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Religious Reformations
ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: Throughout history the movement begun by Luther and other religious thinkers
has been called the Protestant Reformation. Which term would be more appropriate, the Protestant Reformation
or the Protestant Revolution? Defend. Can an institution successfully reform itself?
TEXT READINGS: McKay, et al. A History of Western Society. Chapter 14 and 15
PRIMARY SOURCE READINGS: Provided by teacher.
1. Describe the problems within the Church raised by critics in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and early sixteenth
2. Discuss the attempts at Church reform by both individuals and groups in the fourteenth, fifteenth and early
sixteenth centuries.
3. Describe the background of Martin Luther leading to his emergence as originator and a leader of the
Protestant Reformation.
4. Discuss the causes for Luther issuing his Ninety-Five Theses and the basic ideas expressed in that document.
5. List and describe the basic tenets of Luther’s new Protestant beliefs. (How did they contrast with the Catholic
beliefs of the time?)
6. Discuss the social impact of Luther’s new religious doctrines upon the people of Europe.
7. Describe the rise of the Habsburg dynasty to prominence in sixteenth century Europe.
8. Discuss the political conflicts between Catholicism and Protestantism within the German states of the Holy
Roman Empire.
9. Describe and discuss the religious reform ideas of John Calvin and their impact.
10. Describe the radical reform ideas of the Anabaptists and their impact.
11. Discuss the causes and effects of the Reformation in England.
12. Discuss the effects of the Reformation in Scotland, Ireland, and Scandinavia (Sweden, Norway, and
13. Discuss the early attempts at reform within the institution of the Church and the difficulties encountered.
14. Describe the reforms in the Roman Catholic Church made by the Council of Trent and the effects of the
15. Describe the foundation of new religious orders and the reform of the papacy in the Counter-Reformation
(Catholic Reformation).
16. Describe the character of St. Teresa of Ávila and the spirit of the Catholic Reformation as exemplified by
17. Compare and contrast the view of community as presented by John Calvin, Martin Luther and the reformed
Catholic Church.
18. Describe the impact of the spread of Protestantism in France and upon the Gallican (French Catholic)
19. Discuss the conflict between Catholics and Protestants in France and the consequent religious civil wars.
20. Describe the political and religious developments in the provinces of the Netherlands and the causes and
developments in the revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish rule.
21. Discuss how religious and political issues were tied together in the United Provinces of the Netherlands as
evidenced in the life of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt.
22. Discuss the causes, course and consequences of the conflict between England and Spain in the 1580’s.
23. Discuss the causes and conflict of the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648).
24. Describe the basic terms of the Peace of Westphalia and the consequences of the Thirty Years’ War upon
Europe especially in the German states of the Holy Roman Empire.
25. Discuss the economic effects of Spain’s discoveries in the New World and colonial administration as
practiced by Spain and Portugal.
26. Describe the impact of religious warfare upon the status of women in Europe.
27. Discuss the causes and consequences of the great European witch scare of the seventeenth century.
28. Describe the components and contributions of the Baroque style in art and music.
1)Protestant Reformation; 2)pluralism; 3)Brethren of the Common Life; 4)The Imitation of Christ by Thomas à
Kempis; 5)Martin Luther; 6)indulgences; 7)Ninety-Five Theses; 8)Diet of Worms; 9)Ulrich Zwingli; 10)Diet of
Speyer (1529); 11)Confession of Augsburg; 12)Twelve Articles; 13)Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of the
Peasants; 14)Golden Bull of 1356 / Seven Electors; 15)Habsburg dynasty; 16)H.R.E. Charles V; 17)Appeal to the
Nobility of the German Nation; 18)Peace of Augsburg; 19)John Calvin; 20)Institutes of the Christian Religion;
21)predestination; 22)Michael Servetus; 23)Anabaptists; 24)Henry VIII; 25)William Tyndale; 26)Catherine of
Aragon; 27)Supremacy Act of 1534; 28)Church of England (Anglican Church); 29)Pilgrimage of Grace; 30)Book of
Common Prayer; 31)Mary I (Mary Tudor); 32)Puritans; 33)Elizabeth I; 34)John Knox; 35)Presbyterian Church;
36)Gustavus Vasa; 37)Catholic Reformation (Counter-Reformation); 38)Pope Paul III; 39)Council of Trent /
Tridentum / Tridentine Catholicism; 40)St. Teresa of Ávila; 41)Ignatius Loyola / Spiritual Exercises; 42)Society of
Jesus (the Jesuits); 43)Index of Prohibited Books; 44)Habsburg-Valois Wars; 45)Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis;
46)Francis I; 47)nobility of the robe; 48)Catherine de Medici; 49)Huguenots; 50)St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre;
51)War of the Three Henrys 52)politiques; 53)Henry IV of France; 54)Edict of Nantes; 55)Philip II; 56)Council of
Blood; 57)Prince William “the Silent” of Orange; 58)United Provinces of the (Dutch) Netherlands; 59)Mary Stuart,
Queen of Scots; 60)Escorial; 61)Spanish Armada; 62)Protestant Union and Catholic League; 63)Thirty Years’ War;
64)Defenestration of Prague; 65)Prince Frederick of the Palatinate; 66)Christian IV of Denmark; 67)Albert of
Wallenstein; 68)Edict of Restitution; 69)Gustavus Adolphus; 70)Cardinal Richelieu; 71)Peace of Westphalia