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ATOMS, IONS, AND ISOTOPES
ATOMS
SUBATOMIC PARTICLES
Atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
The protons (+) and neutrons (0) are found in the
nucleus and are the same size
The electrons (-) are much smaller and can be found
orbiting the nucleus in the electron cloud
ATOMIC STRUCTURE: THE
NUCLEUS
The nucleus contains the protons
and neutrons, leaving it with a
positive charge.
Almost the entire mass of an atom
is found in the tiny nucleus at its
center
ATOMIC STRUCTURE: THE
ELECTRON CLOUD
The electrons can be
found orbiting the nucleus,
in the electron cloud
THE CHARGE OF AN ATOM
Atoms, by definition, have
a neutral charge.
This happens because the
positive protons and the
negative electrons cancel
each other out.
IONS AND ISOTOPES
IONS
Atoms with a charge
How do they form?
Atoms can gain or lose electrons
Gaining electrons  Negative charge
Losing electrons  Positive charge
ISOTOPES
Atoms of the same
element with different
masses
-12
This happens naturally.
Some atoms have more
neutrons than others
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