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Overview of
Carbohydrate Digestion
and Metabolism
FST/AN/HN 761
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FST 761
Dr. Jeff Firkins – Carbohydrates
Dr. Josh Bomser – Lipids
TA- Amy Long, MS
Reading / Writing Assignments
Text - Biochemical and Physiological Aspects of
Human Nutrition- Martha H. Stipanuk.
Today – Overview of carbohydrates (Jan 7)
Carbohydrates
•Carbohydrates are called carbohydrates because they
are essentially hydrates of carbon (i.e. they are
composed of carbon and water and have a
composition of (CH2O)n.
•The major nutritional role of carbohydrates is to
provide energy and digestible carbohydrates provide
4 kilocalories per gram. No single carbohydrate is
essential, but carbohydrates do participate in many
required functions in the body.
Photosynthesis: Sun’s energy becomes part of glucose molecule
energy
Carbon dioxide
Water
Chlorophyll
GLUCOSE
6 CO2 + 6 H20 + energy (sun)
C6H12O6 + 6 O2
120 grams of glucose / day = 480 calories
Simple Sugars -
Disaccharides
Complex carbohydrates
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Oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Starch
 Glycogen
 Dietary fiber (Dr. Firkins)
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Starch
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Major storage carbohydrate
in higher plants
Amylose – long straight
glucose chains (a1-4)
Amylopectin – branched
every 24-30 glc residues (a 16)
Provides 80% of dietary
calories in humans worldwide
Glycogen
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Major storage
carbohydrate in animals
Long straight glucose
G
chains (a1-4)
G
Branched every 4-8 glc
residues (a 1-6)
a 1-4 link
More branched than
starch
Less osmotic pressure
Easily mobilized
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
a 1-6 link
G
G
G
G
Digestion
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Pre-stomach – Salivary amylase : a 1-4 endoglycosidase
G
a 1-4 link
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
G
amylase
a 1-6 link
G
G
G
G
G
G a Limit
G G
G
G G
G G
G
dextrins
maltotriose
G G
G
maltose
G
G
isomaltose
Stomach
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Not much carbohydrate digestion
Acid and pepsin to unfold proteins
Ruminants have forestomachs with extensive
microbial populations to breakdown and
anaerobically ferment feed
Small Intestine
Pancreatic enzymes
a-amylase
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maltotriose
G G G
G G G G G
amylose
G G
a amylase
G G G G G
G G G G G G
amylopectin
+
maltose
G G G
G G G
a Limit dextrins
Oligosaccharide digestion..cont
G G G
a Limit dextrins
G
sucrase
G G G
G G
G
maltase
G
G G
Glucoamylase (maltase)
or
a-dextrinase
a-dextrinase
G G G
G
G G G
G
G G G
G
Small intestine
Portal for transport of virtually
all nutrients
Water and electrolyte balance
Enzymes associated with
intestinal surface membranes
i. Sucrase
ii. a dextrinase
iii. Glucoamylase (maltase)
iv. Lactase
v. peptidases
Carbohydrate absorption
Hexose transporter
apical
basolateral
Glucose and galactose absorption
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Read Chapter 5 and answer the questions on
page 102 of Stipanuk. Be prepared to
discuss them on Friday
Carbohydrate malabsorption
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Lactose intolerance (hypolactasia),
page 100.
Decline lactase with age
Lactose fermented in LI –
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b 1-4 linkage
Gas and volatile FA
Water retention – diarrhea/bloating
Not all populations
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Northern European – low incidence
Asian/African Americans – High
Metabolism – the chemical changes
that take place in a cell that produce
energy and basic materials needed for
important life processes
-millions of cells
-Multiple organs (liver, adipose, heart, brain)
-Thousands of enzymes
-Various conditions (fed, fasted, exercise, stress)
Carbohydrates
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Serve as primary source of energy in the cell
Central to all metabolic processes
Glucose
Cytosol - anaerobic
Hexokinase
Pentose
Phosphate
Shunt
Glucose-6-P
glycolysis
Pyruvate
Glc-1- phosphate
glycogen
cytosol
mitochondria
(aerobic)
Pyruvate
Aceytl CoA
FATTY ACIDS
Krebs
cycle
AMINO
ACIDS
Reducing
equivalents
Oxidative
Phosphorylation
(ATP)
No mitochondria
Glucose
Glycogen
Lactate
Glucose
Glucose
Glucose
The Full
Monty
Fasted State
Glucose
G-6-Pase
Pentose
Phosphate
Shunt
Hexokinase
Glucose-6-P
GNG
glycolysis
Pyruvate
Need 13.8 kJ/mol
ATP = -30 kJ/mol
-16.7 kJ/mol
Glc-1- phosphate
glycogen
Controlling Metabolic Flux
1. Control enzyme levels
2. Control of enzyme activity (activation or inhibition)
Control of enzyme activity
Rate limiting step
insulin
IR
P
Protein Kinase B
(inactive)
Glycogen synthase kinase
(active)
P
Glycogen synthase
(inactive)
OH
Protein Kinase B
(active)
P
OH
synthase kinase
P Glycogen(inactive)
OH
Glycogen synthase
(active)
Glycogen formation
Controlling Metabolic Flux
1. Control enzyme levels
2. Control of enzyme activity (activation or inhibition)
3. Compartamentalization
Fatty acid oxidation occurs in mitochondrial matrix
Fatty acid synthesis occurs in endoplasmic reticulum membrane exposed
to the cytoplasm of the cell.
4. Hormonal control
Glucose utilization
Stage 1 – postparandial
All tissues utilize glucose
Stage 2 – postabsorptive
KEY – Maintain blood glucose
Glycogenolysis
Glucogneogenesis
Lactate
Pyruvate
Glycerol
AA
Propionate
Spare glucose by metabolizing fat
Stage 3- Early starvation
Gluconeogenesis
Stave 4 – Intermediate starvation
gluconeogenesis
Ketone bodies
Stage 5 – Starvation
Carbohydrate Metabolism/
Utilization- Tissue Specificity
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Muscle – cardiac and skeletal
 Oxidize glucose/produce and store glycogen (fed)
 Breakdown glycogen (fasted state)
 Shift to other fuels in fasting state (fatty acids)
Adipose and liver
 Glucose  acetyl CoA
 Glucose to glycerol for triglyceride synthesis
 Liver releases glucose for other tissues
Nervous system
 Always use glucose except during extreme fasts
Reproductive tract/mammary
 Glucose required by fetus
 Lactose  major milk carbohydrate
Red blood cells
 No mitochondria
 Oxidize glucose to lactate
 Lactate returned to liver for Gluconeogenesis