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Anatomy & Physiology Semester 2
Final Exam – Study Guide
Ch 11 – The Nervous System
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Structure & function of neurons
Difference between sensory & motor neurons
Locations & functions of the neuroglial cells
Parts of the CNS
Parts of the PNS
Difference between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems…including what they control
Differences between unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar neurons
Converging, diverging, & reverberating circuits
Function of neurotransmitters; also know the different kinds of synapses (electrical vs. chemical)
Difference between serial & parallel processing
Factors that influence the speed of action potentials (nerve impulses)
Ch 12 – The Brain
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Lobes & various regions of the brain including general information about what is controlled by each
Difference between paraplegia & quadriplegia
Function of corpus callosum
Function of superior & inferior colliculi of the corpora quadrigemina
Difference between “left-brained” people and “right-brained” people
Type of information entering spinal cord (and which side) vs. type of information leaving (and which side)
Function & location of meningeal layers
Ch 15 – Special Senses: The Eye
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Three layers of the eye: fibrous, vascular, & sensory
Major parts of the eye & functions
Difference between myopia & hyperopia
Difference between convergence & accommodation
Differences between rods & cones
Location where light must be focused to get the clearest image
Differences between the various kinds of glands associated with the eye
“Near point of vision” vs. “Far point of vision”
Functions of the different extrinsic eye muscles
Ch 18 – The Circulatory System
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Anatomy of the heart (chambers, valves, major vessels, etc.)
Functions of each valve in the heart
SA node vs. AV node…function of each
Parts of heart (and major vessels) where oxygenated blood is found & where deoxygenated blood is found
General flow of blood from the time it enters the vena cava until it leaves the aorta
Function of coronary arteries & cardiac veins
General flow of blood as it leaves the heart until it returns to the heart
Molecule required to transport oxygen throughout body
Causes of the heart sounds…“lub-dup”
Blood pressure…where it is strongest & weakest
Systolic pressure vs. diastolic pressure
Ch 22 – The Respiratory System
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Requirements for gas exchange to take place
Pathway of air as it enters the body all the way to the alveoli
Function of each part of respiratory system (nasal cavity, bronchi, etc.)
Mechanics of inspiration & expiration…how they both work
Lung capacities
Regulation of respiratory rates
Ch 23 – The Digestive System
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Organs that food passes through from beginning to end
Kind of digestion each organ does to food
Process that moves food through the alimentary canal
Function of villi & goblet cells, & where they are located
Major parts of the small & large intestine
Function of 4 layers of alimentary canal
Accessory organs (liver, pancreas, etc.) and where they release their enzymes
Function of pyloric sphincter vs. cardioesophageal sphincter
Ch 25 – The Urinary System
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Function of system & its major challenges
Four major parts & their functions
End result of amino acid metabolism
Function of the various parts of the nephron
Hormones & enzymes that are directly related to the system
**Be sure to look over the pictures you need to know for the final…found on the website…