Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review 1. Consider the chemical reaction in which carbon reacts with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. What mass of carbon dioxide would be produces if 24 grams of carbon reacted completely with 64 grams of oxygen a. 40 g b. 48 g c.130 g d. 88 g e. 64 g 2. If the number 53.4 is multiplied by the number 2.11; how many digits should the answer contain? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 Round each of the following numbers to 3 significant digits. a. 1995.6 m b. 0.0045921 kg c. 326.001 cm d. 3010.0 m If the atomic mass of a neutral atom of chlorine is 35 amu, how many neutrons does it have? a. 17 b. 18 c. 35 d. 52 What is the energy of a photon of red light with a wavelength of 6.45 x 10-5 cm? a. 3.08 x 10-19 J b. 3.08 x 10-21 J c. 4.28 x 10-38 J d. 7.02 x 1047 J Make the conversions indicated: a) 6.00 x 104 μm = ________ m b) 2.2 nm = ____________Tm 3. 4. 5. 6. c)27.6 ml = ___________L e) 531 mg = ___________kg d) 7.53 L = ___________cm3 f) 6.7 Mg = ____________cg 7. What is the approximate volume of a sample of element Q that has a mass of 10g? a. 6 cm3 b. 10 cm3 c. 15 cm3 d. none of the above 8. A student tests an unknown substance. The properties she tested and her results are shown in the table. Given this information, which of the following is the most reasonable conclusion for the student to reach? Ductility Compressibility Melting Point Density Average kinetic energy of particles a. the substance is a solid c. the substance is a liquid Ductile Noncompressible High 13.6 g/cm3 Low b. the substance is a plasma d. the substance is a gas Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review 9. Mr. Jones goes into Denny’s and orders tea with his lunch. He likes his tea really sweet and will need to add sugar. Which combination of tea and sugar should he use to produce the sweetest solution of tea? a. granulated sugar and hot tea b. sugar cube and hot tea c. granulated sugar and cold tea d. sugar cube and cold tea 10. Which of the following would compress a gas? a. heating b. cooling c. melting d. increasing the size of the container 11. A student is working with four beakers that each contains a clear liquid. Which set of procedures would be best to use to determine whether one of the beakers contains only distilled water? a. Observe odor, determine temperature, observe color, determine boiling point b. Observe odor, determine pH, determine density, determine boiling point c. Observe volume, determine mass, observe color, determine pH d. Determine mass, observe volume, determine temperature, observe color 12. An open container of water is brought to a boil and heated until all of the water is converted to water vapor. Which of the following describes the changes in the water molecules? a. The molecules speed up and move farther apart b. The molecules speed up and move closer together c. The molecules slow down and move farther apart d. The molecules slow down and move closer together 13. Which of the following is not part of the kinetic theory? a. particles are always moving b. particles are smaller at lower pressure c. particles move faster at higher temperatures d. all matter is made up of tiny, invisible particles 14. Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review A piece of metal is heated in a Bunsen burner flame and then immersed in a beaker of cool water. Which statement best describes the effect of the temperature changes on the kinetic energy of the particles? a. Kinetic energy of metal atoms decreases in the flame b. Kinetic energy of water molecules increases when the heated metal is immersed c. Kinetic energy of water molecules decreases when the heated metal is immersed d. Kinetic energy of metal atoms increases when immersed in the cooler water 15. According to Billy Mays, Oxyclean is better at removing organic compound stains from clothes than other detergents. Most organic compounds are nonpolar. What can you surmise about Oxyclean? a. it is a polar molecule b. it is a nonpolar molecule c. it is a neutral molecule d. not enough information to tell 16. The diagram above represents radiation passing through and electric field as in experiments performed by Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan. The scientists reasoned that the arrow labeled A most likely represents: a. an electron b. gamma radiation c. a proton d. a neutron Element Reaction with vinegar Bonds easily with halogens A Yes Yes B yes No C No No D Yes yes 17. If Mendeleev found the above data to be true, which 2 elements would he place in the same family/group? a. A and B b. B and C c. A and D d. B and C 18. The data table below provides some properties of unknown elements A,B,C and D. Evaluate and determine which element is most likely a nonmetal. a. A b. B c. C d. D Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review 19. From the list below, choose the discovery and the scientist(s) primarily responsible for each model of the atom. Models Plum pudding Planetary Quantum Mechanical Scientists Discoveries Thomson Millikan Goldstein Rutherford Bohr Schrodinger Heisenberg Atom Electron Proton Neutron Nucleus Wave equation Law of octaves 20. Ernest Rutherford performed a famous experiment in which he used a radioactive alpha particle source and aimed the particles at a thin sheet of gold foil. . By studying photographic plates placed around the foil, he found that most particles passed straight through; some were reflected straight back to the source. The discovery led Rutherford to make several important conclusions. Using the experimental set-up shown above, what conclusions about atoms were made by Rutherford? a. each atom contains electrons b. each atom contains protons c. the nucleus of an atom can be split d. atoms are mostly empty space 21. Identify the number of subatomic particles in each of the following: 14. I-131 15. O216. Rb1+ 17. Fe3+ 22. What is the frequency of a photon of light given off by an electron that glows orange with a wavelength of 575 nm? How much energy (in joules) would it take for that electron to regain the energy level it just descended from? Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review 23. What would be the quantum address for an electron found in the fourth energy level, the p sublevel, the center orbital with a clockwise spin? 24. What is the difference between an electron in its excited state and that same electron in its ground state? 25. Why do the elements sodium and lithium have similar chemical properties? a. same number of protons b. similar atomic masses c. same ratio of protons to electrons d. same number of valence electrons 26. Consider the hypothetical element Cp. If Cp generally forms an ion with a charge of -3, what would you deduce to be the Lewis electron dot formula for the neutral atom? a. . . Cp : . b. .. : Cp : .. c. .. Cp . d. : . Cp : . 27. IF 75.4% of naturally occurring chlorine atoms have an atomic mass of 35.012 and the rest have an atomic mass of 37.134, what is the atomic mass of chlorine? 28. If the wavelength of a band of light is relatively long, what can we predict about the frequency of that wave? a. it will be relatively low b. it will be relatively high c. we cannot predict d, it will be sometimes high and sometimes low 29. What would be the wavelength, in nanometers, of light that has a frequency of 6.42 x 1014? 30. A neutral atom of fluorine has the same number of electrons as which of the following? a. B3b. N1+ c. Ne1d. Na1e. Mg3+ 31. What determines how much energy is given off as an excited electron returns to its ground state? 32. A (an) __________ is an atom that has a different number of electrons than usual. 33. A(an) _______________ is an atom that has a different number of neutrons than usual. 34. A(an) _________________ is the amount of visible light given off as an electron moves from its excited state to its ground state 35. A(an) _______________ is the amount of energy it takes to move an electron from one energy level to another 36. When the Cu-67 atom oxidizes to form a 2+ ion, it contains ______ electrons, ______ protons, and _____ neutrons. Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review 37. IF 57.25% of naturally occurring antimony atoms have an atomic mass of 210.9038 and the rest have an atomic mass of 212.9041, what is the average atomic mass of antimony? 38. For the ion Br1-, show the orbital distribution diagram, write the electron configuration, draw the Lewis electron dot diagram and identify the distinguishing electron by its quantum numbers. 39. If a photon of light given off by an atom has a wavelength of 655nm, what would be the energy of that lightwave? 40. When using the spectrometer we noticed that depending upon which elemental gas is used to produce the light, different lines of the spectrum will appear. If the predominant band is red, what could you hypothesize about the waves that created these bands with regard to energy and wavelength? 41. Within a family of elements, the electronegativity __________ as the atomic number increases. 42. Within a period, the atomic radius __________ as the atomic number increases. 43. As a nonmetal becomes an ion, its radius _________ 44. The ______________ are the family that contain the most reactive metals. 45. Examine the following electron configuration for element X and use it to answer the questions below 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d2 a. In which period is element X? b. What is the atomic number of element X? c. How many electrons are in the outer energy level of element X? 46. For the following groups of elements, select the one that has the property noted: a. the largest atom of H, Ar, Ag, Ba, Te, Au b. the lowest first ionization energy of B, Sr, Al, Br, Mg, Pb c. the greatest electron affinity of Na, I, Ba, Se, Cl, P d. the highest electronegativity of As, Ca, I, P, Ga, Se, Sn e. the largest number of unpaired electrons of F, N, S2-, Mg2+, Sc3+, Ti3+ 47. How would you characterize arsenic with regards to electronegativity, ionization energy and atomic radius? How would you characterize barium? How would you characterize argon? 48. Tin is in group 4 and period 5. What is the electron configuration of its outermost energy level? 49. Given two elements, how would you determine the type of bond that would form between them? Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review 50. Compare and contrast the properties of the compounds formed (including how the bond forms between them) in ionic and molecular compounds. 51. Describe in detail, including examples of substances exhibiting each, the attractive forces below. a. metallic bonding b. van der Waal forces c. dipole interaction d. dispersion forces e. hydrogen bonding 52. Identify each of the following compounds as to type of bond: ionic, nonpolar covalent, or polar covalent. Draw the electron dot diagram/structure for each substance - identify the shape and polarity of the molecules. a. HI b. RbCl c. GeCl4 d. PH3 e. H2Se f. BeCl2 g. SO2 h. Na2S 53. The basis of the gas laws revolves around the properties of volume, pressure and temperature, and how these properties are affected by the kinetic molecular theory. Describe the relationship between each pair of properties. a. temperature and pressure b. temperature and volume c. pressure and volume 54. The physical state of a substance depends mostly on its ________ at room temperature and standard pressure. a.container b. density c . molecular mass d. bonding structure 55. Even at low temperature, a ______ particle travels in a completely random manner. a. liquid b. gas c. solid d. plasma 56. The average kinetic energy of water molecules is greatest in which of the following? a. Steam at 100C b. water at 90C c. water at 373K d. ice at 0C 57. A nonpolar solvent will most likely dissolve a(n) _________ solute? a.nonpolar b. polar c. ionic d. metallic Chemistry 1 Pre-AP Semester Review 58. Which of the following could affect both the rate of solution and the solubility of a solid in a liquid? a. stirring the mixture b. increasing the pressure c. increasing the surface area d. increasing the temperature 59. As pressure increases, what happens to the solubility of gases in liquids? a. decreases b. increases c. decreases and then increases d. remains the same 60. Which of the following is not an electrolyte? a. Cl2(aq) b. HCl(aq) c. NaCl(l) d. (NH4)2SO4(aq) 61. Consider three identical flasks filled with different gases. Flask A: CO at 101.3 kPa and 0ºC Flask B: N2 at 30.7 kPa and 0ºC Flask C: H2 at 13.3 kPa and 0ºC a. In which flask will the molecules have the greatest average kinetic energy b. In which flask will the molecules have the greatest number of collisions per second with the walls of the container?