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6/22/16
TheOralLaw- 2
A PRIME R F O RME S S IA NIC BE LIE V E RS
ME S S IA NIC PA S T O RRICK A RII
BE T H DA V IDME S S IA NIC CO NGRE GAT IO N
BETH DAVID MESSIAN IC CON G REG ATION
Review:
Let’sgetstarted!
DiscussexistingperceptionsandknowledgeregardingJewish
literatureand“Talmud”specifically.WhystudyTalmud?
TheimportanceofRabbinicLiteratureforbelieversin
MessiahYeshua
JewishRole– ACovenant People(GiftandCalling)
◦ Guarding theCovenant: Exodus19:1-6,Deuteronomy
29:1,10-15
◦ Keeping theCovenant: Exodus21:12,17
Theunderlying questionofTalmud:HowdoweguardGod’s
Covenant?How dowekeep(do)it?
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Session2
ThesecondsessionwillexplorewhatdefinesJudaismand
itscorefoundation intheTorah.
Theconceptof“TheDualTorah”willbeintroduced, along
withadiscussionofthepluralityofJudaisms,andtheneed
forunityindiaspora.
Theconceptof“law”willbediscussed.
AnoverviewofthehistoryoftheTalmudicera(250BC–
600AD)willbeconsidered.TheMishnah,Gemara,and
Talmudwillbeintroduced.
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WhatdefinesJudaism?
ØAcommonhistory(Exo 19:1-4)
ØAncient– Torah
ØLessAncient– Philo(Alexandria)andJosephus(Rome/Israel)
ØArchaeology(physicalproof/verification)
ØAcommonlanguage
ØHebrew
ØAramaic
ØAcommonland– Eretz Yisra’el
ØAcommonsource
ØYHVH/GodofAbraham,Isaac,Jacob
ØHebrewBible
ØTalmud(TraditionalJewish)
ØApostolicWritings(MessianicJewish)
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Adaptation– Development
overtime
“Theriseoftherabbinic formofJudaism,with itsdetailedemphasison
Jewishlawandritual ontheonehand, anditsabilitytoadaptand
developontheother, wasnoaccident. Judaismneededjustsucha
combination ofqualities toprovidebothconstancyandresponsiveness.
Theconcept ofthedualTorah, written andoral, gaveRabbinicJudaism
thatflexibility, definingtheinterpretations ofthelaterrabbisashaving
Mosaicauthority andstandinginacontinuous chainoftradition. Atthe
sametime,strict adherence totheprinciples ofJewishlawmeantthat
Talmudic Judaismcouldstandfirmagainstthechallengesposedby
Christianity andthenbyIslam.
FortherabbisoftheTalmud,“Hear, OIsrael,theLord ourGod, theLord
isOne”(Deut.6:4)meantthatnoprophetic figurecould riseabovethe
statusofmortal man.“Andthou shaltlovetheLordthyGodwith allthy
soul, andwithallthymight” (Deut.6:5)meantthatlifewastobelived
according tothelawoftheTorah.“(Schiffman,pg 15-16)
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SectswithinJudaism
ØInteractiverelationships WITHINJewishreligion, lifeandculture
ØSadduceesandPharisees– Acts23:8
ØThe Way– ASignificantsectofJudaisminthefirstcentury
Ø Acts9:2,11:26,24:14
ØDiscerning theperceivedseparationofJudaismandChristianity
ØCommonnon-messianicmisinterpretation/misunderstanding:
Ø“FromaJewishperspective, ChristianitywasaJewishsect untilitsfollowers
rejected theneed toobservethelaws intheTorah.Thisbreak occurred
specificallywhenPaulextendedhismissionamongtheGentileswithout
requiringthem toundergoformalconversiontoJudaismortoobserve
Jewishlaw. Forexample, theGentileswere notrequiredtoundergo
circumcision,keepdietarylaws, orobservetheSabbath.” (“JesusandHisJewish
Influences,” TheGreatCourses)
ØActs15:21andActs18:11-17(PaulinCorinth)
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SectswithinJudaism
Ø Historical Relationships
ØPreandPost70AD(destructionofTemple/Jerusalem)
Ø Sadduceesdisappear
Ø PhariseesdefineRabbinicJudaism
ØPhysicalRelationships
ØEretz Yisra’el (TheLandofIsrael)
ØDiaspora(DispersionofJewsthroughoutthenations)
ØThedevelopingneedforunification andadaptation
ØHowdowesurviveasa covenantpeople
ØHowtoguardandkeepthecovenantindiaspora?
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DualTorah
Ø Written Torah
ØGivenbyGodonMt.Sinai
ØWrittendownbyMosesnearhisdeath
ØGiventothepeoplejustbeforecrossingtheJordanintoTheLand
Ø613CommandmentsperMaimonides(1135-1204)
Ø RabbiMosesbenMaimon,the“Rambam”
Ø 248positivecommands
Ø 365negativecommands
ØTanakh (moreexpansivesenseofTorah)
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DualTorah
Ø OralTorah
ØGivenbyGodonMt.Sinai
ØSpokenverbally byGodtoMoses
Ø Expressedasprinciples,notnecessarilyverbatim– GodtaughtMosesprinciples,laidfoundations
thatareinthewrittentextthatwouldbethebasisforengenderingnewcommands,rules,laws,
traditions,etc.inordertoguardandkeeptheWrittenTorah.
ØAuthoritativelyTransmitted witha charge
Ø PassedfromtheoneprimaryleaderofIsraeltothenextwhowouldsucceedhim
Ø Pirke Avot – ChapterofTheFathers(ca.250-500,butbasedonMishnahca.200)
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Pirke Avot – ChaptersofThe
Fathers
ØMoshe,Yehoshua,Elders,Prophets,MenoftheGreatAssembly
ØShimontheRighteous
ØAntigonus ofSokho
Ø1.Yose benYoezer /Yose benYochanan
Ø2.Yehoshua benPerachiah /Nitai ofArbel
Ø3.Yehudah benTabai/ShimonbenShetach
Ø4.Shemayah /Avtalyon
Ø5.Hillel /Shammai
Ø Gamliel (Paul’smaster)
Ø SimeonbenGamliel,Gamaliel II,SimeonII(postBarKochba),Judahha
Nasi (sponsoroftheMishnah)
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Excursus:Law–
WrittenandOral
Ø ThereisnooralTorahwithout thewritten Torah
ØThereisnofulfilling thewritten without theoral
ØWithouttheinsightoftheoral,thewrittencannotbeknown,asifitdoes
notexist.
Ø HolyQuestions
ØDoesthewrittentake intoconsiderationallthepossibilities?
Ø Howcanthenationbewhatit issupposedtobewithouttheoraltoinform
thewritten?
ØPurpose ofTorahasLaw- Examples
ØTrafficLaw – freedomandequilibrium
ØDon’tboilakidinitsmothersmilk?Whatdoesthathavetodowithmy
cheeseburger?
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TheRabbinicCanon
ØMishnah
ØCommentary onTorah
ØCodifiedca.200CE
ØVoicesfrom250BCE– 200CE
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Mishnah– Commentaryon
Torah
Mishnah
Torah
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TheRabbinicCanon
ØMishnah
ØCommentary onTorah
ØCodifiedca.200CE
ØVoicesfrom250BCE– 200CE
ØGemara
ØCommentary onMishnah
ØDevelopedintwodifferentschools
Ø Insidetheland(Jerusalem/Palestinian/Yerushalmi)
Ø Outsidetheland(Babylonian/Bavil)
ØYerushalmi Talmud Codifiedca.400CE
ØBavli Talmud Codifiedca.600CE
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Gemara – Commentaryon
Mishnah
Gemara
Mishnah
Torah
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Mishnah+Gemara=Talmud
Gemara
Mishnah
Torah
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Mishnah+Yerushalmi Gemara
=Yerushalmi Talmud
Gemara-Y
Mishnah
Torah
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Mishnah+Bavli Gemara
=Bavli Talmud
Gemara-B
Mishnah
Torah
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TheRabbinicCanon
ØMishnah
ØCommentary onTorah
ØCodifiedca.200CE
ØVoicesfrom250BCE– 200CE
ØGemara
ØCommentary onMishnah
ØDevelopedintwodifferentschools
Ø Insidetheland(Jerusalem/Palestinian/Yerushalmi)
Ø Outsidetheland(Babylonian/Bavil)
ØYerushalmi Talmud Codifiedca.400CE
ØBavli Talmud Codifiedca.600CE
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Assignmentfornextweek…
ReadNehemiahChapter 8.
Summarizeitin250wordsorless,payingcarefulattention tohowEzra
reads,interprets, andteachesfromScripture.
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