Chapter 6 Questions Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. Be as specific as necessary in responding to these questions. 1) Briefly explain habituation. 2) In Ivan Pavlov's original experiment, identify the following components: UCS, UCR, CS, CR. 3) Distinguish between extinction and spontaneous recovery. 4) List the UCS, UCR, CS, and CR in the "Little Albert" experiment. 5) The fact that Little Albert became afraid of objects similar to the white rat is explained by ________. 6) What is taste-aversion learning? 7) How did Garcia condition coyotes to dislike lamb? 8) If Julie receives her allowance every Sunday, assuming she has completed all of her chores, she is on which intermittent schedule of reinforcement? 9) Explain the difference between a primary and a secondary reinforcer. 10) Briefly explain the difference between positive and negative punishment 11) Compare negative and positive reinforcement. 12) Under what conditions is punishment effective in the control of behavior? 13) What is insight learning? 14) When Tolman was working with rats and running them through mazes, he found that they could often find their way to the reinforcer, even when the customary route through the maze was blocked. This seems to suggest that the rats had developed a ________. 15) Explain how Tolman's findings of cognitive maps in rats has implications that threaten the ideas of classical and operant conditioning. 16) According to Albert Bandura, explain the potential implications for children who watch many violent cartoons. 17) What does Rescorla suggest is the critical factor for a CS in classical conditioning? ESSAY: Write your answer on a separate sheet of paper. Be sure to hi-lite your main points!!!! 18) You want to train your puppy to sit down and "play dead," explain how each of the following could be employed to teach your dog this "trick." Be sure to relate all of the examples back to the prompt. continuous schedule of reinforcement intermittent schedule of reinforcement shaping positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment Chapter 6 Questions Answer Key 1)Habituation refers to a simple form of learning that involves learning NOT to respond to stimulation. 2)UCS: food (meat) UCR: salivation CS: tone CR: salivation 3)The situation in which a CS no longer causes a CR is called extinction. If suddenly the CS begins once again to cause a CR, this is called spontaneous recovery. 4)UCS: load noise UCR: fear CS: white rat CR: fear 5)stimulus generalization 6)It is the tendency of organisms to connect illness with certain foods and is a process that seems to have a genetic basis. 7)Lamb meat containing a mild poison was wrapped in sheepskin and left in pastures. Coyotes that ate this meat became sick and subsequently avoided sheep. 8)fixed interval 9)A primary reinforcer fulfills a basic biological need while a secondary reinforcer has gained its reinforcing power through association with primary reinforcers. 10)Positive punishment adds an aversive stimulus, whereas negative punishment takes away something that is desired. 11)In negative reinforcement an unpleasant stimulus is removed in order to increase the desired behavior. In positive reinforcement a desired stimulus follows a desired behavior in order to increase that behavior. 12)When it is applied consistently in a totally controlled environment. 13)A form of learning involving a sudden reorganization of perceptions leading to the solution of a problem. 14)cognitive map of the maze 15)The rats are demonstrating at least some cognition, which necessitates studying what is happening internally in an organism. Not all information that effects behavior is observable. 16)According to Bandura, much of what we learn comes from watching others. If we observe others acting violently toward one another, we are likely to exhibit more violent behavior. Because many violent cartoons suggest that there are no long-term implications following a violent act, children may learn to behave in similar ways. 17)It must be informative (predicts the UCS). 18)A continuous schedule of reinforcement should be employed when initially teaching the dog to sit. During the acquisition stage, a dog will learn much more quickly if it is reinforced every time it performs a given behavior. The dog should eventually be moved to a variable ratio schedule, in which it is only reinforced occasionally. This will prevent extinction, because the dog will not know when it is going to be reinforced and should continue the desired behavior. Shaping will be employed by reinforcing successive approximations to the desired behavior. As the dog moves toward the ground, it will get reinforced; then again when it goes further down; and so on until it is exhibiting the desired behavior. Positive reinforcement could be employed by giving the dog a treat each time the desired behavior occurs. Negative reinforcement could be employed by playing an annoying buzzing sound until the dog initially sits. Punishment could be employed by taking away the dog's favorite toy if they do not sit.