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Name
Date
Class
Forces in Earth’s Crust
Inquiry Warm-Up, How Does Stress Affect Earth’s Crust?
In the Inquiry Warm-Up, you investigated how force can affect matter. Using what you
learned from that activity, answer the questions below.
1. OBSERVE What happened to the craft stick in Step 1?
2. OBSERVE What happened to the craft stick in Step 2?
3. INFER How did you store energy in the craft stick?
4. DRAW CONCLUSIONS How was the energy stored in the craft stick
released?
Name
Date
Forces in Earth’s Crust
How Does Stress Change Earth’s Crust?
I get it! Now I know that stress changes Earth’s crust by changing the
I need extra help with
How Do Faults Form?
1a. REVIEW When enough stress builds up in brittle rock, the rock breaks,
causing a(n)
to form.
b. INFER A geologist sees a fault along which blocks of rock in the
footwall have moved higher relative to blocks of rock in the hanging
wall. What type of fault is this?
I get it! Now I know that faults form when
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Class
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Forces in Earth’s Crust
How Does Plate Movement Create New Landforms?
2a. REVIEW Normal faults often occur when two plates
(come together/pull apart).
b. INTERPRET DIAGRAMS Look at the diagram that accompanies the
photograph in Figure 5. Does the block of rock in the middle move up
as a result of movement along the normal faults? Explain.
I get it! Now I know that plate movements create new features by
I need extra help with
Class
Name
Date
Forces in Earth’s Crust
In the space below, explain how stress causes movement at faults.
Class
Name
Date
Forces in Earth’s Crust
Understanding Main Ideas
Use the diagrams below to complete items 1–9.
Diagram A
1. Type of Fault:
2. Stress Force:
3. Movement Along Fault:
Diagram B
4. Type of Fault:
5. Stress Force:
6. Movement Along Fault:
Diagram C
7. Type of Fault:
8. Stress Force:
9. Movement Along Fault:
Building Vocabulary
Write a definition for each of these terms on a separate sheet of paper.
10. shearing
11. plateau
Class
Name
Date
Class
Forces in Earth’s Crust
Each picture below shows how an earthquake changed the land surface at a fault.
Examine the pictures carefully. Decide what kind of fault is shown in each. Then explain
how movement along the fault caused the changes you see. Write your answers in the
spaces provided.
Evidence of Movement Along Faults
1. Fault 1
2. Fault 2
3. Fault 3
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Date
Class
Forces in Earth’s Crust
Fill in the blank to complete each statement.
1. Stress is a(n)
that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
2. The collision of two plates causes the formation of
mountains.
3. When two plates move away from each other
created.
faults are
4. A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level is a(n)
.
5. Tension can cause the formation of fault-block mountains or
.
6. A fold in rock that bends upward into an arch is a(n)
.
Write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left.
7.
The stress force that pulls on the crust
and thins rock in the middle is
A shearing
B compression
C tension
D uplifting
9.
A fault in which the rocks on either
side of the fault move sideways past each
other is a
A slip-strike fault
B normal fault
C hanging fault
D reverse fault
8.
The stress force that squeezes rock
until it folds or breaks is
A shearing
B compression
C tension
D uplifting
10.
A
B
C
D
Compression causes the formation of
only anticlines
only synclines
both anticlines and synclines
neither anticlines nor synclines
Forces in Earth’s Crust
Answer Key
1. The craft stick bent.
2. The craft stick returned part of the way to its
original shape.
3. Energy is stored in the craft stick when it is
bent.
4. The energy stored in the craft stick was
released in Step 2 when it returned to its
original shape and in Step 4 when it broke.
Stress is a force that stretches rock, squeezes rock,
or pushes rock in opposite directions. Stress builds
up at faults until rock moves along the fault.
1. Strike-slip fault: The two blocks of rock on
either side of the fault moved sideways in
opposite directions. The road and fences broke
at the fault line, and the two halves of each
structure were displaced.
2. Reverse fault: The block in the foreground (the
hanging wall) moved upward along the fault.
The river could no longer flow across the fault.
Instead, the water collected at the base of the
fault (on the footwall) to form a lake. Without
water flowing into it, the part of the river on
the hanging wall ran dry.
3. Normal fault: The block in the foreground
(the hanging wall) moved downward along
the fault, creating a waterfall where the river
crosses the fault.
1. reverse fault
2. compression
3. hanging wall moves up.
4. normal fault
5. tension
6. hanging wall moves down.
7. strike-slip fault
8. shearing
9. Blocks move sideways in opposite directions.
10. stress that moves rock in two opposite
directions
11. a large area of flat land elevated high above
sea level
1. force
2. folded
3. normal
4. plateau
5. valleys
6. anticline
7. C
8. B
9. A
10. C