Download Power Electronics

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
Power Electronics
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
Department of Electrical Engineering
Sh.javadi@iauctb.ac.ir
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
1
Syllabus Outline
1. Introduction To Power Electronic
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Power Diodes
Diode Rectifiers
Thyristors
Control Rectifiers
AC Voltage Controllers
Thyristor Commutation Techniques
Power Transistors
DC to DC Choppers
DC to AC Inverters
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
2
•Text books: •Sources!!!
Muhammad H. Rashid
“Power Electronics”,3rd Edition,
Prentice Hall, 2004
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
3
COURSE EVALUATION
COURSE WORK
(Continuous Assessment)
10%
Assignment & Quiz
20%
FINAL EXAMINATION
TOTAL
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
70%
100%
7
Lecture 1: Introduction to Power Electronics
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
8
Power
 Electrical Power Generation
 Transmission
 Distribution
Electronics
 Deals with the study of power
semiconductor switching devices and their
V-I characteristics.
 Electronic circuits using these power
devices for power conversion and output
power control for Various applications.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
9
History of Power Electronics




Mercury arc rectifier (year 1900).
Metal tank rectifier.
Grid controlled vacuum tube rectifier.
SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)
• The 1st Thyristor developed by Bell labs in
1956.
• 1st Commercial grade SCR developed by
“ General Electric Co. “ in 1958.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
10
Power Electronic Applications
Commercial Applications






Air conditioners
Central refrigeration.
UPS
Elevators
Emergency lamps
Heating systems
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
Domestic Applications
 Cooking
equipments.
 Lighting & heating
 Air conditioners.
 Refrigerators.
 Freezers.
 Personal
Computers.
11
Power Electronic Applications
Telecommunications
Transportation
 Battery chargers.
 Traction control of
electric vehicles.
 DC power supply & UPS
 Battery chargers for
 Mobile cell phone
electric vehicles.
battery chargers.
 Electric locomotives.
 Street cars & trolley
buses.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
12
Power Electronic Applications
Utility Systems





High voltage DC transmissions (HVDC).
Static VAR compensation.
Fuel cells.
Energy storage systems
Boiler feed water systems.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
13
Function of Power Electronics in Utility Applications
Converter
Source
Load
Controller
Enabling technology providing interface between two (ac/dc)
electrical systems
 E.g.
 Interconnection of two asynchronous ac systems
 dc to ac conversion is required to connect fuel cells or
photovoltaics to the utility grid
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
14
Listing of Power Electronic Applications
Distributed generation (DG)
 Renewable resources (wind and photovoltaic)
 Fuel cells and micro-turbines
 Storage: batteries, super-conducting magnetic energy
storage, flywheels
Power electronics loads: Adjustable speed drives
Power quality solutions
 Dual feeders
 Uninterruptible power supplies
 Dynamic voltage restorers
Transmission and distribution (T&D)
 High voltage dc (HVDC) and medium voltage dc
 Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS): Shunt and
Series compensation, and the unified power flow
controller
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
15
Power Device Capabilities & Resulting Power Electronic Structures
Thyristor
IGCT
Power (VA)
108
106
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
MOSFET
IGCT
IGBT
104
102
IGBT
Thyristor
Power Semiconductor Devices and their Capabilities
 Polarity of voltage blocked and direction of current conduction
 Switching speeds and power ratings
MOSFET
101 102 103 104
Switching Frequency (Hz)
16
History
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
17
Structure of Power Electronic Systems
Voltage-Link Systems
 Transistors and diodes that
can block voltage of only
one polarity
AC1
AC2
Current-Link Systems
 higher power bipolar voltageblocking capabilities of
thyristors
Solid State Switches
 bidirectional voltage blocking
AC1
AC2
and current conduction
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
18
Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications
Distributed Generation (DG) Applications Power electronic
interface depends on the source characteristics
Wound rotor
Induction Generator
Isolated
DC-DC
Converter
AC
Wind
Turbine
DC
DC
Generator-side
Converter
AC
Grid-side
Converter
Wind Power Generation with
Doubly Fed Induction Motors
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
PWM
Converter
Max. Powerpoint Tracker
Utility
1f
Photo-voltaics Interface
19
Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications
Power Electronic Loads: Adjustable Speed Drives
Switch-mode
Converter
Utility
Motor
Rectifier
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
Controller
20
Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications
Power
•
•
•
•
Quality Solutions for
voltage distortion
unbalances
voltage sags and
swells
power outage
Power Electronic
Interface
Load
Dynamic Voltage Restorers (DVR)
Feeder 1
Rectifier
Load
Feeder 2
Dual Feeders
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
Inverter
Filter
Critical
Load
Energy
Storage
Uninterruptible Power Supplies
21
Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications
Transmission and Distribution: DC Transmission
most flexible solution for connection of two ac systems
AC1
AC2
HVDC
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
AC1
AC2
MVDC
22
Role of Power Electronics in Important Utility Applications
Transmission and Distribution: Flexible AC Transmission Systems
(FACTS)
EE
P  1 2 sin 
X
Series Compensation
E2
E1
E1
I
E3
-
E3
+
E2
jX
Utility
STATCOM
Shunt
converter
Shunt Compensation
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
Series
converter
Shunt and Series Compensation
23
Power Devices
 Power diodes
 Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect
Transistor (MOSFET)
 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)
 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
 Thyristors (SCR, GTO, MCT)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
24
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
25
Applications of Power Devices
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
26
Power Diode
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
27
Diode Characteristics
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
28
Comparison between different types of Diodes
General
Purpose Diodes
Fast Recovery
Diodes
Schottky Diodes
Upto 6000V &
3500A
Upto 6000V and
1100A
Upto 100V and
300A
Reverse recovery
time – High
Reverse recovery
time – Low
Reverse recovery
time – Extremely
low.
trr  0.1s to 5s
trr  a few nano sec
trr  25 s
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
29
Comparison between different types of Diodes
General
Purpose Diodes
Fast Recovery
Diodes
Schottky Diodes
Turn off time –
High
Turn off time –
Low
Turn off time –
Extremely low
Switching
frequency – Low
(Max 1KHz)
Switching
frequency – High
(Max 20KHz)
Switching
frequency – Very
high.
(Max 30KHz)
VF  0.7 to 1.2V
VF  0.8 to 1.5V
VF  0.4 to 0.6V
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
30
BJT
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
31
BJT Characteristics
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
32
BJT Switching Times
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
33
MOSFET
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
34
n-channel Enhancement MOSFET Characteristics
Linear
region
Saturation
region
VGS3
VGS2
ID
VGS1
Drain Characteristics
VDS
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
35
n-channel Depletion MOSFET
ID
D
G
VDS
+
VGS

By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
+
S

36
Drain Characteristics
Linear
region
Saturation
region
VGS3
VGS2
ID
VGS1
VDS
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
37
Transfer Characteristics of MOSFET
IDSS
ID
VGS(OFF)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
VGS
38
Switching Times of MOSFET
VG
V1
t
V1
VGSP
VT
td(on)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
tr
td(off) tf
39
Semiconductor Cross-section of IGBT
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
40
IGBT
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
41
Characteristics of IGBT CM 400HA-24H
800
12
VGE=15V
Output collector characteristics
640
IC
AMPS
480
VGE=10V
320
VGE=9V
160
0
8
2
4
6
8
VGE=7V
10
VCE (Volts)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
42
Transfer Characteristics of IGBT
800
VCE=10V
640
IC
AMPS
480
Tj=250C
320
Tj=1250C
160
0
VGE
2
4
8
6
VGE(TH)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
10
12
14
IC Vs VGE Characteristics
43
Advantages of IGBT






Combines the advantages of BJT & MOSFET
High input impedance like MOSFET
Voltage controlled device like MOSFET
Simple gate drive, Lower switching loss
Low on state conduction power loss like BJT
Higher current capability & higher switching
speed than a BJT. ( Switching speed lower
than MOSFET)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
44
Applications of IGBT






ac and dc motor controls.
General purpose inverters.
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS).
Welding Equipments.
Numerical control, Cutting tools.
Robotics & Induction heating.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
45
DEVICE SYMBOLS & CHARACTERISTICS
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
46
Control Characteristics of Power Devices
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
47
Control Characteristics of Power Devices
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
48
Control Characteristics of Power Devices
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
49
Control Characteristics of Power Devices
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
50
Comparison between different commonly used Thyristors
 Line Commutated Thyristors available
up to 6000V, 4500A.
 Ex: Converter grade (line
commutated) SCR.
 V / I rating: 5KV / 5000A
 Max. Frequency: 60Hz.
 Switching time: 100 to 400sec.
 On state resistance: 0.45m.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
51
Example of Inverter Grade Thyristor Ratings




V / I rating: 4500V / 3000A.
Max. Frequency: 20KHz.
Switching time: 20 to 100sec.
On state resistance: 0.5m.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
52
Example of Triac Ratings
 Used in heat / light control, ac motor
control circuit
 V / I rating: 1200V / 300A.
 Max. Frequency: 400Hz.
 Switching time: 200 to 400sec.
 On state resistance: 3.6m.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
53
Example of Power Transistor Ratings
 PT ratings go up to 1200V / 400A.
 PT normally operated as a switch in
CE config.
 Max. Frequency: 400Hz.
 Switching time: 200 to 400sec.
 On state resistance: 3.6m.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
54
Example of Power MOSFET Ratings
 Used in high speed power converters
like inverters & choppers.
 Ratings up to 1000V / 100A.
 Example: MOSFET 800V / 7.5A
rating.
 Max. Frequency: 100KHz.
 Switching time: 1.6sec.
 On state resistance: 1.2m.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
55
Example of IGBT Ratings
 Used in high voltage / current & high
frequency switching power applications
(Inverters, SMPS).
 Example: IGBT 2500V / 2400A.
 Max. Frequency: 20KHz.
 Switching time: 5 to sec.
 On state resistance: 2.3m.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
56
Switch applications
•
•
•
•
•
Single quadrant switches
Current-bidirectional two-quadrant switches
Voltage-bidirectional two-quadrant switch
Four-quadrant switches
Synchronous rectifiers
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
57
The types of restricted switches
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
58
Some basic switch applications
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
59
A) Single-quadrant switches
The diode
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
60
A) Single-quadrant switches
•
•
The Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) and
The Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
61
A) Single-quadrant switches
The Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
62
B) Current-bidirectional two-quadrant switches
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
63
B) Current-bidirectional two-quadrant switches
MOSFET body diode
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
64
C) Voltage-bidirectional two-quadrant switches
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
65
D) Four-quadrant switches
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
66
D) Three ways to realize a four-quadrant switch
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
67
E) Synchronous rectifiers
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
68
Switches comparison
Device Type
Year
made
Rated
Voltage
Rated
Current
Switching
Frequency
Rated
Power
Drive
Circuit
Comments
SCR
1957
6kV
3.5kA
500Hz
100s MW
Simple
Cannot turn-off using
gate signal
GTO
1962
4.5kV
3kA
2kHz
10s MW
Very
Difficult
King in very high
power
BJT
1960s
1.2kV
400A
5kHz
1 MW
Difficult
Phasing out in new
product
MOSFET
1976
500V
200A
1MHz
100 kW
Very
Simple
Good performance in
high frequency
IGBT
1983
3.3kV
1.2kA
100kHz
100s kW
Very
Simple
Best overall
performance
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
69
Different types of Power Converters
 Diode rectifiers (uncontrolled rectifiers).
 Line commutated converters or AC to DC
converters (controlled rectifiers).
 AC voltage (RMS voltage) controllers (AC to AC
converters).
 Cyclo-converters (AC to AC converters at low
output frequency).
 DC choppers (DC to DC converters).
 Inverters (DC to AC converters).
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
70
AC to DC Converter
+
AC
Input
Voltage
Line
Commutated
Converter
DC Output
V0(QC)
-
Type of input: AC supply (fixed voltage &
frequency)
Type of output: DC voltage (variable)
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
71
Single Phase Diode Rectifier Circuit
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
72
Single Phase Ac-Dc Converter
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
73
Applications
 Speed control of DC motor in DC
drives.
 UPS.
 HVDC transmission.
 Battery Chargers.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
74
AC Voltage Regulators
V0(RMS)
AC
Input
Voltage
fs
Vs
fs
AC
Voltage
Controller
Variable AC
RMSO/P Voltage
fS
Type of input: AC supply (fixed voltage & frequency).
Type of output: Variable AC RMS O/P voltage.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
75
Single Phase Ac-Ac Converter
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
76
Applications
 Speed control of ac motors.
 Speed control of fans (domestic and
industrial fans).
 AC pumps.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
77
Cyclo Converters
V0 , f0
AC
Input
Voltage
Vs
fs
Cyclo
Converters
Variable Frequency
AC Output
f0< fS
Type of input: AC supply (fixed voltage &
frequency).
Type of output: Variable frequency ac O/P
voltage.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
78
Applications
 Traction vehicles
 Gearless rotary kilns.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
79
DC Choppers
+ V0(dc)
+
Vs
-
DC
Chopper
Variable DC
Output Voltage
-
Type of input: Fixed DC supply voltage.
Type of output: Variable DC voltage.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
80
Dc-Dc Converter
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
81
Applications
 Speed control of DC motors from a
DC supply.
 DC drives for sub-urban traction.
 Switching power supplies.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
82
Inverters
DC
Supply
+
-
Inverter
(Forced
Commutation)
AC
Output Voltage
Type of input: Fixed DC supply voltage.
Type of output: AC O/P voltage.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
83
Single Phase Dc-Ac Converter
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
84
Applications
Industrial AC drives using induction
and synchronous motors.
 Uninterrupted power supplies (UPS
system) used for computers,
computer labs.

By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
85
Peripheral Effects
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
86
Peripheral Effects
 Induced current and voltage
harmonic into supply system, and at
the output of the converters.
 Distortion in the output voltage.
 Unwanted electromagnetic radiation.
 Interference with communication
circuits.
By: Dr. Shahram Javadi
87
Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Similar
24 V AC Power Supply (Rev0): FA24AC/50, FA24AC/60
24 V AC Power Supply (Rev0): FA24AC/50, FA24AC/60
Social capital
Social capital