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6th Grade Science
Geology Unit Information
Milestones Domain/Weight: Geology 40%
Purpose/Goal(s): Students studying Geology in Grade 6 will investigate how Earth’s surface is
formed, describe processes that change Earth, and explain the physical effects of these
processes. Grade 6 students should be able to compare the physical and chemical composition
of the crust, mantle, and core. They should describe the formation of rocks and fossils and the
composition of soil. They should also explain how human activity causes erosion and describe
methods of conservation.
Content Map: Geology Content Map
Geology Study/Resource Guide
Content from Frameworks: Geology Content from the Frameworks
Prerequisites: Elementary Standards for Geology
Unit Length: Geology Concepts 1-3 approximately 22 days [Geology 1 Test]
Geology Concept 4 approximately 14 days [Geology 2 Test]
Geology Concept 4 approximately 17 days [Geology 3 Test]
Geology 1 Unit Test Study Guide | Geology 1 Unit Test Study Guide KEY
Geology 2 Unit Test Study Guide | Geology 2 Unit Test Study Guide KEY
Geology 3 Unit Test Study Guide | Geology 3 Unit Test Study Guide KEY
Click on the links below for resources by Essential Question:
EQ 1: How are layers of the Earth different from one another?
EQ 2: How does the constant movement of lithospheric plates cause major
geological events on the earth’s surface?
EQ 3: How is the ocean floor like the surface of the Earth?
EQ 4: What is the composition of rocks and how are they formed?
EQ 5: How do fossils show evidence of the changing surface and climate of the Earth?
EQ 6: How do changes in the Earth’s surface occur over time?
EQ 7: How is soil formed?
EQ 8: How does human activity affect the Earth’s surface?
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Standard(s):
S6E5a. Compare and
contrast the Earth’s crust,
mantle, and core including
temperature, density, and
composition.
1. How are layers of the
Earth different from one
another? (temperature,
density, composition)
Textbook page 280,309
Vocabulary
Essential*
Core
Mantle
Crust
Density
Temperature
Composition
Supplemental**
dense
magma
molten
metallic
geologic
hot spots
lithosphere
radioactive decay
convection currents
lithospheric plates
uranium (inner core)
geothermal energy
asthenosphere
oceanic crust
continental crust
*Essential Vocabulary
listed in the Standards
Resources [Back to Top]
The resources below are set up in a model lesson format. The ppt
provides guidance for the entire lesson including activating, teaching
and summarizing strategies. The activities listed below the ppt are used
during the lesson and are identified in the ppt for use where they are
most likely appropriate. The resources can be used as an entire lesson
or pulled out for use separately.
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**Supplemental
Vocabulary listed in
the state frameworks
and/or other state
document

TCSS
Assessment

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S6E5a. Sample
Assessment Items
S6E5a. GOFAR CR
Layers of the Earth
Layers of the Earth ppt
Layers of the Earth Foldable
Earth Cross Section Diagram | Layers of the Earth Blank Diagrams
[use these for formative assessment or quizzes]
Layers of the Earth Slipcover Review – Put unlabeled earth
diagrams in clear slipcovers. Give each student a slipcover, vis-à-vis
or expo marker, and paper towel (a sock is also good and cheaper).
Call out layers and have students mark the layer and hold up their
slipcover when instructed.
Layers of the Earth Review
Layers of the Earth Summarizer
Differentiation – after completing the Layers of the Earth
Summarizer, place students in one of three differentiated groups.
Students may be placed in groups of 2-3 to complete the activities.
o Level 1 – Layers of the Earth Flashcards [could be used to
play Kaboom or another game]
o Level 2 – Layers of the Earth Tic-Tac-Toe
o Level 3 – Layers of the Earth Cube Review
o Layers of the Earth Differentiated Task
Additional Models and Organizers
o Earth’s Structure Model
o Layers of the Earth Circle Model
o http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/earth-layerschemical-physical-properties/
o Edible Models – If you do an edible model, be sure to have
the students compare the layers in regards to temperature,
pressure, and density as a review.
 Candy Earth Model
 Eating Earth’s Layers
Songs about Layers of the Earth
o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RiHRI_Z2Kgs [linked in
2/21/2016
2
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Vocabulary
Resources [Back to Top]
Assessment
ppt]
Layers of the Earth Educational Rap with Images | Layers of
the Earth Educational Rap | Lyrics
Internet Resources
o Annenberg Learning: Interactives Dynamic Earth [linked in
ppt]
o
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TCSS
2/21/2016
3
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Standard(s):
S6E5e. Recognize that
lithospheric plates
constantly move and cause
major geological events on
the earth’s surface.
2. How does the constant
movement of lithospheric
plates cause major
geological events on the
earth’s surface?
Textbook page 280-345
Vocabulary
Essential*
Geological
Lithospheric plates
Supplemental**
Fault
Rifting
Volcanoes
Normal Fault
Subduction
Fold
Pangaea
Transform
Divergent
Earthquakes
Convergent
Reverse fault
Plate tectonics
Plate boundary
Strike-slip fault
Mountain building
Seafloor spreading
Hydrothermal vent
Mid-ocean ridge
Convection currents
Resources [Back to Top]
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*Essential Vocabulary
listed in the Standards
**Supplemental
Vocabulary listed in the
state frameworks and/or
other state document

TCSS
Activator – Watch Ice Age: Scrat Continental Crack Up video clip
and have students either answer individually or with a partner the
following questions: (1) Which part(s) of Scrat’s adventure is
accurate? (2) Which part(s) of Scrat’s adventure is not accurate?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zocutif0cQY
Geological Events ppt
Geological Events Notes – the ppt contains slides at the end of
each type of boundary that illustrates how the diagrams should be
completed on the notes chart
Pangea Flipbook – only shows that the continents changed; it does
not show evidence
Continental Drift Evidence – Select one of the following or
differentiate by giving higher groups the mystery and the lower
groups one of the maps
o Continental Drift Mystery
o Puzzling Continental Drift Evidence
o Continental Drift Continents Map
Age of Ocean Crust Activity
Seafloor Spreading Activities – select one
o A Model of Seafloor Spreading – paper version
o Seafloor Spreading Desk Model
o http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/plate-tectonicsfloating-crustal-sections/
o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OGi1h0qvMX4
Plate Boundary Analysis Activity
Simple Convergent Boundary Models or Demonstrations
o Give students or groups of students Aluminum Foil square
approximately 20 cm X 20 cm. Students should draw a line
down the center of the aluminum foil square with a marker.
This line is the imaginary plate boundary. Students place their
hands side by side on the aluminum foil with the line, or
boundary, running between them. Students push their hands
slowly toward each other while observing what occurs at the
plate boundary.
o http://thehomeschoolden.blogspot.com/2011/02/earth-sciencehow-fold-mountains-are.html
Plate Boundary Activities – all activities are not necessary.
Possibly select two activities and use others for reinforcement or
2/21/2016
Assessment
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S6E5e. Sample
Assessment Items
S6E5e. GOFAR
CR Mountains
S6E5e. GOFAR
CR Tectonic Plate
Boundaries
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4
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Vocabulary
Resources [Back to Top]
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TCSS
Assessment
extension.
o Push Those Plates Activity or similar activity | Graham Cracker
Earthquake (additional ideas and explanations for using the
graham crackers)
o Milky Way Plate Tectonics
o Oreo Plate Tectonics
o Peanut Butter Ridge
o Plate Boundary Cootie Catcher
o Plate Tectonics Vocabulary Match
o Meet the Boundary Activity
o Types of Plate Boundaries Map Identification – more for
extension
o Colliding Plates Inquiry Task
Earthquake Activities
o Earthquakes: They’re Definitely Not Your FAULT!
Demonstration
o Model of Three Faults Activity – Students do not have to know
the different types of faults. Use the activity to demonstrate the
effects of the different directions of movement
o http://thehomeschoolden.blogspot.com/2011/02/earth-scienceplate-movement.html
o Use a sponge to demonstrate the how the earth’s surface
bends under stress. Use the link to help structure the quick
activity, but do not require students to know the different types
of stress on rocks that cause earthquakes.
http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/crustal-bending/
o My Teacher Caused an Earthquake – conduct in a location
other than the classroom that has been pre-approved
Geological Events Formative Assessment [covers earthquakes and
volcanoes]
Geological Events Summarizer/Formative Assessment
Differentiation – Use the summarizer as the formative assessment
component to determine differentiated groups. These are possible
tasks for each level if they have not already been used.
o Level 1 – Geological Event Review Cards
o Level 2 – Types of Plate Boundaries Map Identification A
o Level 3 - Types of Plate Boundaries Map Identification B
Videos
2/21/2016
5
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Vocabulary
Resources [Back to Top]
Assessment
o

TCSS
http://www.sciencechannel.com/tv-shows/greatestdiscoveries/videos/100-greatest-discoveries-continental-drift/
[linked in ppt]
o http://www.sciencechannel.com/tv-shows/greatestdiscoveries/videos/100-greatest-discoveries-sea-floorspreading/ [linked in ppt]
o Short summary of divergent and convergent
o Crust in Pieces Song [linked in ppt]
o Plate Tectonics Song [linked in ppt]
o How the Earth is Changing
o Volcanoes
 How Volcanoes Formed [linked in ppt] 4:48
 Ring of Fire Eruption Song [linked in ppt]
o Earthquakes
 Earthquake is like a drip of water video
 It’s An Earthquake Song
o Tsunami
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0NfKZAiWRoE [1:01]
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tPQ5iTcnXW0 [14:49]
This video is not necessary if you play the other video. It
just shows a longer time period of the water receding and
then slowly coming back until the larger waves come in
flooding the area.
 Crust Rolls Up Tsunami Song [linked in ppt]
Online Animations/Resources
o http://www.geo.cornell.edu/hawaii/220/PRI/continental_puzzle.
html - Try to reconstruct Pangea
o Processes that occur along plate boundaries [linked
individually in ppt]
o Convergent:
 http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/conten
t/visualizations/es1105/es1105page01.cfm?chapter_no=vis
ualization [Formation of the Himalayan Mountains linked in
ppt]
o Formation of Volcanic Islands over a hot spot [linked in ppt]
o Earthquakes and Faults [linked in ppt]
 Savage Earth Animations
 Faults: Students do not have to identify the different faults
2/21/2016
6
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Vocabulary
Resources [Back to Top]
o
o
TCSS
Assessment
this is just for illustration
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/conten
t/visualizations/es1103/es1103page01.cfm?chapter_no=vis
ualization [linked in ppt]
Tsunami:
 http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/tsunami/index_hig
h.jsp?id=intro
 http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/tsunami_story.html [click on
the picture for animation; embedded in ppt]
Earthquakes & Tsunamis Webquest
2/21/2016
7
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Standard:
S6E3c. Describe the
composition, location, and
subsurface topography
of the world’s oceans.
3. How is the ocean floor
like the surface of the
Earth?
Textbook page 542-548
Vocabulary
Essential*
Subsurface
Topography
Resources [Back to Top]
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Seafloor Features
Seafloor Foldable Notes [optional]
Seafloor Vocabulary Flashcards
The Ocean Floor Revealed [1:51]
Assessment
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Supplemental**
Trench
Plains
Valleys
Geysers
Seamounts
Mountains
Abyssal plain
Continental slope
Subduction zone
Mid-ocean ridge
Continental plain
Continental shelf
Hydrothermal vents
S6E3c. Sample
Assessment Items
S6E3c. GOFAR
CR World Ocean
S6E3c. GOFAR
CR Ocean Floor
*Essential Vocabulary
listed in the Standards
**Supplemental
Vocabulary listed in the
state frameworks and/or
other state document
TCSS
2/21/2016
8
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Standard(s):
S6E5b. Investigate the
contribution of minerals to
rock composition.
S6E5c. Classify rocks by
their process of formation.
S6E5d. Describe
processes that change
rocks and the surface of
the Earth.
4. What is the composition
of rocks and how are they
formed?
Textbook page 63-109
Vocabulary
Essential*
Rocks
Mineral
Formation
Composition
Supplemental**
Igneous
Sedimentary (Sediment)
Metamorphic
Rock Cycle
Magma
Hardness
Texture
Compacted
Foliation
Cemented
Lithification
Volcanic ash
Organic matter
Fine-grained
Coarse-grained
Chemical compound
Metamorphism
Crystallizes
Recrystallized
Glassy
Silicate
Resources [Back to Top]
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*Essential Vocabulary
listed in the Standards
**Supplemental
Vocabulary listed in the
state frameworks and/or
other state document
TCSS

Minerals and Rocks ppt
Rocks Graphic Organizer - to take notes during ppt
Mineral Resources
o Designing Minerals with Legos
o Mineral Mania Web Hunt
o Bicycle Minerals | Bicycle Minerals Key
o Cell Phone Minerals | Cell Phone Minerals Key
o Soccer Minerals | Soccer Minerals Key
o Television Minerals | Television Minerals Key
Mineral Identification Activity – This optional activity will vary from
school to school depending on resources; therefore, there are no
specific directions. Sample Mineral Identification Activity |
Sample Mineral Identification Activity 2
Another option is to take students to the computer lab and do a
virtual mineral identification lab such as K12 Virtual Labs: Rocks
and Minerals [have students View Walk-through first] *Note:
Based on state documentation, students do not have to know
specifics on minerals. The standard is about the contribution of
minerals to rock composition. Therefore, if you do a mineral
identification lab, focus on just the main tests such as hardness,
streak, luster, cleavage/fracture, etc.
Demonstrating Folds in Metamorphic Rocks | Hotwire High Jinks
Demonstration (rocks changing due to heat, pressure, and
folding)
Types of Rock Sorting Activity
Rock Cycle Label – the students will follow along with the
teacher and the ppt to complete the rock cycle
Locating the Types of Rock on Earth handout
Weathering & Erosion Summary Handout – this is intended to
provide a short summary for students on weathering and erosion.
These concepts will be taught in-depth later in the unit. However,
to understand the rock cycle, students need a basic
understanding of the concepts.
Rock Cycle Activities – possible activities, but all of the activities
are not necessary
o Ride the Rock Cycle (Journey on the Rock Cycle)
o Rock Cycle Shuffle
o Rock Cycle Formative Assessment
2/21/2016
Assessment
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GOFAR CR
Minerals and Rock
GOFAR CR Rock
Formation
GOFAR CR Rock
Cycle
GOFAR CR Rock
Cycle 2
GOFAR CR PB&J
Rock Model
S6E5b. Sample
Assessment Items
S6E5c. Sample
Assessment Items
S6E5d. Sample
Assessment Items
9
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Standard(s) and
Essential Question
Vocabulary
Resources [Back to Top]
Assessment
o
o
o
o
o
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TCSS
Sugar Rock Cycle
Rock Wheel Cycle
Crayon Rock Cycle
Rock Cycle Roundabout
Rock Cycle Vocabulary from
http://mjksciteachingideas.com/rocks.html
Rocks Summarizer
Videos and Online Resources
o Minerals
 A Brief Introduction to Minerals [10:21]
 Minerals Song
o Igneous Rock
 How do Igneous Rock Form? Animation [linked in ppt]
 Igneous Rocks [4:15]
o Metamorphic Rock
 Animation of Metamorphic Rocks Forming
o Rock Cycle
 Study Jams: Rock Cycle
 Mr. Parr’s Rock Cycle Song [linked in ppt]
 Mr. Lee’s Rock Cycle Rap
 Rock Cycle Animation
 Rock Cycle Animation from Prentice Hall [linked in
ppt]
 Annenberg Interactive Rock Cycle
 Interactive Rock Cycle Animation from McDougal
Littell
 Rocks from BBC
2/21/2016
10
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Essential Question and
Standard(s)
Standard:
S6E5g. Describe how
fossils show evidence of
the changing surface and
climate of the Earth.
5. How do fossils show
evidence of the changing
surface and climate of the
Earth?
Textbook page 362-375
TCSS
Vocabulary
Essential*
Supplemental**
Resources [Back to Top]
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http://www.parents.com/blogs/homeschool-den/category/earthscience-unit/
My Dirty Laundry Relates to Geology? Analogy
Examining Fossil Formation Lab
Fossil Inferences Activity | Fossil Inferences Activity PPT
Geologic Time Spiral
Assessment

GOFAR CR Fossils
*Essential Vocabulary
listed in the Standards
**Supplemental
Vocabulary listed in the
state frameworks and/or
other state document
2/21/2016
11
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Essential Question and
Standard(s)
Standard:
S6E5f. Explain the effects of
physical processes (plate
tectonics, erosion, deposition,
volcanic eruption, gravity) on
geological features including
oceans (composition, currents
and tides).
6. How do changes in the
Earth’s surface occur over
time?
Textbook page 180-241
Vocabulary
Essential*

Erosion
Gravity
Deposition
Supplemental**
“Agents of erosion”
Exfoliation
Frost wedging
Weathering
Dissolution
Hydrolysis
Oxidation
Thermal expansion
Chemical Weathering
Biological Weathering
Physical (Mechanical)
Weathering
*Essential Vocabulary
listed in the Standards
**Supplemental
Vocabulary listed in the
state frameworks and/or
other state document
TCSS
Resources [Back to Top]
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Activator on first slide: Watch the next few slides. When the
slides stop transitioning get with an elbow partner to discuss
the events that caused the formation of the beautiful features.
Be as specific as possible. [the slides are automatically timed
to transition for the activator and will stop on the last slide of
the activator]
Weathering and Erosion ppt [Note: although the ppt and
notes include specific names of weathering examples, it is
more important for students to identify the processes as
either an example of mechanical or chemical weathering. Do
not stress over them knowing the names exfoliation,
dissolution, hydrolysis, or oxidation. These processes are
included in the state frameworks but not listed specifically in
the standard. The student should use these processes to
identify the type of weathering.]
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Foldable – if space or
time allows, you may want to have students draw images for
the concepts on their foldable. It could possibly go on the top
flap that opens.
Weathering Activities
o Weathering Sort
o Weathering Gallery Walk
o Modeling the Effect of Ice on Rock
o Salt and Chalk Lab
o Weathering a Snickers | Erosion and Weathering in my
Mouth
o Other demonstrations or lab stations:
 If you can get samples of limestone rock, have
students use droppers to pour vinegar on the rock to
demonstrate chemical weathering
 Chalk can be used to demonstrate physical and
chemical weathering. Students can take two pieces
of chalk and rub them or make them collide to
observe physical weathering. Then, students can
place a piece of chalk in a small, clear cup and add
drops of vinegar to demonstrate chemical
weathering.
 Use sandpaper to rub rock for physical weathering
2/21/2016
Assessment

GOFAR CR
Weathering,
Erosion, Deposition
12
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Essential Question and
Standard(s)
Vocabulary
Resources [Back to Top]
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TCSS
Assessment
 You Crack Me Up!
Weathering and Erosion Formative Assessment
Activities
o Weathering, Erosion, Deposition Cards
o Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition Journey
o What is It? Weathering, Erosion, or Deposition
o Changing Mountains Constructed Response
o Providence Canyon Tiered Task
o A Glacier in a Milk Jug Demonstration
Videos:
o Weathering and erosion - Freeze thaw weathering [1:20
linked in ppt]
o Rock Meets Lichen [2:06 linked in ppt]
o Chemical Weathering Feldspar into Clay [28 sec]
o Mechanical and Chemical Weathering: Breaking or
Baking? [2:50 linked in ppt]
o Erosion Lab [8:17] video shows several labs on erosion
that can be done as a demonstration, in stations or
groups, or shown in place of doing the lab if time and
resources are limited
o Study Jams: Weathering and Erosion
o Bill Nye the Science Guy: Erosion [32:33]
o Weathering and Erosion Song [3:02]
Online Resources
o Animation of Chemical Weathering [linked in ppt]
o Animation of sediments being eroded by Classzone
[linked in ppt]
o Animation of erosion by a waterfall [linked in ppt]
o Animation of the formation of an arch [linked in ppt]
o Images of Erosion from Classzone
o Images of how Glaciers erode rock [linked in ppt]
o Images of Wave Erosion [linked in ppt]
o Animation of Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition – click
on the arrows on the left for each animation
o Sediments being deposited by Classzone [linked in ppt]
o Animation of the formation of a sand dune [linked in ppt]
2/21/2016
13
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Essential Question and
Standard(s)
Standard:
S6E5h. Describe soil as
consisting of weathered
rocks and decomposed
organic material.
7. How is soil formed?
Textbook page 188-194
Vocabulary
Essential*
Soil
Weathered rocks
Decomposed
Organic material
Supplemental**
Humus
Horizon
Fertile
*Essential Vocabulary listed in
the Standards
Resources [Back to Top]
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Soil ppt
Soil Notes
Soil Summarizer
Activities
o What is in our Soil? Activity [from
state frameworks]
o Cup of Soil Recipe – have students
make a recipe for soil
Videos
o The Living Soil [9:24]
Online Resource
o Discovery Channel: The Dirt on Soil
Assessment

S6E5h. GOFAR Constructed
Response Soil
**Supplemental Vocabulary listed
in the state frameworks and/or
other state document
TCSS
2/21/2016
14
TCSS 6th Science Geology Unit
Essential Question and
Standard(s)
Standard(s):
S6E5i. Explain the effects
of human activity on the
erosion of the earth’s
surface.
S6E5j. Describe methods
for conserving natural
resources such as water,
soil, and air.
8. How does human
activity affect the Earth’s
surface?
Textbook page 196-200
Vocabulary
Essential*
Air
Soil
Water
Erosion
Conserving/Conservation
Supplemental**
Pollutants
Wetlands
Reduce
Pesticides
Reuse
Fertilizers
Recycle
Overgrazing
Runoff
Terracing
Contour plowing
Wind break
Strip planting
Mulching
No-till farming
Emissions
Crop rotation
Acid rain
Cover crop
Ozone layer
Greenhouse gases
Greenhouse effect
CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons)
Resources [Back to Top]
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*Essential Vocabulary listed in the
Standards
**Supplemental Vocabulary listed
in the state frameworks and/or
other state document


TCSS
Human Impact ppt
Human Impact Graphic Organizer
Demonstrations
o Runoff – pour water over a smooth surface to
demonstrate how it flows quickly then demonstrate
again with a rough surface to slow down the runoff
o Soil Cover Experiment – image of a possible
experiment on soil cover and water quality
Soil Erosion Formative Assessment
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Chart – allow students to
complete this individually or in pairs
Effects of Stream Pollution, in a Jar
Human Impact Summarizer
Videos
o Water Pollution [3:19]
o Water Conservation Tips [3:18]
o Nature is Speaking [1:28] linked in ppt
o Explore More: Water Quality [29:11]
o Fifteen to River: Explaining Storm Water Runoff
[1:49]
o Nature is Speaking: I am Soil [1:25]
o The Greenhouse Effect [1:55] linked in ppt
o Global Warming Song [4:01] linked in ppt
o Air Pollution Causes, Effects, and Solutions [9:24]
linked in ppt
o Reduce, Reuse, Recycle [1:37]
o Bill Nye The Science Guy Pollution Solutions [23:02]
Online Resources
o http://www3.epa.gov/recyclecity/house.htm [linked in
ppt] Click on various parts of the house to see how it
can be reduced, reused, or recycled | Biology Corner
Recycle City Worksheet
Sample GOFAR Question: Erosion of topsoil is a problem
in many places. In some crop fields the plant material is
left in the soil after harvest. Explain why having plant
material in fields helps to prevent erosion. Exemplar
2/21/2016
Assessment
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15
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