CARBOHYDRATES Are a macronutrient therefore we need large quantities per day. When carbohydrates are eaten, the body metabolises them into glucose molecules which are then used for energy production. Glucose molecules (carbohydrates) that are not used for energy production are stored around the body as adipose (fat) tissue. Therefore if continually eaten in excess, carbohydrates can contribute to obesity and related conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer. Sources of Carbohydrates Found in foods of plant origin. Major food sources include: Fruits such as oranges, grapes & bananas Starchy vegetables like potato & parsnip Corn Beans Pasta bread Rice Breakfast cereals such as wheat biscuits & bran Fibre Main function is to regulate the functioning of the digestive system. Getting enough fibre in your diet prevents constipation by adding bulk to faeces and assists in removing waste products through the digestive tract. Foods that are high in fibre, particularly fruit & vegetables, are usually rich in vitamins & minerals and low in fat. Write down the NHPA conditions that adequate fibre intake in the diet can help to prevent and how it does this. Fibre Food sources include: Bran flake cereal Wholemeal bread Fruit & vegetables – particularly raspberries, apples, bananas, pears, oranges, peas, potatoes, broccoli & corn. Baked beans PROTEIN Macronutrient Primary function is for growth, maintenance and repair of body cells. Can also be used as a source of energy production if there are not enough carbohydrate & fat stores available. Excess protein can be converted into glucose and then stored as fat if not used for growth, repair or energy. As a result, excess protein can contribute to obesity and related NHPA conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Excess protein may lead to excessive loss of the mineral calcium from bones which can contribute to???? PROTEIN Food sources of protein: Animal origin: eggs, Milk, cheese and other dairy products (except cream) Beef Chicken and other poultry Fish & seafood PROTEIN Food sources of protein: Plant origin: Soy products like tofu & soya milk Legumes Nuts Whole grain cereals Brown rice FATS Macronutrient Main function is as fuel for energy, but can also protect body organs and aid in body temperature control by providing the body with warmth or insulation. Important part of a balanced diet, however some fats are better for us than others. If eaten in excess can contribute to weight gain and obesity and associated effects such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus & colorectal cancer Monounsaturated Fats Monounsaturated Fats Polyunsaturated Fats Polyunsaturated Fats Saturated Fats Saturated Fats Trans Fats Trans Fats WATER No nutritional value but is vital for survival. Makes up between 55-75 per cent of our body mass. Needed for many functions within the body including digestion and absorption of nutrients, blood circulation and regulation of body temperature through sweating. Also helps to lubricate joints and removes waste form the body. Regular consumption of water can help to reduce the risk of obesity and related conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. It is also absorbed by fibre and therefore plays a role in digestive health and the prevention of colorectal cancer. WATER Food sources: Water in it pure form Fruits including apples, watermelon, oranges, grapefruit & tomatoes Vegetables such as celery, broccoli, lettuce, carrots and cucumber CALCIUM Most abundant mineral in the body. About 99 per cent is stored in the bones and the rest in the blood, muscles and intracellular fluid. Most important role of calcium is the hardening or ossification of hard tissue such as teeth, bones & cartilage. Calcium is capable of moving in and out of bones and will move out of the bones if there is insufficient amounts available in the blood for other body functions. CALCIUM WHAT HAPPENS IF SOMEONE DOES NOT GET ENOUGH CALCIUM THROUGHOUT THEIR LIFE? CALCIUM Good sources of calcium are dairy products like milk, cheese & yoghurt. Other sources include: Sardines& salmon (with bones) Green leafy vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach Fortified soy milk Fortified orange juice PHOSPHORUS Main function is to work with calcium to harden or ossify bones & teeth. Binds with calcium to form calcium phosphate, which is the ossifying agent for hard tissue. PHOSPHORUS Food sources: Dairy products like milk, cheese & yoghurt Meat like chicken & beef Eggs, Fish Nuts Legumes SODIUM Very important for human life Plays a role in the regulation of fluids in the body, including water & blood. If too much sodium is consumed, it causes calcium to be excreted in urine leading to the demineralisation of bones and therefore osteoporosis. SODIUM Foods containing sodium iniclude: Table salt Olives Fish Meat (especially pork) Cheese Many processed foods, such as tomato sauce, packet soups & sauces, canned vegetables, pizza, pies & ready-made meals. VITAMIN D Required for the absorption of calcium & phosphorus from the intestine into the blood stream. A lack of vitamin D leads to weak bones & teeth. WHY? Most people get their vitamin D requirement from exposure to UV rays. VITAMIN D Does not occur naturally in many foods. Fish (particularly tuna, salmon, mackerel, sardines & herring) is the best source of vitamin D. Small amounts can also be found in beef liver, cheese & egg yolks. Some brands of milk, breakfast cereals and orange juice are fortified with vitamin D. RISK NUTRIENTS These are nutrients that can contribute to ill health if over-consumed. PROTECTIVE NUTRIENTS Are those that play a role in promoting health. People who don’t eat enough of these nutrients are at a greater risk of becoming deficient.