
Polyploidy mutation
Mutations
8. Identify the type of point mutation that has
occurred in the mutant sequence.
Original sequence A T G C G G A C T G T A…
Mutant sequence A T G T C G G A C T G T A…
a.
b.
c.
d.
T
substitution mutation.
frameshift due to an insertion
Frameshift due to a deletion
polyploidy mutation.
Mutations
9. Which base of the codon UCA, when
substituted, would have the least effect on
the amino acid it codes for?
a.
b.
c.
d.
U (the first base)
C (the second base)
A (the third base)
There will always be an effect
Mutations
10. Which type of mutation would most likely
cause a major change the shape of a protein?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Substitution of one nucleotide
Substitution of two nucleotides
Substitution of three nucleotides
Insertion of one nucleotide
Remember, insertions and
deletions cause frameshifts.
Mutations
11. A substitution mutation
occurred in the middle of a
gene, causing the protein it
codes for to become
nonfunctional. The affected
codon was changed from UAC
to UAA. Explain why the
protein doesn’t work.
UAC codes for the amino acid
Tyrosine. UAA codes for a stop
codon. Since the mutation
occurred in the middle of the
gene, the resulting protein would
be way too short to function.
Mutations
12. True or False: “All mutations are harmful.”
False
Mutations
13. The blue amino acids are hydrophilic (water loving). The yellow
amino acids are hydrophobic (water fearing). How might the shape
of the membrane protein shown below change if a substitution
mutation changes serine (ser) to valine (val)?
Membrane
protein
Cell
membrane
Mutations
13. The blue amino acids are hydrophilic (water loving). The yellow
amino acids are hydrophobic (water fearing). How might the shape
of the membrane protein shown below change if a substitution
mutation changes serine (ser) to valine (val)?
The protein’s shape may change significantly as valine tries
to move towards the oily region of the cell membrane.
Before
mutation
After
mutation
Cell
membrane
Mutations
14. List four types of chromosomal mutations.
a. Deletion
b. Duplication
c. Inversion
d. Translocation
Mutations
15. A substance that can cause a change in
the DNA code of an organism is called a
a.
b.
c.
d.
toxin.
mutagen.
nitrogenous base.
nucleotide.
Mutations
16. Name a common chemical that is
considered a mutagen.
a. Insecticides
b. Cigarette smoke
c. Pollution
d. Heavy metals
Mutations
17. Name a common physical mutagen.
a. X-rays
b. Gamma rays
c. Ultraviolet rays
Mutations
Use the diagrams below to answer the question.
“Normal” chromosome
Mutant 1
Mutant 2
18. Mutant 1 is a(n)
a. deletion.
c. translocation.
b. inversion.
d. duplication.
Mutations
Use the diagrams below to answer the question.
“Normal” chromosome
Mutant 1
Mutant 2
19. Mutant 2 is a(n)
a. deletion.
c. translocation.
b. inversion.
d. duplication.
Mutations
20. Give a few examples of harmful mutations.
a. Cystic fibrosis
b. Sickle cell disease
c.
Hemophilia
d. Down syndrome
e. Stunted wings
f.
Albinism
Mutations
21. Give a few examples of beneficial mutations.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Pesticide resistance (beneficial for the insect)
Lactose tolerance
Stronger bones
Ability to be very flexible
Ability to sing extremely well
Amazing muscles
Myostatin hypertrophy