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FORMULAE &
EQUATIONS
A guide for A level students
2008
KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING
SPECIFICATIONS
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
INTRODUCTION
This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand
selected topics at AS and A2 level Chemistry. It is based on the requirements of
the AQA and OCR specifications but is suitable for other examination boards.
Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes or it may
be used for classroom teaching if an interactive white board is available.
Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 topics, are available
from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at...
www.knockhardy.org.uk/sci.htm
Navigation is achieved by...
either
clicking on the grey arrows at the foot of each page
or
using the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard
USEFUL DEFINITIONS
Element
A substance which cannot be split into anything simpler by chemical means.
Atom
The smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction.
Molecule
The smallest particle of a compound (a combination of two or more elements).
It is also the name given to the smallest part of those elements which do not exist
as atoms in the free state i.e.
hydrogen
nitrogen
chlorine
iodine
H2
N2
Cl2
I2
oxygen
fluorine
bromine
O2
F2
Br2
N.B. ionic compounds (e.g. sodium chloride) do not exist as molecules.
USEFUL DEFINITIONS
Ion
The name given to any electrically charged atom or molecule.
• positively charged ions are known as cations
• negatively charged ions are known as anions
Like charges repel but unlike (opposite) charges attract. If the sum of all the
positive charges is equal and opposite to all the negative charges then the
species will be neutral (no overall charge).
Symbol
A symbol represents one atom, or one mole, of an element.
USEFUL DEFINITIONS
Formula
A formula represents one molecule of a compound, or the simplest ratio of the
ions present. As with symbols, a formula represents a single particle or one mole
of particles.
The number of atoms or groups of atoms in a formula is given by putting a small
number just below and behind the symbol(s). As the appearance of a symbol
indicates one atom is present, a 1 isn’t written (you put NaBr not Na1Br1).
In some formulae brackets are used to avoid ambiguity. Aluminium sulphate has
the formula Al2(SO4)3 to show that there are two Al’s to every three SO4‘s. Without
the brackets it would appear as though there were forty three O’s i.e. Al2SO43.
USEFUL DEFINITIONS
Valency
A numerical measure of the combining power of an atom / ion.
Historically, it was the number of hydrogen atoms which will combine with one
atom, or group of atoms.
Atom
C
N
O
Cl
Valency
4
3
2
1
Compound
CH4
NH3
H2O
HCl
It is also the number of positive (+) or negative (-) charges on an ion.
Many elements (e.g. iron) have more than one valency. To avoid ambiguity, a
number appears in brackets after the name e.g. iron(III); this is the oxidation
number and can be used to give you the valency.
CONSTRUCTION OF FORMULAE
Methods
Several methods are available, choose the one which suits you, or the situation,
best. Magnesium chloride is used as an example.
1.
Balance the number of ionic charges. All compounds are electrically
neutral so the number of positive and negative charges must balance.
Magnesium ions are Mg2+, chloride ions Cl¯. You need two Cl¯ ions to
balance the 2+ ion of magnesium. Therefore the formula will be MgCl2.
magnesium ion
chloride ion
Mg2+
Cl ¯
Cl ¯
Mg2+
Cl ¯
CONSTRUCTION OF FORMULAE
Methods
Several methods are available, choose the one which suits you, or the situation,
best. Magnesium chloride is used as an example.
2.
Use “hooks”. The valency is the number of “hooks” an element or group has.
All hooks must be joined up so there are no spares.
Magnesium has two “hooks”, — Mg — , chlorine has one, Cl — . Join up all
“hooks”; this gives you Cl — Mg — Cl . The formula is thus MgCl2.
CONSTRUCTION OF FORMULAE
Methods
Several methods are available, choose the one which suits you, or the situation,
best. Magnesium chloride is used as an example.
3.
Switching the valency numbers if two valencies are different. Don’t write in a
1 and cancel any combination of numbers which can be reduced (e.g. Mg2O2
will become MgO).
• the valency of magnesium is two, so multiply chlorine by two
• the valency of chlorine is one, so multiply magnesium by one to give Mg1Cl2
• the formula will be MgCl2.
CONSTRUCTION OF FORMULAE
Methods
Several methods are available, choose the one which suits you, or the situation,
best. Magnesium chloride is used as an example.
3.
Switching the valency numbers if two valencies are different. Don’t write in a
1 and cancel any combination of numbers which can be reduced (e.g. Mg2O2
will become MgO).
• the valency of magnesium is two, so multiply chlorine by two
• the valency of chlorine is one, so multiply magnesium by one to give Mg1Cl2
• the formula will be MgCl2.
example: aluminium sulphate
• the valency of aluminium is 3 and that of sulphate is 2
• they will combine in the ratio of 2 aluminiums to 3 sulphates [i.e. 2x3 = 3x2]
• the formula will be Al2(SO4)3. [Notice the use of brackets]
CONSTRUCTION OF FORMULAE
It is useful to learn some formulae...
Acids
hydrochloric acid
sulphuric acid
HCl
H2SO4
Gases
ammonia
NH3
carbon monoxide CO
sulphur dioxide
SO2
nitric acid
ethanoic acid
HNO3
CH3COOH
carbon dioxide
methane
CO2
CH4
BALANCING EQUATIONS
Equations • show the formulae of the reactants and the products.
• show the relationship between the numbers of each substance
involved; this is known as the STOICHIOMETRY
• can show in which state the substances exist.
BALANCING EQUATIONS
1 Work out what has reacted and what has been formed. Word equations help.
2
Get the correct formula for each species. Include the state symbols if
necessary. Once you have obtained the correct formula of a species you
must not change it to help balance an equation.
3
Check to see if it is balanced. An equation balances if the same number of
each type of atom appears on either side of the arrow.
4
Place large numbers in front of any formula to indicate if more than one of it is
required. This multiplies everything in the formula immediately behind it.
5
Finally, check the equation to see that you have balanced it correctly.
BALANCING EQUATIONS – WORKED EXAMPLE
Step 1
sodium
+
water
——>
sodium hydroxide
+
hydrogen
BALANCING EQUATIONS – WORKED EXAMPLE
Step 1
sodium
Step 2
Na(s)
+
+
water
H2O(l)
——>
——>
sodium hydroxide
NaOH(aq)
+
+
hydrogen
H2(g)
BALANCING EQUATIONS – WORKED EXAMPLE
Step 1
sodium
+
Step 2
Na(s)
Step 3
Count up the atoms :
+
water
H2O(l)
——>
——>
sodium hydroxide
NaOH(aq)
+
+
LHS ... 1 x Na, 2 x H, 1 x O
RHS ... 1 x Na, 3 x H, 1 x O.
hydrogen
H2(g)
BALANCING EQUATIONS – WORKED EXAMPLE
Step 1
sodium
+
Step 2
Na(s)
Step 3
Count up the atoms :
+
water
H2O(l)
——>
——>
sodium hydroxide
NaOH(aq)
+
hydrogen
+
H2(g)
LHS ... 1 x Na, 2 x H, 1 x O
RHS ... 1 x Na, 3 x H, 1 x O.
The equation doesn’t balance; an extra H is needed on the LHS. However the formula
must not change. One can only get extra H’s by having two waters; multiply H2O by two.
Step 4
Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
BALANCING EQUATIONS – WORKED EXAMPLE
Step 1
sodium
+
Step 2
Na(s)
Step 3
Count up the atoms :
+
water
H2O(l)
——>
——>
sodium hydroxide
NaOH(aq)
+
hydrogen
+
H2(g)
LHS ... 1 x Na, 2 x H, 1 x O
RHS ... 1 x Na, 3 x H, 1 x O.
The equation doesn’t balance; an extra H is needed on the LHS. However the formula
must not change. One can only get extra H’s by having two waters; multiply H2O by two.
Step 4
Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
This doesn’t solve the problem as we now have too many O’s (2) and H’s (4) on the
LHS; multiplying the NaOH by two will solve this problem.
Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
2 NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
BALANCING EQUATIONS – WORKED EXAMPLE
Step 1
sodium
+
Step 2
Na(s)
Step 3
Count up the atoms :
+
water
——>
——>
H2O(l)
sodium hydroxide
NaOH(aq)
+
hydrogen
+
H2(g)
LHS ... 1 x Na, 2 x H, 1 x O
RHS ... 1 x Na, 3 x H, 1 x O.
The equation doesn’t balance; an extra H is needed on the LHS. However the formula
must not change. One can only get extra H’s by having two waters; multiply H2O by two.
Step 4
Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
This doesn’t solve the problem as we now have too many O’s (2) and H’s (4) on the
LHS; multiplying the NaOH by two will solve this problem.
Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
2 NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
However, it creates yet another problem because it has introduced an extra Na on
the RHS; multiply the Na on the LHS by two.
2 Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
2 NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
BALANCING EQUATIONS – WORKED EXAMPLE
Step 1
sodium
+
Step 2
Na(s)
Step 3
Count up the atoms :
+
water
——>
——>
H2O(l)
sodium hydroxide
NaOH(aq)
+
hydrogen
+
H2(g)
LHS ... 1 x Na, 2 x H, 1 x O
RHS ... 1 x Na, 3 x H, 1 x O.
The equation doesn’t balance; an extra H is needed on the LHS. However the formula
must not change. One can only get extra H’s by having two waters; multiply H2O by two.
Step 4
Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
This doesn’t solve the problem as we now have too many O’s (2) and H’s (4) on the
LHS; multiplying the NaOH by two will solve this problem.
Na(s)
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
2 NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
However, it creates yet another problem because it has introduced an extra Na on
the RHS; multiply the Na on the LHS by two.
2 Na(s)
Step 5
+
2 H2O(l)
——>
2 NaOH(aq)
+
H2(g)
Check the equation; it balances. As you can see it can take time but with a little
effort a balanced equation can be achieved.
TABLE OF IONS
1
2
3
POSITIVE IONS (CATIONS)
hydrogen
H+
sodium
Na+
potassium
K+
lithium
Li+
rubidium
Rb+
caesium
Cs+
copper(I)
Cu+
silver(I)
Ag+
ammonium
NH4+
NEGATIVE IONS (ANIONS)
chloride
Cl¯
bromide
Br¯
iodide
I¯
hydroxide
OH¯
nitrate
NO3¯
nitrite
NO2¯
hydrogencarbonate HCO3¯
hydrogensulphate
HSO4¯
calcium
barium
magnesium
zinc
iron(II)
cobalt
manganese(II)
Ca2+
Ba2+
Mg2+
Zn2+
Fe2+
Co2+
Mn2+
sulphate
sulphite
sulphide
oxide
carbonate
copper(II)
SO42SO32S2O2CO32Cu2+
aluminium
iron(III)
Al3+
Fe3+
phosphate
PO43-
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.1 Write out the correct formula for each of the following compounds.
a) sodium chloride
NaCl
b) magnesium sulphate
MgSO4
c) calcium oxide
CaO
d) calcium chloride
CaCl2
e) copper(II) nitrate
Cu(NO3)2
f) potassium sulphate
K2SO4
g) manganese(IV) oxide
MnO2
h) zinc carbonate
ZnCO3
i) aluminium oxide
Al2O3
j) aluminium sulphate
Al2(SO4)3
k) aluminium bromide
AlBr3
l) calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.1 Write out the correct formula for each of the following compounds.
a) sodium chloride
NaCl
b) magnesium sulphate
MgSO4
c) calcium oxide
CaO
d) calcium chloride
CaCl2
e) copper(II) nitrate
Cu(NO3)2
f) potassium sulphate
K2SO4
g) manganese(IV) oxide
MnO2
h) zinc carbonate
ZnCO3
i) aluminium oxide
Al2O3
j) aluminium sulphate
Al2(SO4)3
k) aluminium bromide
AlBr3
l) calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.2 Write out the correct formulae under the names in these word equations.
Do not attempt to balance the equations at this stage.
——> water
H2O
a)
hydrogen + oxygen
H2
O2
b)
zinc + sulphuric acid
Zn
H2SO4
c)
copper(II) oxide + sulphuric acid ——> copper(II) sulphate + water
CuO
H2SO4
CuSO4
H2O
d)
nitrogen + hydrogen ——> ammonia
N2
H2
NH3
e)
magnesium + oxygen ——> magnesium oxide
Mg
O2
MgO
——>
zinc sulphate + hydrogen
ZnSO4
H2
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.2 Write out the correct formulae under the names in these word equations.
Do not attempt to balance the equations at this stage.
——> water
H2O
a)
hydrogen + oxygen
H2
O2
b)
zinc + sulphuric acid
Zn
H2SO4
c)
copper(II) oxide + sulphuric acid ——> copper(II) sulphate + water
CuO
H2SO4
CuSO4
H2O
d)
nitrogen + hydrogen ——> ammonia
N2
H2
NH3
e)
magnesium + oxygen ——> magnesium oxide
Mg
O2
MgO
——>
zinc sulphate + hydrogen
ZnSO4
H2
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.3 How many atoms of each type are in the following ?
a) H2O
H= 2
O= 1
b) H2SO4
H= 2
O= 4
S = 1
c) (NH4)2SO4
H= 8
N= 2
O = 4
S = 1
d) CuSO4.5H2O
H = 10
O= 9
S = 1
Cu = 1
e) 2 NaOH
H= 2
O= 2
Na = 2
f) 3 Ca(OH)2
H= 6
O= 6
Ca = 3
g) 2 Na2HPO4
H= 2
O= 8
Na = 4
h) 2 NH4Al(SO4)2.12H2O
H = 56
N= 2
O = 40 Al = 2
P = 2
S= 4
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.3 How many atoms of each type are in the following ?
a) H2O
H= 2
O= 1
b) H2SO4
H= 2
O= 4
S = 1
c) (NH4)2SO4
H= 8
N= 2
O = 4
S = 1
d) CuSO4.5H2O
H = 10
O= 9
S = 1
Cu = 1
e) 2 NaOH
H= 2
O= 2
Na = 2
f) 3 Ca(OH)2
H= 6
O= 6
Ca = 3
g) 2 Na2HPO4
H= 2
O= 8
Na = 4
h) 2 NH4Al(SO4)2.12H2O
H = 56
N= 2
O = 40 Al = 2
P = 2
S= 4
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.4 Are the equations balanced ?
a) 2H2 + O2 ——> 2H2O
Y/N
b) CH4 + O2 ——> CO2 + H2O
Y/N
c) H2 + Cl2 ——> 2HCl
Y/N
d) NaOH + H2SO4
——> Na2SO4 + H2O
e) Ag2CO3 + 2HNO3 ——> 2AgNO3 + CO2 + H2O
Y/N
Y/N
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.4 Are the equations balanced ?
a) 2H2 + O2 ——> 2H2O
Y/N
b) CH4 + O2 ——> CO2 + H2O
Y/N
c) H2 + Cl2 ——> 2HCl
Y/N
d) NaOH + H2SO4
——> Na2SO4 + H2O
e) Ag2CO3 + 2HNO3 ——> 2AgNO3 + CO2 + H2O
Y/N
Y/N
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.5 Balance the following equations.
——>
a)
Mg
+
HCl
b)
Na
+
O2
——>
c)
Ca(OH)2
+
HNO3
d)
Ca
H2O
e)
NaNO3
f)
Mg(NO3)2
g)
Cu
h)
Al
+
O2
——>
Al2O3
i)
Fe
+
Cl2
——>
FeCl3
j)
C2H6
k)
Al2O3
l)
Cu
m)
KOH
+
F2 ——>
n)
KOH
+
Cl2
+
O2
+
——>
+
——>
NaOH
HNO3
H2
+
——>
——>
Ca(NO3)2
Ca(OH)2
+
MgO
H2SO4
+
——>
NaNO2
——>
+
Na2O
——>
——>
+
MgCl2
+
+
H2O
H2
O2
+
NO2
CuSO4
CO2
+
Cu(NO3)2
KCl
+
+
+
H2O
H2O
+
F2O
+
O2
SO2
——>
H2O
KF
+
NaAl(OH)4
H2O
+
KClO3
+
H2O
+
H2O
NO
FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS – TEST QUESTIONS
Q.5 Balance the following equations.
a)
Mg
+
2 HCl
b)
4 Na
+
O2
c)
Ca(OH)2
d)
Ca
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)
+
+
——>
——>
2 HNO3
2 H2O
——>
MgCl2
+
H2
2 Na2O
——>
Ca(NO3)2
Ca(OH)2
+
+
2 H2O
H2
2 NaNO3 ——> 2 NaNO2 + O2
2 Mg(NO3)2 ——> 2 MgO + 4 NO2 + O2
Cu
+ 2 H2SO4 ——>
CuSO4 +
SO2
+ 2 H2O
4 Al + 3 O2 ——> 2 Al2O3
2 Fe + 3 Cl2 ——> 2 FeCl3
(The numbers can be halved)
2 C2H6 + 7 O2 ——> 4 CO2 + 6 H2O
Al2O3
+ 2 NaOH + 3 H2O
——> 2 NaAl(OH)4
3 Cu + 8 HNO3 ——> 3 Cu(NO3)2 + 4 H2O + 2 NO
2 KOH + 2 F2 ——> 2 KF + F2O + H2O
6 KOH + 3 Cl2 ——> 5 KCl + KClO3 + 3 H2O
THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
Q.
• Name the following
Sn2+
• Give the symbol of
lead(IV) scandium(III)
Sn4+
Sb3+
• What do you notice about the valency of elements in...
Group I
Group II
Group VII
FORMULAE &
EQUATIONS
THE END
© 2008 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING
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