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CARBOHYDRATES
Are a macronutrient therefore we need large quantities per day.
When carbohydrates are eaten, the body metabolises them into
glucose molecules which are then used for energy production.
Glucose molecules (carbohydrates) that are not used for energy
production are stored around the body as adipose (fat) tissue.
Therefore if continually eaten in excess, carbohydrates can
contribute to obesity and related conditions such as
cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer.
Sources of Carbohydrates
Found in foods of plant origin.
Major food sources include:
Fruits such as oranges, grapes & bananas
Starchy vegetables like potato & parsnip
Corn
Beans
Pasta
bread
Rice
Breakfast cereals such as wheat biscuits & bran
Fibre
Main function is to regulate the functioning of the
digestive system.
Getting enough fibre in your diet prevents constipation by
adding bulk to faeces and assists in removing waste
products through the digestive tract.
Foods that are high in fibre, particularly fruit & vegetables,
are usually rich in vitamins & minerals and low in fat.
Write down the NHPA conditions that adequate fibre
intake in the diet can help to prevent and how it does this.
Fibre
Food sources include:
Bran flake cereal
Wholemeal bread
Fruit & vegetables – particularly raspberries,
apples, bananas, pears, oranges, peas, potatoes,
broccoli & corn.
Baked beans
PROTEIN
Macronutrient
Primary function is for growth, maintenance and repair of body cells.
Can also be used as a source of energy production if there are not
enough carbohydrate & fat stores available.
Excess protein can be converted into glucose and then stored as fat if
not used for growth, repair or energy.
As a result, excess protein can contribute to obesity and related NHPA
conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.
Excess protein may lead to excessive loss of the mineral calcium from
bones which can contribute to????
PROTEIN
Food sources of protein:
Animal origin:
eggs,
Milk, cheese and other dairy products (except cream)
Beef
Chicken and other poultry
Fish & seafood
PROTEIN
Food sources of protein:
Plant origin:
Soy products like tofu & soya milk
Legumes
Nuts
Whole grain cereals
Brown rice
FATS
Macronutrient
Main function is as fuel for energy, but can also protect
body organs and aid in body temperature control by
providing the body with warmth or insulation.
Important part of a balanced diet, however some fats are
better for us than others.
If eaten in excess can contribute to weight gain and
obesity and associated effects such as cardiovascular
disease, diabetes mellitus & colorectal cancer
Monounsaturated Fats
Monounsaturated Fats
Polyunsaturated Fats
Polyunsaturated Fats
Saturated Fats
Saturated Fats
Trans Fats
Trans Fats
WATER
No nutritional value but is vital for survival.
Makes up between 55-75 per cent of our body mass.
Needed for many functions within the body including digestion
and absorption of nutrients, blood circulation and regulation
of body temperature through sweating. Also helps to lubricate
joints and removes waste form the body.
Regular consumption of water can help to reduce the risk of
obesity and related conditions such as cardiovascular disease
and diabetes mellitus.
It is also absorbed by fibre and therefore plays a role in
digestive health and the prevention of colorectal cancer.
WATER
Food sources:
Water in it pure form
Fruits including apples, watermelon, oranges,
grapefruit & tomatoes
Vegetables such as celery, broccoli, lettuce,
carrots and cucumber
CALCIUM
Most abundant mineral in the body.
About 99 per cent is stored in the bones and the rest in the
blood, muscles and intracellular fluid.
Most important role of calcium is the hardening or
ossification of hard tissue such as teeth, bones &
cartilage.
Calcium is capable of moving in and out of bones and will
move out of the bones if there is insufficient amounts
available in the blood for other body functions.
CALCIUM
WHAT HAPPENS IF SOMEONE DOES NOT GET
ENOUGH CALCIUM THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFE?
CALCIUM
Good sources of calcium are dairy products like
milk, cheese & yoghurt.
Other sources include:
Sardines& salmon (with bones)
Green leafy vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach
Fortified soy milk
Fortified orange juice
PHOSPHORUS
Main function is to work with calcium to harden
or ossify bones & teeth.
Binds with calcium to form calcium phosphate,
which is the ossifying agent for hard tissue.
PHOSPHORUS
Food sources:
Dairy products like milk, cheese & yoghurt
Meat like chicken & beef
Eggs,
Fish
Nuts
Legumes
SODIUM
Very important for human life
Plays a role in the regulation of fluids in the
body, including water & blood.
If too much sodium is consumed, it causes
calcium to be excreted in urine leading to the
demineralisation of bones and therefore
osteoporosis.
SODIUM
Foods containing sodium iniclude:
Table salt
Olives
Fish
Meat (especially pork)
Cheese
Many processed foods, such as tomato sauce, packet
soups & sauces, canned vegetables, pizza, pies &
ready-made meals.
VITAMIN D
Required for the absorption of calcium &
phosphorus from the intestine into the blood
stream.
A lack of vitamin D leads to weak bones & teeth.
WHY?
Most people get their vitamin D requirement
from exposure to UV rays.
VITAMIN D
Does not occur naturally in many foods.
Fish (particularly tuna, salmon, mackerel, sardines &
herring) is the best source of vitamin D.
Small amounts can also be found in beef liver,
cheese & egg yolks.
Some brands of milk, breakfast cereals and orange
juice are fortified with vitamin D.
RISK NUTRIENTS
These are nutrients that can contribute to ill
health if over-consumed.
PROTECTIVE NUTRIENTS
Are those that play a role in promoting health.
People who don’t eat enough of these nutrients
are at a greater risk of becoming deficient.