Download Key Words Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600 – 1899

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
Key Words
Area of Study 1: Western Classical Music 1600 – 1899
KEY WORD
Handel
Baroque period
Affection
Diatonic
Monophonic
Homophonic
Polyphonic/
Contrapuntal
Oratorio
Messiah
Recitative
Aria
Chorus
Hemiola
Imitation / Imitative
Cadence
Perfect cadence
Plagal cadence
Sacred
Secular
Syllabic
Melismatic
(Melisma)
Terraced dynamics
Soprano
Alto
Tenor
Bass
Sequence
Major
DEFINITION
HANDEL: AND THE GLORY OF THE LORD
Baroque composer
1600 -1750
The mood of a piece of music. It was customary in Baroque music for
a single mood to prevail in a movement
Notes or chords belonging to or literally ‘of the key’
A musical texture of a single melodic line with no accompaniment
A musical texture comprising a melody part and accompaniment
which all have the same rhythm, so sounds like block chords
A musical texture with two or more independent parts which weave
in and out of each other
Large scale musical setting for chorus, soloists and orchestra of a
biblical (religious) text. Designed for concert performance.
The oratorio which ‘And the Glory of the Lord’ is taken from
A section of an opera/oratorio which sounds half sung, half spoken
A section of an opera/oratorio which is a solo song, reflecting on the
mood/emotion. Usually virtuosic
A section of an opera/oratorio that sums up the action of the story at
that particular point. ‘And the Glory of the Lord’ is a Chorus
A rhythmic device where two bars of 3/4 sounds like three bars of
2/4
A melodic idea in one part is immediately copied by another part,
often at a different pitch, while the first part continues with other
music (copying)
The last two chords of a phrase
At the end of a phrase to make the music sound finished (V – I)
At the end of a phrase to make it sound finished, but sounds like an
Amen (IV – I)
Religious work (text) – from the bible
Non-religious work (text)
Word setting – one syllable per note
Word setting – one syllable stretched over more than one note
(Glo----------------------------------ria, hosanna in excelsis)
Loud (forte) and quiet (piano) only – no dynamics in between and no
crescendos or diminuendos
High female singing voice
Low female singing voice
High male singing voice
Low male singing voice
A pattern of notes that is repeated at a higher or lower pitch
Tonality – sounds bright and happy
Allegro
Libretto
Basso Continuo
Tempo (speed) – fast
The text used in an Oratorio (like this one!) or an opera
‘continuous bass’ The bass line which is played by cellos throughout
the piece
Ornamentation
‘Twiddly bits’ that add decoration to a melody line
Trill
Moving between two notes that are next to each other very quickly
MOZART: 1ST MOVEMENT FROM SYMPHONY No. 40 IN G MINOR
Classical period
1750 – 1830
Symphony
Large scale genre for orchestra in 3 or 4 movements. Sonata form
used with the first and last movements
Sonata Form
A structure with 3 parts – Exposition, Development and
Recapitulation
First subject
The first theme or melody in Sonata Form
Second subject
The second theme or melody in Sonata Form
Bridge passage
A linking section used to modulate the music into the Second subject
Balanced phrases
4 and 8 bar phrases
Sequence
A pattern of notes repeated at a higher or lower pitch
Circle of 5ths
A chord progression moving in the order of an interval of a 5th. Used
in the second subject
Molto Allegro
Very fast
Syncopation
Off beat
Dotted rhythms
Long short patterns
Homophonic
A musical texture comprising a melody part and accompaniment
which all have the same rhythm, so sounds like block chords
Counterpoint
2 melody lines which weave in and out of each other
Chromatic
Moving in semitones
Sonata Form
Large scale form used in the classical period and in movements of
symphonies (like this one!)
Exposition
The first section of Sonata Form:
First subject (tonic key) – Bridge passage (modulates) – Second
subject (dominant key)
Development
The second section of Sonata Form:
Development of First subject from exposition – lots of modulations
(changes of key), ideas explored and experimented with
Recapitulation
The third section of Sonata Form:
First subject (tonic) repeated from Exposition – Bridge passage (much
longer than in exposition) – Second subject (this time in the tonic key
NOT the dominant)
Coda
Section at the end of the piece to finish it off
Modulation
Moving from one key to another
Relative keys
Modulating to the dominant (5th above), sub-dominant (4th above) or
the relative minor (3 semitones down)
Major/Minor
The key the music is in
tonality
Movement
A section of music that is within a bigger work, like a symphony
Romantic period
Chopin
Ternary form
Coda
Prelude
Programme Music
Phrase marks
Rubato
Ritenuto
Pedal note
Crescendo
Diminuendo
Soft pedal
Sustain pedal
Sostenuto
Sotto voce
Septuplet
Slentando
Smorzando
CHOPIN: PRELUDE IN D FLAT MAJOR, OP. 28
1830 – 1900
Polish composer, loved the piano
ABA structure
Section on music at the end to make it sound finished
A brief ‘opening’ piece that sets a particular mood
Music that depicts a scene, mood or character. ‘The Raindrop
Prelude’ was written in a storm and the titles refers to the dripping of
raindrops from the roof
Long curved lines going over the music to outline the musical
sentences
Literally means ‘robbed time’ – pulling rhythms around – common
Romantic rhythmic feature
Slow down
A repeated note
Gradually getting louder
Gradually getting quitter
A pedal on the piano which dampens the sound
A pedal on the piano which lets the notes ‘ring’ on after being played
Sustained – very legato (smooth)
‘under voice’ – dramatic lowering of volume. In B section – bass part
7 semitones in the space of a crotchet
Gradually decreasing in tempo
‘dying away’ – gradual slowing down and softening until nothing is
heard
Area of Study 2: Music in the 20th century
KEY WORD
Schoenberg
Expressionism
The Second
Viennese School
Berg
Webern
The Five Orchestra
Pieces
DEFINITION
SCHOENBERG: ‘PERIPETIE’
Important figure in the Expressionist movement. Austrian composer
Early 20th century movement in the arts to express intense feelings.
Often dark
Schoenberg founded the Second Viennese School – a group of
composers who wrote Expressionist music
Expressionist composer taught by Schoenberg
Expressionist composer taught by Schoenberg
Composed in 1909. Was not very well received – experiemental and
requires a very large orchestra. ‘Peripetie’ is the fourth of the 5
pieces. Means ‘A sudden revsal’. Set work version a new edition of
the work that Schoenberg wrote in 1922
Hauptstimme (H)
Nebenstimme (N)
Hexachord
Complement
Atonal
Dissonance/Discord
Klangfarbenmelodie
Timbre
Sehr Rasch
Motif
Free Rondo
Dynamics
Disjunct
Octave
displacement
Inversion
Augmentation
Interval
Principle voice – the main melodic line
Secondary voice – the next most important melodic line afte the
principle voice
A group of six notes selected from the 12 pitches that are used as a
musical motif or chord
The six semitones not used in the first hexachord
No key
Notes that clash against each other
Literally ‘tone colour melody’, a word used to describe how timbre
contributes to melody in addition to pitch and rhythm
The instrument sound
Very quick (100 – 108bpm)
A musical idea
ABACA but with the returning A sections developed so much that
they are barely recognisable
Extremes of volume used
Moving in leaps
A note is an octave higher/lower than you would expect
Turning the intervals of a line upside down to create a mirror image
Doubling (or more) the original note length
The space between two notes
BERNSTEIN: ‘SOMETHING’S COMING’ FROM WEST SIDE STORY
Musical
Like an opera but using popular music
Acts and Scenes
Acts are the larger sections of the musical, scenes are the sections
within the Acts
Plot synopsis
Based on R&J, New York, Jets (Americans) and Sharks (Puerto Ricans)
Solo character song ‘Something’s Coming’ is the first time Tony sings solo in the show
Jazz Harmony
Use of added/extended chords
Blues notes/scales
Flattening notes
Cross Rhythms
Rhythms that cross the usual pattern of accents and unaccented
beats, creating irregularity and syncopation
Syncopation
Off beat
Push rhythm
A part anticipating the beat and coming in early
Riffs
Repeated patterns of notes
Tritone
The interval created between 3 tones (C – F#)
Accompaniment
The band/orchestral backing to the vocal part
Dynamics
Volume
Interval
How far apart two notes are
Latin-American
Use of special Latin rhythm patterns from Puerto Rico
rhythms
STEVE REICH: 3RD MOVEMENT (FAST) FROM ELECTRIC COUNTERPOINT
Minimalism
Augmentation
Doubling (or more) the original note length
Diminution
Halving the original note length
Cells
Short musical ideas
Drone
Fading
Inversion
Layering
Loop/looping
Metamorphosis
Additive melody
Modal
Motif
Multi-track
recording
Note addition
A long continuous note (or a constantly repeated note)
Bringing up or down the audio signal in recording to fade a track in or
out
Turning the intervals of a line upside down to create a mirror image
Adding new musical parts one at a time
A section of a piece of music which is edited so that it can be
repeated over and over again
Gradually changing from one musical idea to another, often by
changing one note at a time
Notes keep being added until the whole riff is heard
A scale that sounds a mixture of major and minor
A short musical idea
Lots of different tracks used in the recording
Starting off with a very simple ostinato with lots of rests and
gradually adding notes over a number of repetitions
Note subtraction
Starting off with a complex ostinato and gradually taking notes
away, leaving rests in their place
Ostinato
A repeated pattern of notes
Panning
Used in stereo recordings to control where the sound is coming from.
Can be panned to the left or right, or placed in the centre.
Phasing / phase shift When two or more versions of a motif are played at the same time
but slightly out of synchronisation, with the two parts gradually
coming back in sync after a number of repetitions
Polyphonic
Texture – 2 or more lines that are equally important playing at the
same time
Polyrhythms
A texture made up of many different rhythms
Repetition
Repeating
Resultant melody
A new melody produced when a variety of parts each play their
melodies at the same time
Retrograde
A method of developing a series of notes by playing it backwards
Rhythmic
Playing a musical phrase so that the accents fall in different places to
displacement
what you would expect
Texture
How parts fit together
Tonal Ambiguity
When the key of a piece is uncertain
AREA OF STUDY 3
MILES DAVIS: ALL BLUES
KEY WORD
Ragtime
Bebop
Big Band
Swing
Modal Jazz
Changes
Head
12 Bar Blues
Blue note
Mixolydian mode
Swing quavers
Waltz
Trill
Mordent
Chromatic
Comping
Frontline
Rhythm section
Syncopation
Improvisation
Intro
Outro
DEFINITION
Music characterised by a syncopated melody line and regularly
accented accompaniment
A jazz style which needs virtuosic technique – has fast tempo and
complex harmonies
A jazz style popular in the 1920s and 30s in which the pieces were
generally written for a large ensemble to play in dance halls
A development of Big Band. The term also used to describe a
particular type of rhythmic ‘groove’
A jazz style in which the soloists base their solos on modes instead
of the chord changes
The chord sequence in a jazz song
The main melody of a jazz song
A 12 bar structure that uses the tonic (I), subdominant (IV) and
dominant (V) chords
A ‘bent’ note – a note lowered by a semitone
Mode starting on G: G – A – B – C – D – E – F natural – G
The pair of quavers should be played with the first one slightly
longer than the second
A dance with 3 beats in a bar
Rapidly alternating between two notes
The note itself, the note above, the note itself
Music in which notes are used that are not in the key of the piece
An abbreviation of ‘accompanying’ – playing chords and bits of tune
The solo instruments in a jazz ensemble (trumpet, alto sax, tenor
sax)
The accompanying instruments in a jazz ensemble (drum kit, double
bass, piano)
Playing on the off beat
Making it up as you go along
Introduction to the piece
End part of the piece
JEFF BUCKLEY: GRACE
KEY WORD
Verse – Chorus
Power chords
DEFINITION
Structure of Grace. Uses a Pre-chorus to join the verse to the
Chorus and uses a ‘Link’ to join the chorus to the Middle 8 and then
to Verse 3
A chord commonly played on the guitar consisting of the root note
and the 5th above
Drone
A note repeated or sustained across chord changes, often creating a
dissonance
Dissonance/Dissonant Clashing notes
Delay
Repetitions of a sound after a set time interval, usually at a lower
volume and with less high frequency content than the original
EQ
Abbreviation of equalisation – electronically cutting or boosting
specific frequencies in a sound
Flanger
A studio effect ranging from subtle ‘swirling’ sounds to ‘jet plane’
effects
Pizzicato
Playing a string instrument by plucking the strings
Slide
A playing technique on string instruments by sliding the finger from
one note to another or a metal/glass device used to slide from one
note to another on guitars
Folk rock
A genre than combines folk and rock elements
Rock ballad
A song that tells a story
Drop ‘D tuning
Tuning the lowest E string on a guitar down one tone to D
Distortion
An effect used on electric guitars to distort notes
Overdubbing
Recording two or more parts on the same instrument and then
layering them up
Chromatic harmony
Chords that shift up and down in semitones
Improvised
Making it up as you go along
Glissando
Sliding off a note or between two notes e.g. at the ends of vocal
lines
Syllabic
Word setting - each syllable of the vocal line has its own note
Melismatic
Word setting - a syllable has several notes and is stretched out
Vocalisation
Wordless singing
Falsetto
A male singing higher than normal
Word painting
When the music reflects the mood/words
Cross-rhythms
Two against three rhythms
Syncopation
Playing on the off beats
MOBY: WHY DOES MY HEART FEEL SO BAD?
KEY WORD
Vocal sample
Sampler
Looping
Pitch shifter
Panning
Chorus
Echo/Delay
Reverb
DEFINITION
Short bits of recorded sounds
A piece of equipment that loops and plays samples
Uses a computer to loop music rather than doing it by hand
Plays the sample at different pitches
Changes which speaker the music comes out of (left and right)
Creates several layers of the sample – it sounds like there is more
than one copy playing
Adds echoes to the music – and even makes them in time with the
beat
Changes the sample to make it sound as if it’s being played in a large
concert hall ( It can also take away all sound of reverb and make it
Phaser
EQ
Distortion
Verse – Chorus
Syncopation
sound feel flat)
Makes a ‘whooshing’ sound using the sample
Short for Equalization. It amplifies or removes frequencies (like bass
or treble) – it can filter out frequencies above or below a certain
level.
Changes the sound of a sample (it distorts it) Also a guitar effect
Structure of the song
Playing on the off beat
Area of Study 4: World Music
CAPERCAILLIE: ‘SKYE WAULKING SONG’ FROM THE ALBUM NADURRA
Oral tradition
A tradition which is passed on by word of mouth or imitiation
rather than by written means
Folk music
Music for the people
Fusion
A blending together of different musical styles
Waulking songs
Waulking – ancient process of making tweed fabric more
flexible and windproof. Waulking songs made this more social
and kept people in time
Nadurra
Album released in September 2000
Accordion
Instrument used in
Wurlitzer Piano
An early electric piano
Similar to bagpipes but using bellows rather than blowing.
Uilleann pipes
Create a quieter sweeter sound than bagpipes
Folk name for a violin
Fiddle
Instrument using bellows and buttons/keys to alter airflow over
Accordian
reeds to create sound
A Greek string instrument, imported to Ireland
Bouzouki
Scotch snap
Call and Response
Question/Solo and Answer/Group
Pentatonic
5 notes
Cluster chord
Lots of notes close to each other being played
Heterophonic texture
When instruments play a very similar line together but in
slightly different ways
Parts weaving in and out of each other
A second melody
Made up words
Language from Scotland used in Set Work
Counterpoint
Counter melody
Nonsense syllables
Gaelic
Raga
Rag
Tala
Rag desh
Alap
Jhor
Jhalla
RAG DESH
Improvised music in several sections based on a series of notes
from a particular rag
The ‘scale’ used in a Raga
The rhythm patterns used in a Rag
A rag played at night and monsoon season
The opening unmetered and improvised section of a raga
The second section of a raga – a medium tempo with
improvisation
The third section of a raga – a lively tempo and virtuoso display
of improvisatory skills. The climax of the whole piece
Gat
Bandish
Bols
Syncopation
Sam
Mantras
Teental
Jhaptal
Keherwa
Rupak
Meend
Tan
Bansuri
Esraj
Tambura
Tabla
Sitar
Sarangi
Sarod
Pakhawaj
Bhajan
Drone
Tihai
Ostinato
Improvisation
Cross rhythm
Polyrhythm/polyrhythmic
texture
Syncopation
The final section for an instrumental raga – a ‘fixed
composition’ with some improvisaed embellishments
The last section of a vocal raga – a ‘fixed composition’ in the
form of a song
In a tala, these are the independent rhythm parts that go
against the main beat of the cycle creating exciting
syncopations
Notes accented off the beat. The weak part of the beat is often
emphasised
The first beat of the rhythmic cycle
Individual beats in a rhythmic cycle
Common 16 beat
10 beat tala
8 beat tala
7 beat tala
Sliding between two notes
The rapid scalic flourishes on the sitar/sarod or sarangi
Indian flute without keys
Bowed fretted string instrument, like a sarangi and has
sympathetic drone strings like a sitar
Simple 4 string instrument with a resonator, used to provide
the drone
Set of 2 small drums, plays the tala
7 stringed instrument, with sympathetic strings to create the
‘twangy’ sound. Plucked
Smaller than the sitar, has no frets and is bowed
Has two sets of strings like the sitar, but is smaller, fretless and
has a metal fingerboard to slide up and down the strings
Large double headed drum
Hindu devotional song
A note that is sustained or repeated
A short repeated phrase that ends a section
KOKO: ‘YIRI’
A repeated pattern of notes
Making it up as you go along
Rhythms that literally cross the usual pattern of accented and
unaccented beats creating irregular accents and syncopated
effects
A texture made up of many different rhythms
Playing on the off beat/weaker part of a beat
Master drummer
Balaphones
Mbira
Djembe
Donno
Dundun
Vocables
Oral tradition
Call and response
Monophonic
Heterophonic
Membranophones
Lead drummer
Like xylophones, made of wood
Thumb piano
Goblet shaped drum from West Africa
Hourglass shaped ‘talking drum’ held under the arm and played
with the hand
Double headed drum (in several different sizes) played with
sticks
Effects made by the voice using vowel sounds like ‘eh’ ‘ah’ ‘oh’
Music that is learnt by listening and repeating, and passed on
orally from generation to generation (without being written
down in a traditional notation)
Question and Answer / Solo and Group reply
A musical texture of a single melodic line with no
accompaniment (beginning of the music)
A musical texture in which several parts play the same melodic
part but with slightly differences in pitch
Category of instruments tht have a drum skin (membrane)