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Unit 3: The American Civil War
Missouri Compromise
Slave State- allowed slavery
Free state- did not allow slavery
Date- 1820
What did it do? Missouri joined the Union as a slave
state. Maine joined as a free state. This kept the
balance of slave states and free states.
• How long did it last? 30 years
Compromise of 1850
• California- joined the Union as a free state
• New Mexico and Utah- the people here decided if
they wanted slavery or not (popular sovereignty
• Fugitive Slave Law- said that anyone caught helping
slaves escape would be punished and all slaves had to
be returned back to the south.
Kansas Nebraska Act
• Date- 1854
• Canceled out- the rules of the Missouri
• What did this do? Said that the people in Kansas
and Nebraska could vote on if they would be a
slave state or free state (popular sovereignty).
• Bleeding Kansas- people for and against slavery
began fighting. The fighting was so bad it became
known as this.
• Better or worst for the North and South? Worse,
because it increase tensions.
John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry
• John Brown- white abolitionist from the north
– abolitionist- person who wanted to end slavery.
• Harper’s Ferry- in Virginia, a federal armory
where muskets and rifles were stored.
• What happened: John Brown raided Harper’s
Ferry. He planned on stealing the guns and
weapons and give them to the slaves to fight
with. The US Army showed up and captured
Brown, who was later hanged.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Author- Harriet Beecher Stowe
• Date- 1852
• Story- Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin. This
book was very popular, but was not a true
story. It gave many people the wrong idea
about slavery.
The Underground Railroad
• Harriet Tubman was one of the best known
conductors. She returned to the south 20 times
and guided 300 people to freedom.
• Really underground? No
• Where did the routes go? From the south to the
northern states and to Canada. Some went to
Mexico and the Caribbean Islands.
• Where were the hiding places? Barns, attics,
secret rooms, called stations
• Who were the conductors? Free Africans, white
northerners who opposed slavery and some
church leaders.
Dred Scott Decision
• What happened? Scott took his case to court. He
said he should be free, because he lived on free
land and his owner died. He lost because slaves
didn’t have any privileges and
• Slaves were labeled as- property. The judge said
property is protected under the Constitution.
• Missouri Compromise- was keeping people from
owning property and this was unconstitutional.
• North- was very upset; made the tension worse.
• South- liked the ruling.
States’ Rights
• States’ Rights- constitutional issue saying that
states should have the final authority over the
federal government. The sates should make all
the rules.
• Who were for them? Southerners
• What did these defend? Slavery
– The northerners believed that the nation was a
Union and shouldn’t be divided.
Lincoln’s Election
• Date- 1860
• Who supported who? Northern democrats
supported Stephen Douglas. Republicans wanted to
stop the spread of slavery and supported Abraham
• What happened- Douglas and Lincoln debated.
Douglas said states should vote, Lincoln said there
should not be slavery. Lincoln won the election.
• Who left (seceded)- South Carolina, then
Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana and
Texas and formed the Confederate States of
Abraham Lincoln
February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865
1. He was the 16th President of the
United States from 1860-1865.
2. He was also the Commander-inChief of the Union Army.
3. He appointed generals to
command his troops.
4. He issued the Emancipation
Proclamation, freeing the slaves.
5. He made his famous speech, the
Gettysburg Address.
Jefferson Davis
June 3, 1808 – December 6, 1889
1. The President of the
Confederate States of America.
2. He was also Commander -in Chief of the Confederate Army.
3. Appointed General Robert E.
Lee as commander of the Army
of Virginia
4. Encouraged industrial
enterprise throughout the South.
5. Could not obtain help for the
Confederacy from foreign
Ulysses S. Grant
April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885
1. Appointed General of the
Union Army.
2. Considered the Union match to
Robert E. Lee of the
3. Captured Forts Henry and
4. Conducted the battle of
Pittsburg Landing, or Shiloh.
5. Accepted Lee’s surrender at
Appomattox Courthouse on
April 9, 1865.
Robert E. Lee
January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870
1. Was the South's greatest general
during the Civil War.
2. Turned down position of
Commander of Union army to stay
loyal to Virginia.
3. Successful in defeating Union
troops in the “Seven Days' Battle”,
the Battle of Antietam,
Fredericksburg, and
4. Fought in the Battle of Gettysburg.
5. Surrendered to Grant at
Appomattox Courthouse, VA on
April 9, 1865.
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
January 21, 1824 – May 10, 1863
1. Took command at Harper's Ferry,
where he organized the troops.
2. Battle of 1st Manassas, where he
acquired the legendary nickname
3. Promoted to Major General.
Placed in command of the Valley
of Virginia (Shenandoah Valley)
4. Second Bull Run, commanded the
Confederate Army of Northern
5. Was accidentally shot by his own
troops and died 7 days later.
William Tecumseh Sherman
February 8, 1820 - February 14, 1891
1. Commanded a brigade at the Battle
of Bull Run.
2. Commanded one of the three corps
in the siege of Vicksburg.
3. At the head of 20,000 troops he
made a most destructive raid from
Jackson to the intersection of
important railways at Meridian, MS.
4. Placed in command of a division of
Grant's Army of the Tennessee,
and served in the Battle of Shiloh.
5. Famous for his March to the Sea.
Fort Sumter
 Place:
Fort Sumter, South
 Date: April 12-14, 1861
 Generals:
◦ Union: Major Robert Anderson
◦ Confederate: Brigadier General
P.G.T. Beauregard
 Results: Confederate Victory
 Significance: Civil War Begins
 Place:
 Date: July 1-3, 1863
 Generals:
Union: George G. Meade
Confederate: Robert E. Lee
 Results: Union Victory
 Significance:
Civil War
Turning point in
Atlanta Campaign
 Place: Georgia
 Date: July 22, 1864
 Generals:
Union: William T. Sherman
Confederate: John Bell
 Results: Union Victory
 Significance:
the South
Bring the war to
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Place: Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia
Date: November 15 – December 22,
 Generals:
Union: William T. Sherman
Confederate: John Bell Hood
Results: Union Victory
 Significance: Destroyed everything
that could help the South in the war.
Appomattox Courthouse
 Place: Virginia
 Date: April 9, 1865
 Generals:
Union: Ulysses S. Grant
Confederate: Robert E. Lee
 Results: Union Victory
 Significance:
to Grant
Lee surrendered