Ch. 15: Circulation Section 1: The Body’s Transport System (pg. 505) 1. Three roles of the cardiovascular system are: (Explain each) a. Delivers needed materials: Carries substances from one part of the body to another b. Removes Waste: Picks up waste from cells and carries it to parts of the body where it can be eliminated c. Fights disease: Transports cells that fight diseases 2. The Septum______ is a wall of tissue that seperates the sides of the heart. 3. Upper chambers are __Atria____________. 4. Lower chambers are ventricles____. 5. The __Pacemaker___ makes the heart contract and is located _in the right atrium_ ________________________________________. 6. A flap of tissue that prevents blood flowing the opposite direction is a __Valve__. 7. In your own words, explain how the heart works. (include the sound made by valves) • Phase 1: The heart muscle relaxes. Blood flows into the chambers. • Phase 2: The atria contract, squeezing blood into the ventricles. Then, Ventricles contract, closing the valves from the atria (“Lub” Sound). As the ventricles contract, blood is squeezed into blood vessels, and the valves to the ventricles close (“dub” sound) 8. Differentiate between arteries, capillaries, and veins. Arteries: Carry blood away from the heart Capillaries---Small vessels that allow for chemicals to be exchanged between blood and cells Veins: Vessels that carry blood back to the heart. 9. Explain the pattern of blood flow including what happens in each loop. • 1st Loop: Right Side of heart------lungs-----left side of heart • Dark red blood fills the heart, and is pumped out of the ventricles. • As the blood flows through the lungs, oxygen moves into the blood, and carbon dioxide goes into the longs (diffusion) • The Bright Red Blood goes back to the heart to be pumped through loop 2. nd • 2 Loop: Left side of heart-----organs----right side of heart • Oxygen rich blood is pumped through the heart, from the left ventricle, to the aorta (largest artery in body) • Blood travels to various parts of the body and delivers oxygen to the cells (picks up carbon dioxide) • Oxygen Poor blood flows back to right atrium to complete the loop 10. The largest artery in the body is the _Aorta____. It is located in the __2nd__________ loop. 11. Blood leaving the heart through the ventricles can go 2 ways: a. The right pumps to the Lungs________. b. The left pumps to the Organs and body______. c. The artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the heart muscle is called the __Coronary Artery_____________. 12. Explain pulse and how arteries regulate blood flow. Alternating expansion and relaxation of the artery wall. Ventricle contractions cause the artery walls to expand with blood, once the blood passes, they contract. Contraction and expansions of muscle allow the openings to arteries to become large and small, therefore, controlling how much blood the artery allows for that organ. 13. Capillaries are small arteries where materials can be exchanged by the blood and body cells. 14. Explain the difference in the structure of arteries vs. capillaries. Arteries have 3 cell layers (Epithelial, muscle, and connective tissues), capillaries are only 1 cell thick, allowing materials to easily pass through them. 15. Explain what veins are and how blood moves back to the heart. (3 things) Carry blood back to the heart Have 3 layers, but layers are thinner than arteries. Contraction of skeletal muscle near veins push blood along. Larger veins have valves that prevent blood from flowing backward, and keep it moving toward the heart 16. Explain what causes blood pressure, what it means, and how it is measured. The force of blood on the walls of the vessels carrying it (think of water going through a hose or coke going through a straw) Caused by the contracting of ventricles Measured using a sphygmomonometer 2 numbers recorded…. a. Top number: measure pressure with contraction b. Bottom number: measure of pressure with relaxing ventricles Complete pg. 513 2c. What would happen if the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle did not work properly? Blood would back up into the atrium. Math Practice #5 29 beats in 30 seconds would be a pulse rate of 58 Bpm Section 2: Blood & Lymph (Pg. 515) 1. List the 4 components of blood and explain each. a. Plasma: liquid part of blood b. White blood cells: Part that fights disease c. Patelets: Form clots to stop bleeding and forms clots d. Red blood cells: Has hemoglobin (iron) to carry oxygen to cells 2. What are the 4 blood types? a. A b. B c. AB d. O 3. Why are blood markers important? The are proteins that show what type of blood---keep blood from being mixed between types 4. Explain the Rh Factor and why it is important. Rh is a protein---People with negative cant be given positive blood. 5. The _____lymphatic_________ is a system of veinlike vessels that returns fluid to the bloodstream. 6. __lymph_____ is the fluid inside this system. 7. ________lymph nodes ____are located in the system to trap bacteria and other diseases in the fluid. Complete pg. 521 1c. Hemophelia is a serious disorder because those people can’t stop bleeding. 2b. O blood would see the A proteins as foreign and would attack and clump around the proteins. 2c. Yes, because 0 negative has no proteins and will not cause any issues with clumping.