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```DIFFERENCE AMPLIFIERS
Also known as differential amplifiers. Ideally responds to the differential voltage and rejects the common mode
voltage. Practical circuits will have a combination of both modes.
v0  Ad v Id  Acm v Icm
The efficacy is usually measured thru the common mode
rejection ratio.
CMRR  20 LOG
Acm
Single Op-Amp Difference Amplifier
The common Mode Gain and the Differential Input Resistance
When
then
, on the other hand,
The Instrumentation Amplifier
We can increase the low input resistance by using two buffers at the inputs, but we could also add some gain to these
input circuits and ease the gain burden of the difference amplifier.
Common Mode Rejection
For v I 1  v I 2  v Icm , the current thru 2R1 is 0 and therefore the voltage passes thru those amplifiers with no
amplification which is an advantage for the CMMR.
EFFECT OF FINIE OPEN-LOOP GAIN AND BANDWIDTH ON CIRCUIT FERFORMANCE
Frequency Dependence of the Open-Loop Gain
Expressing Gain in Decibels.
Voltage gain in decibels  20 log A
A( s) 
A( j ) 
A0
1  s / b
A0
1  j / b
At high frequencies, A( j ) 
Nominal Gain + 10 V/V
ft = 1mHz. Find the 3-dB frequency of the closed loop
amplifiers.
A0
A

 0 b  t
j / b
j
j
Nominal Gain -10 V/V
```
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