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Qui est tu, jiiweganaabii,
libellule, dragonfly?
GLOM 2006
Wetlands
• Occupy 6% of the earth's land and
freshwater surface.
• Some wetlands have been reduced by as
much as 50% worldwide.
• 40% of the world’s human populations
experience serious water shortages.
• Wetlands: store water, reduce flooding,
purifying process, provide habitat.
Facts about Wetlands in Canada
• Approx. 14% of Canada is covered by
wetlands.
• ON, MB and the NWT contain the
largest area of wetlands.
• Conflicts between wetland
conservation and wetland utilization
are concentrated in southern Ontario
• Agricultural expansion is the major
cause of 85% of Canada's wetland
losses.
Facts about Wetlands in Canada
• Since European settlement, wetland
conversion to agriculture is estimated
at over 20 million hectares
• Over 80% of the wetlands near major
urban centres have been converted to
agricultural use or urban expansion.
• Less than 0.2% of Canada's wetlands
lie within 40 kilometres of major urban
centres (the 23 largest urban areas
which contain 55% of Canada's pop.
Wetlands
• The productive ecosystem on Earth.
• Carbon sinks - The natural kidneys
• Flood barriers - Critical habitat
What Are Wetlands?
Bog
Peatland
Fen
Swamp
The Value of Wetlands
• Commercial
harvesting (muskrat)
• Commercial fisheries
• Forestry (peatlands
softwood and
wetlands hardwood)
• Aquaculture
• Market gardens or
managed peatlands
• Energy production
(peat)
• Agricultural activities
(wild rice,
cranberries)
•
•
•
•
•
•
$93.2 billion (2002)
Habitat
Recreation and
cultural use
Irrigation
Flooding
Water purification
and sinks for
pollutants
Carbon sink
Flood control and water
filtering by peatlands
$77.0 billion
Pest control services
$5.4 billion
“ ” by non-peatland
wetlands
$3.4 billion
Net carbon sequestration
$1.85 billion
Nature related activities
$4.5 billion
The Convention on Wetlands
(Ramsar Iran, 1971)
• Intergovernmental treaty providing the
framework for national action and
international cooperation for the
conservation and wise use of wetlands and
their resources.
• 147 Contracting Parties to the Convention
• 1524 wetland sites, totaling 129.2 million
hectares.
Canada: 36 sites covering
13,051,501 ha
How many kinds are there?
• About 5000 species
of Odonata are
presently formally
described.
• Expert 'guesses' put
the total number of
species at between
5500 and 6500.
What's the difference between a
dragonfly and a damselfly?
• Generally larger, more robust animals.
• In most species the eyes touch, or almost
touch, at the top of the head
• The fore and hind wings differ in shape
(the base of the hindwings being broader)
and the wingbases are quite broad.
• Wings are usually held spread when at
rest.
Does Size Matter?
• How big do they get?
– The Central American Megaloprepus
coerulatus, (wingspan of 19 cm).
– The Permian Meganeuropsis permiana
with a reconstructed wingspan of about
70-75 cm.
• How small do they get?
– The smallest adult Zygoptera (damselflies)
are in the genus Agriocnemis with
wingspans of 17-18 mm.
– The smallest dragonfly - Nannophyopsis
chalcosoma from Borneo, (wingspan of
about 25mm).
Life-History
– Temperate species live less than a month as
adults.
– Some as much as 6 months.
– No dragonfly is known which lives a year as
an adult.
– Larval life spans can approach a decade in
alpine and high arctic habitats.
• What is the shortest life-history?
– Egg to adult durations of about 40 days are
recorded from small tropical damselflies
Who Eats Them?
• Fish, birds
• Other insects (wasp,
spiders)
• Other dragonflies
• Black Bears
• Humans (curry soup)
The Birds, The Bees and
Charismatic Micro-Fauna
What’s The
Attraction?
What’s
The Attraction?
• Power, predatory
• Engineering
• Science
– The North American
Dragonfly Migration
Project
What’s The
Attraction?
•
•
•
•
Flight, power, beauty
Poetry
Food source
Leisure, recreation
– Dragon hunting
– Dragon ponds
– Engineering
• Science
– Green darner migration
– The North American
Dragonfly Migration Project
Why The Sudden Interest?
National Geographic, April 2005
Odonata In The News:
The Rainham Marshes, England
• The Emeral Damselfy (Lestes dryas) and the
Rainham Marshes Development project
(Harrison & Burgess, 1994).
– No go land
– Why declare it a special site if you’re not going to
manage it?
– What’s that thing? I’ve never seen it.
Protected Areas
• Sanctuaries (Britain,
Japan)
• Dragonfly Trails
(SA)
• Khao Phanom
Bencha NP,
Thailand
• Siribhum waterfalls
– flower gardens
• Tourism (Thailand)
Method
• Inductive analysis
• Participant observations
• Interviews (20)
Natureworks
HUMANITY
Humanistic
View
Nature is a
resource
Protectionist:
View
Rights and
responsibilities
Organic
View
We are nature
NATURE
Field-based Education
Natureworks
HUMANITY
Humanistic
View
Nature is a
resource
Protectionist:
View
Rights and
responsibilities
Organic
View
We are nature
NATURE
Protecting the Guardians of the
Watershed Wetlands
• 6% of the earth's land and freshwater
surface
• 14% of Canada's total land area.
• Some wetlands have been reduced by as
much as 50% worldwide.
• Urbanization and agricultural
expansion is the major cause of 85% of
Canada's wetland losses.
Future Outlook •
Sanctuaries
• Protection
• Research
– Multi and interdisciplinary
– National Survey of
Fishing, Hunting, and
Wildlife-Associated
Recreation
• Education
© Morgenstern, 2004
–
–
–
–
Management
Politicians
ENGOs
Citizens
• Responsibility
Action Research?
• Research and education
• Community Activism (citizen science)
• Dragonfly Symposium (July 10, 2007) hosted
by the Ozhaawashko-giizhig Traditional
Teaching Lodge & the Métis Nation of
Ontario http://www.blueskyteachinglodge.ca/
• Knowledge
exchanges
• Cultural
exchanges
• Story
telling
• Artisans
• Signing
• Dancing
© 2004, Bill Morgenstern