Download Earthquake Definitions - Red Hook Central Schools

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

 Earthquake: the shaking of the Earth’s crust
caused by a release of energy.
 Common cause: movement of the Earth’s plates
 As the Earth’s plates move past one another, friction causes
the plates to get “stuck”.
· Stress and pressure builds up and causes the plate to
become deformed (bend) as it continues to try and move (the
plates are elastic-they can change shape).
· Eventually, the pressure is great enough to overcome the
friction and the plates slip past one another.
· The plate movement is the earthquake. The greater the plate
movement, the larger the earthquake.
· The plates are in a new location, but they go back to their
original shape (rebound).
**Think of pushing on the ends of a wooden ruler. As you
push, the ruler will bend. When you release the pressure on
the ends, the ruler snaps back to its original shape.
 Fault: break in the lithosphere along which
movement has occurred
 Focus: the point at which the first movement
 Epicenter: the point on Earth’s surface directly
above the focus
 Friction prevents plate movement most of the time.
 Boundary Type vs. Earthquake Depth:
a. divergent boundaries: within 30 kilometers of the
b. transform boundaries: occur at shallow depths
c. subduction boundaries: occur as deep as 700 km
 Body wave: travels from the focus of an
earthquake through Earth
 P-wave: a body wave that squeezes and
stretches rock materials
- also known as a compression wave or a primary
- P-waves can travel through any material- solid,
liquid or gas
 S-wave: a body wave that causes
particles of rock to move at right
-also known as shear waves or as
secondary waves
-can travel through only solids, not
liquid or gas
 P and S waves
 Surface wave: a wave that travels
along Earth’s surface- caused by
body waves
 Surface waves cause
considerable damage
 The rate at which P waves and S waves travel
depends on the type and density of the material
through which they travel
 The waves move faster when material is rigid
and dense
 S waves travel at a little less than half the speed
of P waves
 Surface waves travel the slowest when
compared to P and S waves
Document related concepts

Geophysics wikipedia, lookup

Age of the Earth wikipedia, lookup

History of geology wikipedia, lookup

Nature wikipedia, lookup

Geology wikipedia, lookup

Plate tectonics wikipedia, lookup

Large igneous province wikipedia, lookup

Surface wave inversion wikipedia, lookup

Physical oceanography wikipedia, lookup

Shear wave splitting wikipedia, lookup

Wind wave wikipedia, lookup

Rogue wave wikipedia, lookup

Ionospheric dynamo region wikipedia, lookup

Surf break wikipedia, lookup