Download INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES (INCLUDUNG GERUNDIVE AND

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
INFINITIVES AND
PARTICIPLES (INCLUDING
GERUNDIVE AND GERUND)
DEFINITIONS
•
Infinitive: A verbal noun, similar in function to the English infinitive (to love etc.).
•
Participle: An adjective formed from a verb and also functioning as a noun for people
doing, having done something etc.
–
–
•
Caesar, omnibus hostibus superātīs, Rōmam rediit.
With all his enemies defeated, Caesar returned to Rome
Dēlenda est Carthāgō
Carthage must be destroyed
Gerund: a verbal noun identical in form to the neuter singular of the gerundive. It is
not used in the nominative, for which the infinitive is used instead.
–
•
To work is to pray
Gerundive: A verbal adjective acting rather like a future passive participle (going to be
---ed) but also expressing the idea of necessity or obligation.
–
•
Labōrāre est ōrāre
Amīcōs defendendī causā pugnāvimus
We fought for the sake of defending our friends
Supine: A verbal noun identical in the accusative (-um) to the neuter singular of the
past participle and with an ablative/dative in -ū.
–
Hic liber dignus est lectū
This book is worth reading
PARTICIPLE FORMATION
•
Present:
– The –ns, -ntis ending for the present participle is normally added to the base
used in the Imperfect tense
– The verb esse had no present participle in the classical period but a form ens,
entis came into use in the Middle Ages.
– The common irregular verb eō (go) has u before the nt: iēns, euntis
– The participle declines like an ordinary third declension adjective but the ablative
singular ends in –e, not –ī if the participle is felt to be more verbal than adjectival
in meaning:
• Cum puellā canente ambulābam I was walking with a girl who was singing
• Cum puellā canentī ambulābam I was walking with a girl who was a singer
•
Perfect:
– The fourth of a verb’s four `principal parts.’
– Always ends in –tus, -sus, or –xus
•
Future:
– Formed from the perfect participle by inserting –ūr- before the endings. With
intransitive verbs, a future participle may be formed from what the perfect
participle would have been if one existed! E.g. ventūrus, about to come
PARTICIPLES
PRESENT
(ACTIVE)
PERFECT
(PASSIVE –
but ACTIVE
in
Deponents)
FUTURE
(ACTIVE)
amāns,
amantis
habēns,
habentis
regēns.
regentis
audiēns,
audientis
____
PARTICIPLES
PRESENT
(ACTIVE)
amāns,
amantis
habēns,
habentis
regēns.
regentis
audiēns,
audientis
____
PERFECT
(PASSIVE –
but ACTIVE
in
Deponents)
amātus
habitus
rēctus
audītus
____
FUTURE
(ACTIVE)
PARTICIPLES
PRESENT
(ACTIVE)
amāns,
amantis
habēns,
habentis
regēns.
regentis
audiēns,
audientis
____
PERFECT
(PASSIVE –
but ACTIVE
in
Deponents)
amātus
habitus
rēctus
audītus
____
FUTURE
(ACTIVE)
amātūrus
habitūrus
rēctūrus
audītūrus
futūrus
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M & F (Sing)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Neut
(Sing)
regēns
M & F (Plr)
Neut (Plr)
regentēs
regentia
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M & F (Sing)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Neut
(Sing)
regēns
regentis
M & F (Plr)
Neut (Plr)
regentēs
regentia
regentium
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M & F (Sing)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Neut
(Sing)
regēns
M & F (Plr)
Neut (Plr)
regentēs
regentia
regentis
regentium
regentī
regentibus
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M & F (Sing)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Neut
(Sing)
regēns
M & F (Plr)
Neut (Plr)
regentēs
regentia
regentis
regentium
regentī
regentibus
regentem regēns regentēs/īs regentia
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M & F (Sing)
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Neut
(Sing)
regēns
M & F (Plr)
Neut (Plr)
regentēs
regentia
regentis
regentium
regentī
regentibus
regentem regēns regentēs/īs regentia
regentī/e
regentibus
GERUNDIVE
•
A passive verbal adjective (sometimes described as a future passive
participle) usually formed by adding –ndus, -a, -um to the base used in
forming the imperfect tense and present participle. In the third and fourth
conjugations, u can be used instead of e :
– amābat > amandus
docēbat > docendus
– regēbat > regendus (regundus) audiēbat > audiendus (audiundus)
•
Used for expressing necessity, with the person who needs to act put in the
Dative. The most natural english translation is usually in the active voice:
– Nōbis haec vocābula ēdiscenda sunt.
We have to learn these words by heart.
– Mihi theātrum relinquendum est. I have to leave the theatre.
•
Also used in noun phrases where English would prefer the (active) gerund
in –ing or two nouns:
– Dē castrīs defendendīs colloquāmur Let’s talk about defending the camp/the
defence of the camp.
GERUND
• A verbal noun, identical to the neuter of the gerundive,
but used in the active sense.
• Equivalent to the English –ing form of the verb, which is
called a gerund when it is used like a noun but a present
participle when it is an adjective
• Can be used in a noun phrase with a noun in the
accusative in place of a gerundive phrase but this tends
to happen only when gerundive and noun both have long
endings (especially genitive plural):
– dē amīcīs defendendīs (with gerundive) is better than dē amīcōs
defendendō (with gerund)
– amīcōs defendendī causā (with gerund) is better than amīcōrum
defendendōrum causā (with gerundive)
SUPINE
• Normally identical with the neuter singular of the past participle and
therefore used as the fourth principal part of a transitive verb; not
often used in sentences.
• With īrī, forms the future passive infinitive. This is used in indirect
stement but often the construction with fore ut (to be going to be
that)plus subjunctive is preferred:
– Nōn putābam Henrīcum superātum īrī / fore ut Henrīcus superārētur
I didn’t think Henry would be defeated.
• Can be used to express purpose after a verb of motion: :
– Petrus cubitum it.
Peter goes to lie down (i.e. goes to bed) [verb is
cubō, cubāre, cubuī, cubitum ]
• There is a special ablative form in –ū which can be used with
adjectives in expressions such as mīrābile dictū (strange to say),
liber est lēctū dignus (the book is worth reading)
INFINITIVES
1.
2.
Note that most infinitives are invariable (endings do
not change) but that when they contain a perfect or
future participle, they are declined like bonus –
bona – bonum.
The future passive infinitive in –um īrī (to be going
to ____ ed) is rarely used and, where one would
expect it in indirect statement, is normally replaced
by a paraphrase with fore ut (`to be going to be
that’) plus the subjunctive:
Putāsne fore ut mīlitēs nostrī superentur?
Do you hink our soldiers will be defeated?
Putābāsne fore ut mīlitēs nostrī superārentur?
Did you think our soldiers would be defeated?
INFINITIVES
PRESENT
ACTIVE
PRESENT
PASSIVE
PERFECT
ACTIVE
PERFECT
PASSIVE
FUTURE
ACTIVE
FUTURE
PASSIVE
amāre
habēre
regere
audīre
esse
INFINITIVES
PRESENT
ACTIVE
amāre
habēre
regere
audīre
esse
PRESENT
PASSIVE
amārī
habērī
regī
audīrī
____
PERFECT
ACTIVE
PERFECT
PASSIVE
FUTURE
ACTIVE
FUTURE
PASSIVE
INFINITIVES
PRESENT
ACTIVE
amāre
habēre
regere
audīre
esse
PRESENT
PASSIVE
amārī
habērī
regī
audīrī
____
PERFECT
ACTIVE
amāvisse
habuisse
rēxisse
audīvisse
fuisse
PERFECT
PASSIVE
FUTURE
ACTIVE
FUTURE
PASSIVE
INFINITIVES
PRESENT
ACTIVE
amāre
habēre
regere
audīre
esse
PRESENT
PASSIVE
amārī
habērī
regī
audīrī
____
PERFECT
ACTIVE
amāvisse
habuisse
rēxisse
audīrī
fuisse
PERFECT
PASSIVE
amātus
esse
habitus
esse
rēctus
esse
audītus
esse
_____
FUTURE
ACTIVE
FUTURE
PASSIVE
INFINITIVES
PRESENT
ACTIVE
amāre
habēre
regere
audīre
esse
PRESENT
PASSIVE
amārī
habērī
regī
audīrī
____
PERFECT
ACTIVE
amāvisse
habuisse
rēxisse
audīrī
fuisse
PERFECT
PASSIVE
amātus
esse
habitus
esse
rēctus
esse
audītus
esse
_____
FUTURE
ACTIVE
amātūrus
esse
habitūrus
esse
rēctūrus
esse
audītūrus
esse
futūrus
esse OR
fore
FUTURE
PASSIVE
INFINITIVES
PRESENT
ACTIVE
amāre
habēre
regere
audīre
esse
PRESENT
PASSIVE
amārī
habērī
regī
audīrī
____
PERFECT
ACTIVE
amāvisse
habuisse
rēxisse
audīrī
fuisse
PERFECT
PASSIVE
amātus
esse
habitus
esse
rēctus
esse
audītus
esse
_____
FUTURE
ACTIVE
amātūrus
esse
habitūrus
esse
rēctūrus
esse
audītūrus
esse
futūrus
esse OR
fore
FUTURE
PASSIVE
amātum īrī habitum īrī rēctum īrī
audītum īrī _____