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Dr. Simiat O. Elias
Senior Lecturer
Department of Physiology
Lagos Sate University College of
Medicine
(LASUCOM), Ikeja
5/25/2017
1
All life is related and has descended from a
common ancestor: the birds and the bananas,
the fishes and the flowers -- all related
 Charles Darwin's general theory presumes the
development of life from non-life and
stresses a purely naturalistic (undirected)
"descent with modification“
 Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

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"a gradual process in which something
changes into a different and usually more
complex or better form"
 The process of change in the inherited traits
of a population from one generation to the
next
 As it is most famously used, "evolution" is the
process by which an organism becomes more
sophisticated over time and in response to its
environment

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 Ancient
Greek philosophers such as
Anaximander postulated the development of
life from non-life and the evolutionary
descent of man from animal
 Charles Darwin simply brought something
new to the old philosophy -- a plausible
mechanism called "natural selection”
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(SPECIES: A population of organisms that
interbreeds and has fertile offspring)
 Living organisms have descended with
modifications from species that lived before
them
 Natural Selection explains how this evolution
occurred:

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i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
More organisms are produced than can
survive because of limited resources
Organisms struggle for the necessities of
life; there is competition for resources
Individuals within a population vary in their
traits; some of these traits are heritable….
Some variants are better adapted to survive
and reproduce under local conditions than
others
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v.
vi.
Better adapted individuals (the “fit”) are
more likely to survive and reproduce,
thereby passing on copies of their genes to
the next generation
Species whose individuals are best
adapted survive; others become extinct
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Natural selection acts to preserve and
accumulate minor advantageous genetic
mutations and “Survival of the Fittest”
 If a member of a species developed a
functional advantage, its offspring would
inherit that advantage and pass it on to their
offspring
 The inferior (disadvantaged) members of the
same species would gradually die out, leaving
only the superior (advantaged) members of
the species

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New or inherited traits are said to arise from
two processes:
 Mutation in genes
 Transfer of genes between populations as in
migration or between species as in horizontal
gene transfer

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



Mutations are rare, occurring about once in
10 million duplications
Usually result in abnormalities that may be
injurious or fatal
There are 100 trillion cells in the human
body:
If a couple mutate, the effect may not be
noticeable
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 From
ape to Man requires only 1% of the
ape’s DNA to mutate
 1% means 1million direct mutations, along
the same line, no change
 To get 5 direct mutations alone involves a
chance of 10, 000 000 000 000 000 000
000!
 How then could Ape have become Man???
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 The
theory of transmutation of species is a
scientific mistake, untrue in its facts,
unscientific in its methods and mischievous
in its tendency – Prof J. Agassiz, Harvard
 Is it really credible that random processes
could have constructed a reality, the smallest
element of which – a functional protein or
gene – is complex beyond ------ anything
produced by the intelligence of Man? Michael
Denton, Molecular Biologist
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
That a mindless, purposeless, chance process
such as Natural Selection, acting on the
sequels of recombinant DNA or random
mutation, most of which are injurious or fatal,
could fabricate such complexity and
organization as the vertebrate eye, where
each component part must carry on its own
distinctive task in a harmoniously functioning
optical unit, is inconceivable - H.S. Hamilton
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 The
absence of transition forms between
the retina of invertebrates and that of
vertebrates poses another difficulty. Here
there is a great gulf which remains
inviolate.
 The total picture speaks of INTELLIGENT,
CREATIVE DESIGN OF AN INFINITELY HIGH
ORDER” – H.S. Hamilton (Author – The
Retina of the Eye equals An Evolutionary
Road Block
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 Evolution
is the core of non-religious
education
 Defined as a slow process of upward change
in which matter and energy become a living
substance that eventually becomes Man,
 It diminishes the significance of Man
 It defies Intelligent Design & Plan (Allah)
 It is a disguised religion
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


It is not testable: it can not be measured or
verified (unless someone has seen a fishlizard?)
It is not repeatable: scientific results are
usually reproducible
It has no integrity: not dependable, reliable or
trustworthy (witness Kellenworth experiments
on the Melanin Moths)
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1. Following a long voyage on the Beagle,
Darwin explained the myriad of organisms he
saw with his theory of Natural Selection
 The questions then arose: Who or what does
the selection? How is the selection done?
2.
When Darwin could not provide an
answer to the questions, he went on to his
“Survival of the Fittest” theory

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


When there was no knowledge of DNAs and
GENES CELL BIOLOGY,
Darwin was able to convince people of his
Survival of the Fittest theory: Persons with
weak traits die off while those with stronger
traits survived
OR Monkeys evolved into Man because Man is
more FIT for survival in this universe
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 According
to Darwin, Apes and Chimpanzees
evolved to Man because Man is more “fit” and
therefore more able to survive
 Question:
 How come there are still apes and monkeys?
 How come there are no half Ape-half Man
organisms around?
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 “Post
hoc propter hoc” meaning “After this
(therefore) because of this”
 In other words, because event B occurs after
event A, therefore A must have caused B!
 There was an oil spill and a car accident
therefore the spill must have caused the
accident. Is it not possible that they are
unrelated?
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 Darwin
wrote: “In considering the origin of
species, it is quite conceivable that a
naturalist, reflecting on the MUTUAL
AFFINITIES of organic beings, on their
EMBRYOLOGICAL RELATIONS, their
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION, GEOLOGICAL
SUCCESSION and other facts, might come to
the conclusion THAT SPECIES HAD NOT BEEN
INDEPENDENTLY CREATED but HAD
DESCENDED like varieties from other species
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


Amoeba is the ancestor of fish and then
monkeys/apes and then Man: FROM THE GOO
TO THE ZOO TO YOU
From flowers to flowers, monkeys to Man, all
related because of their mutual affinities,
embryological relations, geographical
distribution and geological succession?
If Ape and Man are not found in the same
geographical distribution, then they are not
related? Alhamdulillah for little mercies!
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 EXTINCTION:
If newer species develop from
earlier ones, how come animals like
DINOSAURS are extinct?
 STATIS:
There are long periods in the fossil
record between the appearance of one
species, its extinction and the lack of
intermediate species i.e. there is no gradual
modification of species unlike what Darwin
& colleagues will have us believe
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 DIVERSITY:
The ability of near identical
species to co-exist for eons inspite of a very
near identical conditions of life that should
have ensured the transformation of the “less
fit” to the “more fit”; specie identities remain
unaltered
 SURVIVAL
OF THE “NON-FITTEST”: The ability
of species to exist with less than optimal
features
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 Some
vertebrates have 5 digit-limbs:
Amphibians, Reptiles, Aves and Mammals too
and are therefore supposed to evolve from a
lower level of complexity to a higher one
?? But when have we seen a toad become a
lizard or a crocodile a monkey and then
become Man?

They all coexist!!
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



This is fallacious also in that it is an attempt
to explain something that we do not
understand i.e. creation
How do we explain that Drosophilia, even
Mosquitoes are here with us while Dinosaurs
are extinct?
Slums are characterized by poverty, hunger,
disease etc so Get Rid of Slums, you’ll be rid
of poverty, hunger, disease etc???
Guns cause crime; Get rid of guns and be rid
of Crime???
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

“We are like children (who are) looking at a
complicated machine, the reason for which
construction they do not understand and like
children we constantly draw our own
conclusions (erroneous or not) – Alfred
Wallace (1854)
Darwin et al did not understand creation or
were unwilling to accept its reality so they
imposed Natural Selection and later Survival
of the Fittest on us
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


Darwin wrote: “The most vigorous males,
those which are best fitted for their places in
nature will leave the most progeny”. So males
that have less progeny are less fit?
Consider Drosophilia (Fruit Fly), it has never
had the ability to penetrate fruits to get at the
sugars that it needs to make its food yet it
survives till today
Snakes have venoms to protect themselves as
well as to aid them in preying on their preys,
bats do not but still manage to survive
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Irreducible Complexity refers to the
phenomenon in which “a single system
composed of several well matched interacting
parts that contribute to the basic function
wherein the removal of anyone of the parts
causes the system to effectively stop
functioning”
This could be a wristwatch, yours and mine
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“If it could be demonstrated that any complex
organ existed which couldn’t possibly have
been formed by numerous, successive, slight
modifications, my theory (of evolution) would
absolutely break down”
 Even the human cell is an Irreducible
Complexity on its own at least we now know
so. It was not formed by numerous,
successive slight modifications, it has always
been like that
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31
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CELL
i.
Mitochondria
ii. Proteins
iii. Ribosomes
iv. Microtubules
v.
Lysosomes
vi. Golgi Apparatus

CITY
i.
Power Plant
ii. Workers
iii. Factories
iv. Roads
v.
Recycling Centres
vi. Post Office

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 Another
Irreducible Complexity – the Human
Eye
 A perfect and interrelated system of about 40
interrelated subsystems
 The retina has about 137million cells:
 130million are rods and handle black and
white vision
 7 million are cones and are responsible for
colour vision
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•
•
•
•
When light impinges on the retina, it is converted
to electrical impulses and transmitted to the
visual cortex of the brain through the optic
nerve.
The visual cortex interpretes all the nuances of
an image – colour, texture, size etc- and these
evolves into the final pictures we see
The retina, the optic nerve and the visual cortex
are separate but collaborating entities that
interprete over 1.5million messages per
millisecond!
How did they come together to work together so
we can see? There must be a master designer!
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•
•
•
If there is an IRREDUCIBLE COMPLEXITY then
it has to be the human eye!
Even Darwin confessed that the eye could not
have been formed by his Natural Selection
Theory, such an absurdity he said
But in what has now been recognized as a
dubious way, Darwin went on to say that the
human eye evolved from simpler eyes from
lower forms!
5/25/2017
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


According to Darwin’s Theory, there is
Macro-evolution: more complex organisms
evolved from simpler ones
However, Darwin also said, “if macroevolution were true, we would see a vast
number of fossils at intermediate stages of
development. In fact we should see more
transitional forms than finished products”
In other words, lizards in the process of
becoming crocodiles etc
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History of Fossils include two features that
are inconsistent with gradualism:
 Statis: Species exhibit no directional change
during their tenure on earth – they appear in
the fossil record much the same way as they
disappear
 Sudden Appearance: In any area, species do
not arise gradually by steady transformation
of its ancestors, it appears all at once and
FULLY FORMED
-Prof Gould, Prof of Geology & Palaeontology,
Harvard

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


Excavation of the Cambrian Strata (dated
500-550million years) revealed the fossils
of a myriad of organisms: snails. Trilobite,
sponges, earthworms, jelly fish, sea
hedgehogs, etc.
None of the fossils showed any half forms;
all the organisms had been created as they
were, no pre-ancestors
They all had complex systems like eyes, ,
gills, circulatory systems etc that did not
differ from their present day counterparts
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



Formed in early1990s by Prof. Philip E.
Johnson
To save the world from Darwinists and the
religion of ATHEISM that they were/are
enjoining on Man
The Evolution Theory is not entirely about
how we evolved, it is more about the denial of
ALLAH, the Master Designer
It is inter-religious in that it allows members
to decide what form the MASTER
DESIGNER/CREATOR takes for them
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


With regard to those who query the beginning
and the end of the world,
“I did not make them witnesses to the
creation of the heavens and the earth, nor the
creation of their own souls; nor could I take
those who lead (others astray for helpers”
Q18:51
5/25/2017
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“Do not those who disbelieve see that the
heavens and earth were an integrate mass,
but We have opened them up; and We have
made of water every living thing? Will they not
then believe?” Q21:30
“Then He (Allah) directed Himself to the
heavens and to the earth and it was vapour
(smoke), so He (Allah) said to it and to the
earth: come both, willingly or unwillingly.
They both said, “We come willingly” Q 41:11
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“when your Lord said to the angels; “Surely I
am going to create a mortal from dust: SO
when I have made him complete and
breathed into him my Spirit, then fall down
making obeisance to him” Q 38: 71-72
@Have you considered the seeds? Is it you that
create it or are We the Creators?” Q 56: 58-5
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“Those on whom besides Allah you call, cannot
create (even) a fly, if they all met together for
the purpose! And if a fly should snatch away
anything from them, they would have no
power to release it from the fly. Feeble are
those who petition and those whom they
petition” Q 22: 73&74
“Wa ma taofiki ila billahi alaehi tawakaltu wa
ilaehi uniib” Q 11:88
5/25/2017
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