Download Ancient Rome Study Guide (with answers) 1. Explain the geography

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Ancient Rome Study Guide (with answers)
1. Explain the geography of Rome and how it made an ideal location for
civilization to develop. Be sure to include natural barriers, bodies of water,
the land and how each impacted their ability to thrive and expand.
Rome developed on the Tiber River valley. The river provided fresh water
and good land for farming. It developed away from the delta to avoid
exposure to invasion from the Mediterranean Sea. The seven hills and the
mountains provided a natural barrier of defense by land. Its location on the
Mediterranean Sea gave it access to trade routes to other major civilizations
and eventually access to land for conquering.
2. How was the geography of Rome similar and different to other civilizations
we’ve learned about this year? How did this impact the development of
Rome developed on a river valley much like the other civilizations (other than
Greece) that we have learned about this year. This gave them an ample food
supply. Like Greece, it also had access to the Mediterranean Sea, giving it the
opportunity to expand to territory surrounding the sea and to trade along the
sea trade routes.
3. Explain the levels of class within Ancient Rome. What were the roles and
responsibilities of each?
Patricians- upper class citizens, wealthy landowners that initially had the most
say in the Roman government
Plebeians- common citizens of Rome. Typically a farmer or craftsmen.
Women- had responsibilities in the household, but no say in government
Slaves- had no say in government. Typically became a slave by being
captured in war and most often worked as a farm laborer.
4. Explain the phases of government within Ancient Rome.
Rome started as a Monarchy (Romulus being the first). The people of Rome
grew tired of being ruled by one decision maker and eventually overthrew the
last king, Tarquinius Superbus and created the Roman Republic. The Roman
Republic gave all citizens a say in decision making within government. They
did this through elected officials. Initially the Patricians (upper class people)
had more say, but eventually changes were made to better represent the
Plebeians (common citizens). Slaves and women had no say. As Rome
expanded, military leaders gained more power. One general, Julius Caesar
gained enough power and support from the Plebeians and his military that he
declared himself dictator for life. He was killed because the top officials in the
Republic felt threatened by his power. Following his death, other emperors
took control thus starting the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire existed
until eventually power struggles cause the entire Empire to fall to barbarian
invaders leading to the start of the Middle Ages.
5. After becoming a republic, the Roman Senate would have only appointed a
dictator in what type of situation?
Only in times of crisis, such as war or coming under attack.
6. As the Roman Empire first began to expand, it initially expanded along the
coast of what body of water? Why does this make sense?
The Mediterranean Sea. This makes sense because they had easy access to the
sea and real estate along the sea was valuable due to trade access to other
7. Who fought in the Punic Wars? Why were they fighting? What was the
Rome fought Carthage. Initially they fought for rights to trade routes on the
Mediterranean Sea. The result was that Rome conquered Carthage
(Northern Africa, along the Mediterranean Sea).
8. What events took place in the Coliseum? What was the purpose of these
Gladiator fights and Chariot Races. The purpose was to entertain the
Plebeians and distract them and keep them from rebelling against the
9. What were some of the innovations made by the Romans during the Pax
Romana/ The Golden Age of Rome? How did these innovations impact the
Ancient Roman Civilization?
Aqueducts- made life better for the Romans by bringing water into the city
and even into some homes.
Roads- helped with trade and with getting supplies to the military
Census- helped with properly taxing citizens.
Art/Architecture- influenced by Greek Art, but more practical than the art of
Ancient Greece.
10. The Roman monetary system had which benefit over the barter system?
Money (coins) was (were) easier to travel with that other goods for trade. It
also standardized the cost of goods.
11) What led to tax increases near the end of the Roman Empire?
The need to pay for defense against the barbarians.
12) After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, most of Europe was ruled by
Germanic Tribes
13) What caused political instability later in the Roman Empire?
Fighting over power among different emperors.
14) The decline of the Roman Empire was accelerated by which factor?
Invasion by the barbarians (Germanic Tribes)
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